In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.
The University in Transformation, edited by Australian futurists Sohail Inayatullah and Jennifer Gidley, presents some 20 highly varied outlooks on tomorrow’s universities by writers representing both Western and non-Western perspectives.Their essays raise a broad range of issues,questioning nearly every key assumption we have about higher education today.
The most widely discussed alternative to the traditional campus is the Internet University—a voluntary community to scholars/teachers physically scattered throughout a country or around the world but all linked in cyberspace.A computerized university could have many advantages,such as easy scheduling,efficient delivery of lectures to thousands or even millions of students at once,and ready access for students everywhere to the resources of all the world’s great libraries.
Yet the Internet University poses dangers,too.For example,a line of franchised courseware,produced by a few superstar teachers,marketed under the brand name of a famous institution,and heavily advertised,might eventually come to dominate the global education market,warns sociology professor Peter Manicas of the University of Hawaii at Manoa.Besides enforcing a rigidly standardized curriculum,such a“college education in a box”could undersell the offerings of many traditional brick and mortar institutions,effectively driving them out of business and throwing thousands of career academics out of work,note Australian communications professors David Rooney and Greg Hearn.
On the other hand,while global connectivity seems highly likely to play some significant role in future higher education,that does not mean greater uniformity in course content—or other dangers—will necessarily follow.Counter-movements are also at work.
Many in academia,including scholars contributing to this volume,are questioning the fundamental mission of university education.What if,for instance,instead of receiving primarily technical training and building their individual careers,university students and professors could focus their learning and research efforts on existing problems in their local communities and the world? Feminist scholar Ivana Milojevic dares to dream what a university might become“if we believed that childcare workers and teachers in early childhood education should be one of the highest (rather than lowest) paid professionals?”
Co-editor Jennifer Gidley shows how tomorrows university faculty,instead of giving lectures and conducting independent research,may take on three new roles.Some would act as brokers,assembling customized degree-credit programmes for individual students by mixing and matching the best course offerings available from institutions all around the world.A second group,mentors,would function much like today’s faculty advisers,but are likely to be working with many more students outside their own academic specialty.This would require them to constantly be learning from their students as well as instructing them.
A third new role for faculty,and in Gidley’s view the most challenging and rewarding of all,would be as meaning-makers: charismatic sages and practitioners leading groups of students/colleagues in collaborative efforts to find spiritual as well as rational and technological solutions to specific real-world problems.
Moreover,there seems little reason to suppose that any one form of university must necessarily drive out all other options.Students may be“enrolled”in courses offered at virtual campuses on the Internet,between—or even during—sessions at a real world problem focused institution.
As co-editor Sohail Inayatullah points out in his introduction,no future is inevitable,and the very act of imagining and thinking through alternative possibilities can directly affect how thoughtfully,creatively and urgently even a dominant technology is adapted and applied.Even in academia,the future belongs to those who care enough to work their visions into practical,sustainable realities.
11. When the book reviewer discusses the Internet University,
[A]he is in favour of it.
[B]his view is balanced.
[C]he is slightly critical of it.
[D] he is strongly critical of it.
12. Which of the following is NOT seen as a potential danger of the Internet University?
[A]Internetbased courses may be less costly than traditional ones.
[B] Teachers in traditional institutions may lose their jobs.
[C] Internetbased courseware may lack variety in course content.
[D] The Internet University may produce teachers with a lot of publicity.
13. According to the review,what is the fundamental mission of traditional university education?
[A]Knowledge learning and career building.
[B]Learning how to solve existing social problems.
[C]Researching into solutions to current world problems.
[D]Combining research efforts of teachers and students in learning.
14. Judging from the three new roles envisioned for tomorrows university faculty,university teachers
[A]are required to conduct more independent research.
[B]are required to offer more courses to their students.
[C]are supposed to assume more demanding duties.
[D]are supposed to supervise more students in their specialty.
15. Which category of writing does the review belong to?
Every street had a story, every building a memory. Those blessed with wonderful childhoods can drive the streets of their hometowns and happily roll back the years. The rest are pulled home by duty and leave as soon as possible. After Ray Atlee had been in Clanton (his hometown) for fifteen minutes he was anxious to get out.
The town had changed,but then it hadn’t.On the highways leading in,the cheap metal buildings and mobile homes were gathering as tightly as possible next to the roads for maximum visibility.This town had no zoning whatsoever.A landowner could build anything with no permit,no inspection,no notice to adjoining landowners,nothing.Only hog farms and nuclear reactors required approvals and paperwork.The result was a slash-and-build clutter that got uglier by the year.
But in the older sections,nearer the square,the town had not changed at all.The long shaded streets were as clean and neat as when Ray roamed them on his bike.Most of the houses were still owned by people he knew,or if those folks had passed on the new owners kept the lawns clipped and the shutters painted.Only a few were being neglected.A handful had been abandoned.
This deep in Bible country,it was still an unwritten rule in the town that little was done on Sundays except go to church,sit on porches,visit neighbours,rest and relax the way God intended.
It was cloudy,quite cool for May,and as he toured his old turf,killing time until the appointed hour for the family meeting,he tried to dwell on the good memories from Clanton.There was Dizzy Dean Park where he had played Little League for the Pirates,and there was the public pool he’d swum in every summer except 1969 when the city closed it rather than admit black children.There were the churches—Baptist,Methodist,and Presbyterian—facing each other at the intersection of Second and Elm like wary sentries,their steeples competing for height.They were empty now,but in an hour or so the more faithful would gather for evening services.
The square was as lifeless as the streets leading to it.With eight thousand people,Clanton was just large enough to have attracted the discount stores that had wiped out so many small towns.But here the people had been faithful to their downtown merchants,and there wasn’t a single empty or boarded-up building around the square—no small miracle.The retail shops were mixed in with the banks and law offices and cafes, all closed for the Sabbath.
He inched through the cemetery and surveyed the Atlee section in the old part, where the tombstones were grander.Some of his ancestors had built monuments for their dead.Ray had always assumed that the family money he’d never seen must have been buried in those graves.He parked and walked to his mother’s grave,something he hadn’t done in years.She was buried among the Atlees,at the far edge of the family plot because she had barely belonged.
Soon,in less than an hour,he would be sitting in his father’s study,sipping bad instant tea and receiving instructions on exactly how his father would be laid to rest.Many orders were about to be given,many decrees and directions,because his father (who used to be a judge) was a great man and cared deeply about how he was to be remembered.
Moving again, Ray passed the water tower he’d climbed twice,the second time with the police waiting below.He grimaced at his old high school,a place he’d never visited since he’d left it.Behind it was the football field where his brother Forrest had romped over opponents and almost became famous before getting bounced off the team.
It was twenty minutes before five, Sunday, May 7. Time for the family meeting.
16. From the first paragraph, we get the impression that
[A]Ray cherished his childhood memories.
[B]Ray had something urgent to take care of.
[C]Ray may not have a happy childhood.
[D]Ray cannot remember his childhood days.
17. Which of the following adjectives does NOT describe Ray’s hometown?
18. From the passage we can infer that the relationship between Ray and his parents was
[D] impossible to tell.
19. It can be inferred from the passage that Ray’s father was all EXCEPT
Text C Campaigning on the Indian frontier is an experience by itself.Neither the landscape nor the people find their counterparts in any other portion of the globe.Valley walls rise steeply five or six thousand feet on every side.The columns crawl through a maze of giant corridors down which fierce snow-fed torrents foam under skies of brass.Amid these scenes of savage brilliancy there dwells a race whose qualities seem to harmonize with their environment.Except at harvesttime,when self-preservation requires a temporary truce,the Pathan tribes are always engaged in private or public war.Every man is a warrior,a politician and a theologian.Every large house is a real feudal fortress made,it is true,only of sun-baked clay,but with battlements,turrets,loopholes,drawbridges,etc.complete.Every village has its defence.Every family cultivates its vendetta; every clan,its feud.The numerous tribes and combinations of tribes all have their accounts to settle with one another.Nothing is ever forgotten,and very few debts are left unpaid.For the purposes of social life,in addition to the convention about harvest-time, a most elaborate code of honour has been established and is on the whole faithfully observed.A man who knew it and observed it faultlessly might pass unarmed from one end of the frontier to another.The slightest technical slip would,however,be fatal.The life of the Pathan is thus full of interest; and his valleys,nourished alike by endless sunshine and abundant water,are fertile enough to yield with little labour the modest material requirements of a sparse population. Into this happy world the nineteenth century brought two new facts:the rifle and the British Government.The first was an enormous luxury and blessing; the second,an unmitigated nuisance.The convenience of the rifle was nowhere more appreciated than in the Indian highlands.A weapon which would kill with accuracy at fifteen hundred yards opened a whole new vista of delights to every family or clan which could acquire it.One could actually remain in one’s own house and fire at one’s neighbour nearly a mile away.One could lie in wait on some high crag,and at hitherto unheard of ranges hit a horseman far below.Even villages could fire at each other without the trouble of going far from home.Fabulous prices were therefore offered for these glorious products of science.Rifle-thieves scoured all India to reinforce the efforts of the honest smuggler.A steady flow of the coveted weapons spread its genial influence throughout the frontier,and the respect which the Pathan tribesmen entertained for Christian civilization was vastly enhanced. The action of the British Government on the other hand was entirely unsatisfactory.The great organizing,advancing,absorbing power to the southward seemed to be little better than a monstrous spoil-sport.If the Pathan made forays into the plains,not only were they driven back (which after all was no more than fair),but a whole series of subsequent interferences took place,followed at intervals by expeditions which toiled laboriously through the valleys,scolding the tribesmen and exacting fines for any damage which they had done.No one would have minded these expeditions if they had simply come,had a fight and then gone away again.In many cases this was their practice under what was called the “butcher and bolt policy” to which the Government of India long adhered.But towards the end of the nineteenth century these intruders began to make roads through many of the valleys,and in particular the great road to Chitral.They sought to ensure the safety of these roads by threats,by forts and by subsidies.There was no objection to the last method so far as it went.But the whole of this tendency to road-making was regarded by the Pathans with profound distaste.All along the road people were expected to keep quiet,not to shoot one another,and above all not to shoot at travellers along the road.It was too much to ask,and a whole series of quarrels took their origin from this source.
20. The word debts in“very few debts are left unpaid”in the first paragraph means [A]loans.
21. Which of the following is NOT one of the geographical facts about the Indian frontier? [A]Melting snows.
[B]Large population. [C]Steep hillsides.
22. According to the passage,the Pathans welcomed [A]the introduction of the rifle.
[B]the spread of British rule. [C]the extension of luxuries.
[D]the spread of trade. 23. Building roads by the British [A]put an end to a whole series of quarrels. [B]prevented the Pathans from carrying on feuds. [C]lessened the subsidies paid to the Pathans. [D]gave the Pathans a much quieter life.
24. A suitable title for the passage would be [A]Campaigning on the Indian Frontier. [B]Why the Pathans Resented the British Rule. [C]The Popularity of Rifles among the Pathans. [D]The Pathans at War.
“Museum”is a slippery word. It first meant (in Greek) anything consecrated to the Muses:a hill,a shrine,a garden,a festival or even a textbook.Both Platos Academy and Aristotles Lyceum had a mouseion,a muses shrine.Although the Greeks already collected detached works of art,many temples—notably that of Hera at Olympia (before which the Olympic flame is still lit)—had collections of objects,some of which were works of art by wellknown masters,while paintings and sculptures in the Alexandrian Museum were incidental to its main purpose.
The Romans also collected and exhibited art from disbanded temples,as well as mineral specimens,exotic plants,animals; and they plundered sculptures and paintings (mostly Greek) for exhibition.Meanwhile,the Greek word had slipped into Latin by transliteration (though not to signify picture galleries,which were called pinacothecae) and museum still more or less meant“Muses- shrine”.
The inspirational collections of precious and semi-precious objects were kept in larger churches and monasteries—which focused on the gold-enshrined,bejewelled relics of saints and martyrs.Princes,and later merchants,had similar collections,which became the deposits of natural curiosities:large lumps of amber or coral,irregular pearls,unicorn horns,ostrich eggs,fossil bones and so on.They also included coins and gems—often antique engraved ones—as well as,increasingly,paintings and sculptures.As they multiplied and expanded,to supplement them,the skill of the fakers grew increasingly refined.
At the same time,visitors could admire the very grandest paintings and sculptures in the churches,palaces and castles; they were not“collected”either,but“site-specific”,and were considered an integral part both of the fabric of the buildings and of the way of life which went on inside them—and most of the buildings were public ones.However,during the revival of antiquity in the fifteenth century,fragments of antique sculpture were given higher status than the work of any contemporary,so that displays of antiquities would inspire artists to imitation,or even better,to emulation; and so could be considered Muses- shrines in the former sense.The Medici garden near San Marco in Florence,the Belvedere and the Capitol in Rome were the most famous of such early“inspirational”collections.Soon they multiplied,and,gradually,exemplary “modern”works were also added to such galleries.
In the seventeenth century,scientific and prestige collecting became so widespread that three or four collectors independently published directories to museums all over the known world.But it was the age of revolutions and industry which produced the next sharp shift in the way the institution was perceived:the fury against royal and church monuments prompted antiquarians to shelter them in asylum-galleries,of which the Musee des Monuments Francais was the most famous.Then,in the first half of the nineteenth century,museum funding took off,allied to the rise of new wealth:London acquired the National Gallery and the British Museum,the Louvre was organized,the Museum-Insel was begun in Berlin,and the Munich galleries were built.In Vienna,the huge Kunsthistorisches and Naturhistorisches Museums took over much of the imperial treasure.Meanwhile,the decline of craftsmanship (and of public taste with it) inspired the creation of “improving”collections.The Victoria and Albert Museum in London was the most famous,as well as perhaps the largest of them.
25. The sentence“Museum is a slippery word”in the first paragraph means that
[A]the meaning of the word didn’t change until after the 15th century.
[B]the meaning of the word had changed over the years.
[C]the Greeks held different concepts from the Romans.
[D]princes and merchants added paintings to their collections.
26. The idea that museum could mean a mountain or an object originates from
27. “...the skill of the fakers grew increasingly refined” in the third paragraph means that
[A]there was a great demand for fakers.
[B]fakers grew rapidly in number.
[C]fakers became more skillful.
[D]fakers became more polite.
28. Paintings and sculptures on display in churches in the 15th century were
[B]made part of the buildings.
[C]donated by people.
[D]bought by churches.
29. Modern museums came into existence in order to
[A]protect royal and church treasures.
[B]improve existing collections.
[C]stimulate public interest.
[D]raise more funds.
30. Which is the main idea of the passage?
[A]Collection and collectors.
[B]The evolution of museums.
[C]Modern museums and their functions.
[D]The birth of museums.
主要介绍了澳大利亚未来预测家Sohail Inayatullah 和Jennifer Gidley共同编撰的《转型中的大学》一书的主要内容。书中主要阐述了有关未来大学的众多不同展望，并针对这些展望提出了一系列问题。文章首先对网络大学的利弊分别进行说明，然后指出全球联系的加强并不意味着大学课程设置也应趋于统一，相应的抵制活动也在开展之中，并对大学教育的基本使命提出了疑问，最后介绍了大学转型以后大学教员所扮演的角色可能会出现的三种转变。
【精解】 态度题。针对“Internet University”，第二段提出了许多的“advantages”，随后的第三段则指出其存在的“dangers”，可见文中对网络大学的利弊均进行了客观的陈述，观点上不存在倾向性，故答案为[B]。
【精解】 细节题。文中关于网络大学潜在弊端的介绍主要在第三段中。通过“throwing thousands of career academics out of work”可知[B] 项符合文意； [C] 项可由“enforcing a rigidly standardized curriculum”得出； [D] 项也可以从“a few superstar teachers”得出； [A] 项谈到“网络课程比传统课程节省费用”，这是件好事，不是其潜在的危险，故为答案。
【精解】推断题。第五段首句提到大学教育的根本任务，第二句进一步提到“instead of receiving primarily technical training and building their individual careers”，即“不是接受基本的技术训练和构建学生个人的职业生涯”，可知传统大学的基本功能是“knowledge learning and career building”。
【精解】 推断题。第六段首句指出：“instead of giving lectures and conducting independent research”，即“而不是授课和进行独立的研究”，排除[A]；第二句指出：“assembling customized degreecredit programmes for individual students by mixing and matching the best course offerings available from institutions all around the world”可以看出将来对大学教员的要求越来越高，要将世界各地大学的优秀课程进行整合之后再传授给学生，故[C]为答案，排除[B]；末句指出：“...are likely to be working with many more students outside their own academic specialty”，可知大学教员将来不是“管理的自己专业的学生”，而是要“和其他专业的学生接触”，排除[D]。
这篇短文写的是Ray Atlee在离家多年以后，返回家乡的所见所闻及所感。也许童年和故乡给许多人带来的是无限美好的回忆和想象，但是对于Ray Atlee却不是这样，回到家乡之后他恨不得立刻离开。通过Ray Atlee的视角，短文首先介绍了城镇外围变得越来越丑陋、混乱，而旧街区即广场附近变化不大。随后Ray Atlee重游了儿时经常去玩乐的地方，这些地方给他留下深刻记忆。最后去墓地祭拜母亲，回想着让自己充满了恐惧和伤感的父亲。
16. [C] 。
【精解】推断题。文章第一段主要讲故乡和童年给许多人带来美好的回忆和想象，但是Ray Atlee回到家乡之后却恨不得立刻离开，可以推断他可能有一段不愉快的童年经历，故[C] 为答案，排除[A]；文中第五段提到“killing time until the appointed hour for the family meeting”，可见Ray一直消磨时间等待约好的家庭聚会，并无急事，排除[B]；[D] 项“无法记起童年”，明显错误，排除。
17. [D] 。
【精解】细节题。第六段首句“The square was as lifeless as the streets leading to it”，可知[A] 是特点之一；从第四段的“This deep in Bible country,it was still an unwritten rule in the town that little was done on Sundays except go to church”和第五段的“There were the churches—Baptist,Methodist,and Presbyterian”可见小镇里有各式各样的教堂，人们周末去教堂做礼拜是不成文的规定，故[B] 符合文意；从第六段所述，小镇人口不少，却没有像样的店铺，人们还是到城里购物，可见这个小镇很传统、很古老，[C] 符合文意；只有[D] 项在文中没有提到，故为答案。
【精解】推断题。第七段第四句指出：“He parked and walked to his mother’s grave,something he hadn’t done in years”，子女不常来母亲墓地祭拜，说明母子感情不深；第八段中对父亲的回忆“receiving instructions on exactly how his father would be laid to rest”、“Many orders were about to be given,many decrees and directions”可见父亲对他要求很苛刻，至今还记恨在心，父子关系不好。综合可知，Ray和父母的关系很疏远，而不仅仅是紧张，故[B] 为答案，排除[C]；[A]和[D] 不符合语境，排除。
【精解】 推断题。对父亲的回忆和描述主要在第八段。从文中第五段提到“killing time until the appointed hour for the family meeting”以及文章最后一段“It was twenty minutes before five,Sunday,May 7. Time for the family meeting”可知全文都在反复提到家庭聚会的时间，可以推断父亲对时间要求严格，[B] 符合文意；由“sipping bad instant tea”可知父亲生活节俭，[C] 符合文意；由“Many orders were about to be given,many decrees and directions”可知父亲对子女要求严格，[D] 符合文意；[A] 项“考虑周到的、体贴的”，文中没有相关描述，故为答案。
20. [C] 。
【精解】语义理解题。从第一段中的“Every family cultivates its vendetta; every clan,its feud.The numerous tribes and combinations of tribes all have their accounts to settle with one another.Nothing is ever forgotten,and very few debts are left unpaid”可以看出，各部落和家族之间都存在世仇宿怨，并且冤家难解，因此必然会形成怨怨相报的恶性循环局面，故答案为[C]。
21. [B] 。
【精解】细节题。关于印度边境的地理特征，文章在第一段进行描述时使用了“valley walls rise steeply”、“snowfed torrents”和“his valleys...are fertile”等词句，分别对应选项[C]、[A]和[D]，故排除。第一段出现了“a sparse population”，可知[B] 项不符合文意，故为答案。
22. [A] 。
【精解】细节题。文章第二段开头提到“Into this happy world the nineteenth century brought two new facts:the rifle and the British Government.The first was an enormous luxury and blessing; the second,an unmitigated nuisance.”可见帕坦人对来复枪的引入持态度，而对英国的殖民侵略则持相反态度，故[A] 为答案。
【精解】 推断题。第三段谈到英国人筑路带来的后果。末句指出：“a whole series of quarrels took their origin from this source.”可见筑路不但没能阻止争吵的发生，反而成为矛盾产生的原因，排除[A]；第七句指出：“They sought to ensure the safety of these roads by threats,by forts and by subsidies.”可知英国人采用包括提供补助津贴在内的形式来确保公路的安全，但并不是减少补助，排除[C]；倒数第二句“All along the road people were expected to keep quiet,not to shoot one another,and above all not to shoot at travelers along the road”可知英国人筑路使得当地部落不能随意穿越公路攻打自己的敌人，客观上对于消除部落之间的世仇宿怨起了推动作用，故[B] 为答案，[D] 项属于对此句的字面理解，排除。
【精解】主旨题。文章开篇对印度边境的地理状况进行了描写，接着描述了边境上的帕坦人的生活，除了收获季节，他们终年处于战争中，每个人都是一个战士，每个大房子都是名副其实的战争堡垒，第二段介绍了这里的人们对英国引入的来复枪的，最后一段写到殖民者修路对这里的影响。可见全文都是针对帕坦人的战争生活展开的，故答案为[D]。[A] 没有抓住中心思想；[B]和[C] 都只是十九世纪影响帕坦人生活的因素之一，不全面。
intruder n. 闯入者,入侵者
vendetta n. 世仇，宿怨
Text D 短文大意 主要介绍了museum一词随着岁月的变迁，词义发生改变的过程。museum本是希腊词，指任何尊崇缪司的场所和事物。后来随着希腊艺术品流入罗马，museum一词也随之传入拉丁语，但意义上没有发生多大变化。到十五世纪时，欧洲出现“复古”潮流，艺术家们纷纷仿制古代艺术品，museum仍和“缪司的圣地”有着千丝万缕的联系。十七世纪人们仇视古代艺术品，多亏博古家们转移保护，才免遭浩劫。十九世纪早期，人们开始修建博物馆收藏保护古代艺术品，museum一词的现代意义形成。 25. [B]。
【精解】语义理解题。根据下文可知，全文主旨在于介绍museum一词在历史过程中的变化，本句的意思为“museum一词的意义随着岁月的流逝发生了改变”，答案为[B]。 26. [D]。
【精解】细节题。首段第二句“It first meant (in Greek) anything consecrated to the Muses:a hill,a shrine,a garden,a festival or even a textbook.”可以看出museum可以用来指代山脉或事物起源于Greek，[D] 为答案。 27. [C]。
【精解】语义理解题。文中第三段谈到先是王公大臣，然后是商人掀起了古代文物收藏热，古代艺术品供不应求，刺激了赝品制造者提高仿制古代艺术品的技艺水平，达到以假乱真的目的，故[C] 为答案。 28. [B]。
【精解】推断题。由第四段开头提到的“they were not‘collected’either,but‘sitespecific’,and were considered an integral part both of the fabric of the buildings”可知油画和雕塑并不是独立存在的，而是和建筑物联为一体、不可分割的，故[B] 为答案。 29. [A]。 【精解】细节题。末段指出，十七世纪时欧洲人仇视皇室和教堂的纪念物，幸亏博古家们的转移保护，才使得大量的古代艺术品免遭浩劫。十九世纪早期，欧洲各国更是纷纷兴建博物馆来收藏和保护古代文物，故答案为[A]。 30. [B]。
【难词突破】 核心词 consecratev. 献给,使神圣 emulation n.竞赛,竞争 exemplaryadj. 可仿效的,可做模范的 antiquariann. 古文物家，古董商 超纲词 transliterationn. 音译法
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Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
Joseph Epstein, a famous American writer, once said, "We decide what is important and what is trivial in life. We decide (so) that what makes us significant is either what we do or what we refuse to do. But no matter how different the universe may be to our choices and decisions, these choices and decisions are ours to make. We decide. We choose. And as we decide and choose, so are our lives formed. In the end, forming our own destiny is what ambition is about." Do you agree or disagree with him? Write an essay of about 400