2006年英语专业八级考试答案及解析

日期:12-15| http://www.59wj.com |专八历年真题|人气:344

2006年英语专业八级考试答案及解析 Text A

  短文大意

主要介绍了澳大利亚未来预测家Sohail Inayatullah 和Jennifer Gidley共同编撰的《转型中的大学》一书的主要内容。书中主要阐述了有关未来大学的众多不同展望,并针对这些展望提出了一系列问题。文章首先对网络大学的利弊分别进行说明,然后指出全球联系的加强并不意味着大学课程设置也应趋于统一,相应的抵制活动也在开展之中,并对大学教育的基本使命提出了疑问,最后介绍了大学转型以后大学教员所扮演的角色可能会出现的三种转变。

  11. [B]。

  【精解】 态度题。针对“Internet University”,第二段提出了许多的“advantages”,随后的第三段则指出其存在的“dangers”,可见文中对网络大学的利弊均进行了客观的陈述,观点上不存在倾向性,故答案为[B]。

  12. [A]。

  【精解】 细节题。文中关于网络大学潜在弊端的介绍主要在第三段中。通过“throwing thousands of career academics out of work”可知[B] 项符合文意; [C] 项可由“enforcing a rigidly standardized curriculum”得出; [D] 项也可以从“a few superstar teachers”得出; [A] 项谈到“网络课程比传统课程节省费用”,这是件好事,不是其潜在的危险,故为答案。

  13. [A]。

  【精解】 推断题。第五段首句提到大学教育的根本任务,第二句进一步提到“instead of receiving primarily technical training and building their individual careers”,即“不是接受基本的技术训练和构建学生个人的职业生涯”,可知传统大学的基本功能是“knowledge learning and career building”。

  14. [C]。

  【精解】 推断题。第六段首句指出:“instead of giving lectures and conducting independent research”,即“而不是授课和进行独立的研究”,排除[A];第二句指出:“assembling customized degreecredit programmes for individual students by mixing and matching the best course offerings available from institutions all around the world”可以看出将来对大学教员的要求越来越高,要将世界各地大学的优秀课程进行整合之后再传授给学生,故[C]为答案,排除[B];末句指出:“...are likely to be working with many more students outside their own academic specialty”,可知大学教员将来不是“管理的自己专业的学生”,而是要“和其他专业的学生接触”,排除[D]。

  15. [D]。

  【精解】推断题。全文主要是对一本书的主要内容进行说明介绍,很显然应该归为exposition(说明文)之列。

  【难词突破】

  核心词

  franchise v.赋予特许经营权

  standardize v. 使符合标准,使标准化

  uniformity n.同样,一式,一致

  charismatic adj. 神赐能力的,超凡魅力的

  collaborative adj.合作的,协作的,协力完成的

  超纲词

  academia n.学术机构,学术界,研究院

  Text B

  短文大意

  这篇短文写的是Ray Atlee在离家多年以后,返回家乡的所见所闻及所感。也许童年和故乡给许多人带来的是无限美好的回忆和想象,但是对于Ray Atlee却不是这样,回到家乡之后他恨不得立刻离开。通过Ray Atlee的视角,短文首先介绍了城镇外围变得越来越丑陋、混乱,而旧街区即广场附近变化不大。随后Ray Atlee重游了儿时经常去玩乐的地方,这些地方给他留下深刻记忆。最后去墓地祭拜母亲,回想着让自己充满了恐惧和伤感的父亲。

  16. [C] 。

  【精解】推断题。文章第一段主要讲故乡和童年给许多人带来美好的回忆和想象,但是Ray Atlee回到家乡之后却恨不得立刻离开,可以推断他可能有一段不愉快的童年经历,故[C] 为答案,排除[A];文中第五段提到“killing time until the appointed hour for the family meeting”,可见Ray一直消磨时间等待约好的家庭聚会,并无急事,排除[B];[D] 项“无法记起童年”,明显错误,排除。

  17. [D] 。

  【精解】细节题。第六段首句“The square was as lifeless as the streets leading to it”,可知[A] 是特点之一;从第四段的“This deep in Bible country,it was still an unwritten rule in the town that little was done on Sundays except go to church”和第五段的“There were the churches—Baptist,Methodist,and Presbyterian”可见小镇里有各式各样的教堂,人们周末去教堂做礼拜是不成文的规定,故[B] 符合文意;从第六段所述,小镇人口不少,却没有像样的店铺,人们还是到城里购物,可见这个小镇很传统、很古老,[C] 符合文意;只有[D] 项在文中没有提到,故为答案。

  18. [B]。

  【精解】推断题。第七段第四句指出:“He parked and walked to his mother’s grave,something he hadn’t done in years”,子女不常来母亲墓地祭拜,说明母子感情不深;第八段中对父亲的回忆“receiving instructions on exactly how his father would be laid to rest”、“Many orders were about to be given,many decrees and directions”可见父亲对他要求很苛刻,至今还记恨在心,父子关系不好。综合可知,Ray和父母的关系很疏远,而不仅仅是紧张,故[B] 为答案,排除[C];[A]和[D] 不符合语境,排除。

  19. [A]。

  【精解】 推断题。对父亲的回忆和描述主要在第八段。从文中第五段提到“killing time until the appointed hour for the family meeting”以及文章最后一段“It was twenty minutes before five,Sunday,May 7. Time for the family meeting”可知全文都在反复提到家庭聚会的时间,可以推断父亲对时间要求严格,[B] 符合文意;由“sipping bad instant tea”可知父亲生活节俭,[C] 符合文意;由“Many orders were about to be given,many decrees and directions”可知父亲对子女要求严格,[D] 符合文意;[A] 项“考虑周到的、体贴的”,文中没有相关描述,故为答案。

  【难词突破】

  核心词

  clutter n.杂乱,喧闹

  intersection n. 十字路口,交叉点

  grimace v. 扮鬼脸,作苦相

  超纲词

  romp v. 嬉闹,顽皮地玩耍

www.59wj.com   Text C

  短文大意

介绍了印度边境上的帕坦人的一些历史。这个民族生活在险峰峻岭的地区,由于世仇宿怨,各部落之间战争纷乱。十九世纪,两件事情对这个民族的生活产生了很大的影响。一是来复枪的传入,这受到当地人的,因为来复枪可以帮助他们更容易地杀死仇人,基于这一点,当地人对西方文化更加崇拜;二是英国殖民者的入侵,通过筑路不断扩大其势力范围,并且伤害无辜,这让当地人极为气愤,成为矛盾产生的重要原因。

  20. [C] 。

  【精解】语义理解题。从第一段中的“Every family cultivates its vendetta; every clan,its feud.The numerous tribes and combinations of tribes all have their accounts to settle with one another.Nothing is ever forgotten,and very few debts are left unpaid”可以看出,各部落和家族之间都存在世仇宿怨,并且冤家难解,因此必然会形成怨怨相报的恶性循环局面,故答案为[C]。

  21. [B] 。

  【精解】细节题。关于印度边境的地理特征,文章在第一段进行描述时使用了“valley walls rise steeply”、“snowfed torrents”和“his valleys...are fertile”等词句,分别对应选项[C]、[A]和[D],故排除。第一段出现了“a sparse population”,可知[B] 项不符合文意,故为答案。

  22. [A] 。

  【精解】细节题。文章第二段开头提到“Into this happy world the nineteenth century brought two new facts:the rifle and the British Government.The first was an enormous luxury and blessing; the second,an unmitigated nuisance.”可见帕坦人对来复枪的引入持态度,而对英国的殖民侵略则持相反态度,故[A] 为答案。

  23. [B]。

  【精解】 推断题。第三段谈到英国人筑路带来的后果。末句指出:“a whole series of quarrels took their origin from this source.”可见筑路不但没能阻止争吵的发生,反而成为矛盾产生的原因,排除[A];第七句指出:“They sought to ensure the safety of these roads by threats,by forts and by subsidies.”可知英国人采用包括提供补助津贴在内的形式来确保公路的安全,但并不是减少补助,排除[C];倒数第二句“All along the road people were expected to keep quiet,not to shoot one another,and above all not to shoot at travelers along the road”可知英国人筑路使得当地部落不能随意穿越公路攻打自己的敌人,客观上对于消除部落之间的世仇宿怨起了推动作用,故[B] 为答案,[D] 项属于对此句的字面理解,排除。

  24. [D]。

  【精解】主旨题。文章开篇对印度边境的地理状况进行了描写,接着描述了边境上的帕坦人的生活,除了收获季节,他们终年处于战争中,每个人都是一个战士,每个大房子都是名副其实的战争堡垒,第二段介绍了这里的人们对英国引入的来复枪的,最后一段写到殖民者修路对这里的影响。可见全文都是针对帕坦人的战争生活展开的,故答案为[D]。[A] 没有抓住中心思想;[B]和[C] 都只是十九世纪影响帕坦人生活的因素之一,不全面。

  【难词突破】

  核心词

  theologian n. 神学者,空头理论家

  smuggler n. 走私者,走私船,走私犯

  intruder n. 闯入者,入侵者

  超纲词

  vendetta n. 世仇,宿怨

  unmitigated adj. 未缓和的,未被缓解的

www.59wj.com   Text D

  短文大意

主要介绍了museum一词随着岁月的变迁,词义发生改变的过程。museum本是希腊词,指任何尊崇缪司的场所和事物。后来随着希腊艺术品流入罗马,museum一词也随之传入拉丁语,但意义上没有发生多大变化。到十五世纪时,欧洲出现“复古”潮流,艺术家们纷纷仿制古代艺术品,museum仍和“缪司的圣地”有着千丝万缕的联系。十七世纪人们仇视古代艺术品,多亏博古家们转移保护,才免遭浩劫。十九世纪早期,人们开始修建博物馆收藏保护古代艺术品,museum一词的现代意义形成。

  25. [B]。

  【精解】语义理解题。根据下文可知,全文主旨在于介绍museum一词在历史过程中的变化,本句的意思为“museum一词的意义随着岁月的流逝发生了改变”,答案为[B]。

  26. [D]。

  【精解】细节题。首段第二句“It first meant (in Greek) anything consecrated to the Muses:a hill,a shrine,a garden,a festival or even a textbook.”可以看出museum可以用来指代山脉或事物起源于Greek,[D] 为答案。

  27. [C]。

  【精解】语义理解题。文中第三段谈到先是王公大臣,然后是商人掀起了古代文物收藏热,古代艺术品供不应求,刺激了赝品制造者提高仿制古代艺术品的技艺水平,达到以假乱真的目的,故[C] 为答案。

  28. [B]。

  【精解】推断题。由第四段开头提到的“they were not‘collected’either,but‘sitespecific’,and were considered an integral part both of the fabric of the buildings”可知油画和雕塑并不是独立存在的,而是和建筑物联为一体、不可分割的,故[B] 为答案。

  29. [A]。

  【精解】细节题。末段指出,十七世纪时欧洲人仇视皇室和教堂的纪念物,幸亏博古家们的转移保护,才使得大量的古代艺术品免遭浩劫。十九世纪早期,欧洲各国更是纷纷兴建博物馆来收藏和保护古代文物,故答案为[A]。

  30. [B]。

  【精解】主旨题。全文介绍了museum一词意义的变化过程,以及museum一词现代意义的由来,故答案为[B],其他三项都只是介绍museum一词的意义变化时提到的例子,不能作为全文标题。

  【难词突破】

  核心词

  consecrate v. 献给,使神圣

  emulation n.竞赛,竞争

  exemplary adj. 可仿效的,可做模范的

  antiquarian n. 古文物家,古董商

  超纲词

  transliteration n. 音译法

  We use language primarily as a means of communication with other human beings. Each of us shares with the community in which we live a store of words and meanings as well as agreeing conventions as (1)to the way in which words should be arranged to convey a particular (2)message: the English speaker has iii his disposal at vocabulary and a (3)set of grammatical rules which enables him to communicate his (4)thoughts and feelings, ill a variety of styles, to the other English (5)speakers. His vocabulary, in particular, both that which he uses active-yand that which he recognises, increases ill size as he grows old as a result of education and experience. (6)

    But, whether the language store is relatively small or large, the system remains no more, than a psychological reality for tike inpidual, unless he has a means of expressing it in terms able to be seen by another (7)member of his linguistic community; he bas to give tile system a concrete transmission form. We take it for granted rice’ two most (8)common forms of transmission-by means of sounds produced by our vocal organs (speech) or by visual signs (writing). And these are (9)among most striking of human achievements. (10)  

  Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

  中国民族自古以来从不把人看作高于一切,在哲学文艺方面的表现都反映出人在自然界中与万物占着一个比例较为恰当的地位,而非绝对统治万物的主宰。因此我们的苦闷,基本上比西方人为少为小;因为苦闷的强弱原是随欲望与野心的大小而转移的。农业社会的人比工业社会的人享受差得多,因此欲望也小得多。况中国古代素来以不滞于物,不为物役为最主要的人生哲学。并非我们没有守财奴,但比起莫里哀与巴尔扎克笔下的守财奴与野心家来,就小巫见大巫了。中国民族多数是性情中正和平、淡泊、朴实,比西方人容易满足。

  写作部分:

  Joseph Epstein, a famous American writer, once said, "We decide what is important and what is trivial in life. We decide (so) that what makes us significant is either what we do or what we refuse to do. But no matter how different the universe may be to our choices and decisions, these choices and decisions are ours to make. We decide. We choose. And as we decide and choose, so are our lives formed. In the end, forming our own destiny is what ambition is about." Do you agree or disagree with him? Write an essay of about 400 words entitled:

  其他版本答案补充:

  PartⅠ. Listening Comprehension (Section A)(the)author(s)/ (the)writer(s)other works/ the other works/ others works/ other/ the other(the)literary trend(s)/ literature trend(s)/ literary tendency/ literature tendency/ common(shared) meaning(s) in (a) particular tradition common meaning literature tradition            grammar/ image(s)/diction/ use of image(s) cultural code(s)/ culture code(s)

  Literary tradition/ cultural/ culture/ code(s)/ cultural tradition

  6. cultural/ culture

  7. (the) reader(s)

  8. social

  9. reader competency/ reader(’s) competence competency/ competence/ competent reader

  10. social system(s)/ social structure(s)/ literary traditions/ political influence(s)/ cultural influence(s)/ personal influence(s) www.59wj.com   Part Ⅳ. Proofreading and Error Correctionagreeing agreed∧wordsthese/those wordsin the disposal at the disposalenablesenabledelete “the” before “other English speakers”

  6.old older

  7.seenperceived, understood, comprehended

  8.delete “it” before “for granted”

  9.And - Yet; However

  10.∧mostthe most striking

  Translation

  Section A Chinese to English

  参考译文

  Since ancient times the Chinese nationalities have never considered human beings to be superior to every other species. As is reflected in Chinese philosophy, literature and art, in the natural world human beings occupy a positioning proportion to all other creatures and the former do not absolutely dominate the latter. Therefore, generally speaking, we Chinese feel depressed less often and less severely than people in the west, for the intensity of one’s depression literally changes along with the magnitude of one’s desire and ambition. As people in an agricultural society enjoy much fewer comforts than those in an industrial society, they have fewer desires or wishes. Besides, ancient Chinese always took it as their most fundamental philosophy of life that one should not merely be confined to material pursuits, or be kept in bondage by material things. It is quite true that there are misers in China. But Chinese misers prove less miserly and less ambitious when they are compared with those misers and careerists described by Moliai and Balzac. Being very mild-tempered, most of the ethnic groups in China live a simple life without worldly desires. In comparison with western people, the Chinese people are easily satisfied.

  Section B English to Chinese

  参考译文

  除了苦干、流汗、流泪、甚至流血,我别无所能。我们所面对的是一种最痛苦的磨难,是历时数月之久的斗争和苦难。

  你们会问, 我们的对策是什么?我认为是从地面,海上和空中发动的一场战争,—一场竭尽我们所能,竭尽上帝所赐予我们的全部力量的战争,一场与人类罪行簿上所记载的最黑暗,最悲哀的恶魔暴政相抗争的战争。

  你们还会问, 我们的目的是什么?我可以用一个词来回答,那就是胜利,付出任何代价的胜利,不顾任何恐怖的胜利。没有胜利就没有生存。

  我们必须意识到这一点:没有胜利,就没有大英帝国的存在, 就没有大英帝国所代表的一切的存在, 就没有愿望的存在, 就没有时代理想的存在, 就没有朝着人类目标的买进。

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