2017年职称英语考试理工类AB级精选试题(三)

日期:03-01| http://www.59wj.com |理工类|人气:681

2017年职称英语考试理工类AB级精选试题(三)

  一、单选题:

  1、 第一部分:词汇选择(第1-15题,每题1分,共15分)

  下面共有15句子,每个句子均有一个词或短语划有底横线,请从每个句子后面所给的四个选项中选择一个与划线部分意义最相近的词或短语。答案一律涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  He was a very cute boy but now he seems to have no interest in anything.

  A) clever B) honest

  C) brave D) dull

  标准答案:a

  2、 Data from Voyager II have presented astronomers with a puzzle about why our outermost planet exists.

  A) problem B) mystery

  C) question D) point

  标准答案:b

  3、 The film originated from a short story.

  A) resulted B)derived

  C) heard D)made

  标准答案:b

  4、 After supper we usually take a stroll around the park for about an hour.

  A) walk B) rest

  C) bath D) breath

  标准答案:a

  5、 This is a subject that has now moved into the political domain.

  A) extent B) zone

  C) area D) competition

  标准答案:c

  6、 She is noted for her generous contribution for the relief of the poor.

  A) charged B) accused

  C) famous D) responsible

  标准答案:c

  7、 He rolled up his trouser leg to exhibit his wounded knee.

  A) spread B) open

  C) show D) examine

  标准答案:c

  8. You startled me when you shouted.

  A) threatened B) frightened

  C) interrupted D) troubled

  标准答案:b

  9、 It is said the houses along this street will soon be demolished.

  A)pulled down B) pulled up

  C) pulled off D) pulled in

  标准答案:a

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  10、 She tried to probe my mind and discover what I was thinking.

  A) solved B) explored

  C) involved D) exploded

  标准答案:b

  11、 The parents have to restrain their daughter from running out into the street.

  A)disallow B) reduce

  C) prevent D) confine

  标准答案:c

  12、 He expressed concern that the ship might be in distress.

  A) despair B) difficulties

  C) need D) danger

  标准答案:d

  13、 Hundreds of buildings were wrecked by the earthquake.

  A) shaken B) fallen

  C) damaged D) trembled

  标准答案:c

  14、 Thick clouds obscured the stars from view.

  A)darkened B) held

  C) blackened D)prevent

  标准答案:d

  15、 The river was contaminated with waste.

  A) blackened B) polluted

  C) widened D) mixed

  标准答案:b

  二、匹配题:

  第二部分:阅读判断(每题1分,共七分)

  阅读下面这篇短文,短文后列出了七个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子作出判断。如果该句提供的是正确信息,请在答题卡上把A涂黑;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请在答题卡上把B涂黑;如果该句的信息文章中没有提及,请在答题卡上把C涂黑。

  Magaplane(巨型飞机)

  The Boeing Corp.and Europe's Airbus consortium(财团) are preparing to offer bigger airplanes to the world's airlines. Now that talks on a joint project have broken down, Boeing is pushing a stretched(拓展的) version of 747, and Airbus is designing an all-new aircraft, known as the A3XX.

  Seating 550 passengers in the basic model, and 650 in a stretched version, the 1.2 million pound A3XX will not only be the largest airplane in the world, but it will also be one of the most advanced. The outer wings and the horizontal stabilizer (as big as a smaller jet's wing) will be made of carbon-fiber composite materials, and will be the largest such structures on any aircraft except the B-2 stealth bomber (隐形轰炸机). Metal skins will be welded (焊接) together with lasers, removing thousands of fasteners.

  When a strong wind strikes the A3XX's 260-foot wing, movable control surfaces will prevent it from flexing(扭曲) like a giant spring. This will make the ride smoother and will save weight by reducing the load on the wing spars(翼梁).A flexible-skinned flap(副翼) will subtly change the wing's curvature(曲面) to match the airplane's changing weight as it burns fuel on each journey.

  The A3XX will carry up to 1,600 meals, filling more than 100 food and beverage(饮料) carts. To make more room for passengers, Airbus plans to put the carts in the lower hold; automatic conveyors and elevators will deliver them to the two passenger decks. Airlines have asked Airbus to look at extra features ranging from lower-deck sleeper cabins to a children's playroom.

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  Airbus expects to offer the A3XX to airlines in 1998, and deliver the first aircraft in 2003.

  1. The basic model of A3XX can carry more than 500 passengers.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  2. A3XX will fly faster while consuming less oil.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  3. A3XX will be bigger than the B-2 stealth bomber.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  4. No fasteners will be used in building A3XX because all components will be welded together.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  标准答案:A,C,B,B

  解析:1.A.分析:借助问题句中出现的特征词A3XX和500为答案线索词,这样在第2段第1句找到答案相关句:Seating 550 passengers in the basic model, and 650 in a stretched version, the 1.2 million pound A3XX will not only be the largest airplane in the world, but it will also be one of the most advanced. 划线结构说“A3XX的基本型可载客超过500人”, 这个内容与问题句的内容一致。

  2.C.分析:利用问题句中出现的特征词(修饰词)faster和less oil作为答案线索词。在文章第3段最后一句才找到了包含fuel(oil的近义词),但该句没有提到飞行速度的问题。因此判断问题句为“没提到”。

  3. B。分析:利用问题句中出现的特征词A3XX,bigger和 B-2 stealth bomber为答案线索词, 这样在第2段的倒数第1句和第2句找到答案相关句:Seating 550 passengers in the basic model, and 650 in a stretched version, the 1.2 million pound A3XX will not only be the largest airplane in the world, but it will also be one of the most advanced. (划线句说“1。2百万磅重的A3XX是世界上最大的飞机”, 但是没有提到与B-2 stealth bomber的比较情况, 所以接着看下文)The outer wings and the horizontal stabilizer (as big as a smaller jet's wing) will be made of carbon-fiber composite materials, and will be the largest such structures on any aircraft except the B-2 stealth bomber .该划线结构说“除了B-2 stealth bomber 以外,A3XX是具有这种结构的最大的飞机”, 这个句子才是真正的答案相关句, 显然该句的内容正好与问题句的内容相反, 因此问题句的说法错误。

  4.B.分析:利用问题句中出现的特征词(修饰词)fastener为答案线索词, 于是在第2段最后1句中找到答案相关句: Metal skins will be welded (焊接) together with lasers, removing thousands of fasteners. 该句说“金属表面将用激光焊接在一起, 从而去处掉数以千计的固定部件”, “去处掉数以千计的固定部件”并不意味着就完全不用固定件了, 所以问题句的说法不正确。

  removing thousands of fasteners = and remove thousands of fasteners

  17、 5. The wing of A3XX will not be spoiled when it is stricken by a strong wind because its surface are designed to be movable.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  6. Airbus plans to build a mini-restaurant in the lower hold of A3XX.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  7. The first A3XX will be available in 2003.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  标准答案:A,C,A

  解析:5.A.分析:利用问题句中出现特征词strong wind作为答案线索词, 这样在第3段第1句中找到答案相关句: When a strong wind strikes the A3XX's 260-foot wing, movable control surfaces will prevent it from flexing like a giant spring. 该句说“当强风袭击A3XX的260英尺长的机翼时,可移动的控制表面能防止机翼扭曲成一个巨大的弹簧。”, 显然这与问题句的内容(当强风袭击A3XX的260英尺长的机翼时A3XX的机翼不会被损坏, 因为机翼的表面被设计成可移动的。)一致。

  prevent…from….阻止…

  如: We were prevented by heavy smog from seeing anything.

  浓雾使我们看不到任何东西。

  比较: protect…from[against]…/防止...遭受...,保护...使不受

  keep …from…/防止;抑制

  6.C.分析:借助问题句中的专有名词(Airbus)和中心词(mini-restaurant)为答案线索词。结果在全文中根本没有发现mini-restaurant及其近义词结构,所以判断问题句为“没提到”。

  7.A.分析:借助问题句中的特征词(2003)为答案线索词.于是在最后一段的最后1句找到答案相关句。判断问题句的说法正确。

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  第三部分:概括大意与完成句子(每题1分,共8分)

  阅读下面这篇短文,短文后有2项测试任务:(1)1---4 题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2--5 段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第5--8题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确的选项,分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  Face masks may not protect from super-flu

  If a super-flu strikes, face masks may not protect you. Whether widespread use of masks will help, or harm, during the next worldwide flu outbreak is a question that researchers are studying furiously. No results have come from their mask research yet. However, the government says people should consider wearing them in certain situations anyway, just in case.

  But it’s a question the public keeps asking while the government are making preparations for the next flu pandemic. So the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) came up with preliminary guidelines. “We don’t want people wearing them everywhere, ”said the CDC. “The overall recommendation really is to avoid exposure.”

  When that’s not possible, the guidelines say to consider wearing a simple surgical mask if you are in one of the three following situations. First, you’re healthy and can’t avoid going to a crowded place. Second, you’re sick and think you may have close contract with the healthy, such as a family member checking on you. Third, you live with someone who’s sick and thus might be in the early stages of infection, but still need to go out.

  Influenza pandemics can strike when the easy-to-mutate flu virus shifts to a strain that people never have experienced. Scientists cannot predict when the next pandemic will arrive, although concern is rising that the Asian bird flu might trigger one if it starts spreading easily from person to person.

  During the flu pandemic, you should protect yourself. Avoid crowds, and avoid close contract with the sick unless you must care for someone. Why can’t mask added to this self-protection list? Because they help trap virus-laden droplets flying through the air with a cough or sneeze. Simple surgical masks only filter the larger droplets. Besides, the CDC is afraid masks may create a false sense of security. Perhaps someone who should have stayed home would don an ill-fitting mask and hop on the subway instead.

  Nor does flu only spread through the air. Say someone covers a sneeze with his or her hand, then touches a doorknob or subway pole. If you touch that spot next and then put germy hands on your nose or mouth, you’ve been exposed. It’s harder to rub your nose while wearing a mask and so your face may get pretty sweaty under masks. You reach under to wipe that sweat, and may transfer germs caught on the outside of the mask straight to the nose. These are the problems face masks may create for their users.

  Whether people should or should not use face masks still remains a question. The general public has to wait patiently for the results of the mask research scientists are still doing.

  1. Paragraph 2 ____.

  2. Paragraph 3 ____.

  3. Paragraph 5 ____.

  4. Paragraph 6 ____.

  A. reasons for excluding masks from the self-protection list

  B. effort to stop flu spreading

  C. when to use face masks

  D. guidelines on mask use

  E. warnings from the CDC

  F. danger of infection through germy hands and masks

  标准答案:D,C,A,F

  解  析:1.D.这个段落主要讲述美国疾病控制和预防中心提出的口罩使用指导方针, 不希望公众过度使用口罩(段落第2句和第3句), 因此D是答案。

  2.C. 段落中出现了标志列举信息的词语:first, second, third, 由此判断在这些词汇所出现句子的前面一定会有综述性的话语, 因此关注短首句。 该句概括了在三种情况下可以带面罩, 因此C是答案。

  提示:

  如果段落中出现了列举性的结构(通常句首会出现first, second, third, finally等词), 则这些列举性话语的前面应该出现概述性的话语, 而这个概述性话语的内容往往就直接揭示该段的主题。

  3.A. mask是该段主题词, 因此A和F可能是答案。 A中的核心结构“self-protection(自我保护) list”直接在该段中出现了, 而F中的核心结构germy(带有病菌的) hands(手) and masks没有在该段出现, 也没有间接地涉及到, 因此F不是答案, 答案是A。

  4.F. mask是该段主题词, 因此F可能是答案。F中的细节信息结构germy hands 也在段落中直接出现了, 由此进一步推断F很可能是答案。

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  19、 1. The scientists are trying to find out if masks may or may not ___.

  2. The CDC is afraid that the public may ___.

  3. The public will not know the answer about masks until scientists ___.

  4. We can infer from the passage that the US authorities ___.

  A. overuse face masks

  B. deal with the mask problem seriously

  C. rub their faces and noses in the subway

  D. protest against the mask guidelines

  E. help protect people from being attacked by a flu

  F. announce the results of their mask research

  标准答案:E,A,F,B

  解  析:5.E. 该题可以直接借助问题句前面内容的提示直接判断答案。也利用问题句中的细节信息词scientists作为答案线索, 在文章中找到答案相关句:

  (最后一段)Whether(是否) people should or should not use face masks still(仍然) remains(继续, 留下) a question(问题). The general public (普通的民众)has to wait patiently(耐心地) for the results of the mask research(研究)scientists are still doing.

  从以上的答案相关句的内容可以推断出E是答案。

  6.A. 利用问题句中出现的特征词CDC作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第2段)But it’s a question the public keeps asking while the government are making preparations for the next flu pandemic. So the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) came up with preliminary guidelines. “We don’t want(想要) people wearing them everywhere, ”said the CDC. “The overall recommendation really is to avoid exposure.”

  从以上的答案相关句的内容可以推断出A是答案。

  7.F.这道题可以借助问题句中语意的提示直接判断答案。该题的答案相关句仍然在最后一段:(最后一段)Whether(是否) people should or should not use face masks still(仍然) remains(继续, 留下) a question(与问题句中的answer 词义相关)(问题). The general public (普通的民众)has to wait patiently(耐心地) for the results of the mask research(研究), scientists are still doing.

  从以上的答案相关句的内容可以推断出F是答案。

  8.B.这道题可以借助问题句中语意的提示直接判断答案。也可以利用问题句中的核心词“US authorities”作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  If a super-flu strikes, face masks may not protect you. Whether widespread use of masks will help, or harm, during the next worldwide flu outbreak is a question that researchers are studying furiously. No results have come from their mask research yet. However, the government says people should consider wearing them in certain situations anyway, just in case.

  But it’s a question the public keeps asking while the government are making preparations for the next flu pandemic. So the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) came up with preliminary(初步的) guidelines(指导方针) . “We don’t want people wearing them everywhere, ”said the CDC.

  从答案相关句中可以推断出美国权威机构采取的是一种非常严肃的态度对待口罩问题。

  第四部分:阅读理解(每题3分,共45分)

  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题,每道题后面有4个选项。请仔细阅读短文并根据短文回答其后面的问题,从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  第1篇

  The best way to reduce your weight

  You hear this:“No Wonder you are fat.An you ever do is eat.”You feel sad:“I skip my breakfast and supper.I run every morning and evening.What else can I do?”Basically you can do nothing.Your genes,not your life habits,determine your weight and your body constantly tries to maintain it.

  Albert Stunkard of the University of Pennsylvania found from experiments that,“80 percent of the Children of two obese parents become obese,as compared with no more than 14 percent of the offspring of two parents of normal weight.”

  How can obese people become normal or even thin through dieting? Well,dieting can be effective.but the health costs are tremendous.Jules Hirsch,a research physician at Rockefeller University, did a study of eight fat people.They were given a liquid formula providing 600 calories a day1.After more than 10 weeks,the subjects lost 45kg on average.But after leaving the hospital,they all regained.The results were surprising:by metabolic measurement,fat people who lost large amounts of weight seemed like they were starving.They had psychiatric problems. They dreamed of food or breaking their diet2.They were anxious and depressed;some were suicidal.They hid food in their rooms.Researchers warn that it is possible that weight reduction doesn't result in normal weight,but in an abnormal state resembling that of starved non-obese people.

  Thin people,however, suffer from the opposite:They have to make a great effort to gain weight.Ethan Sims,of the University of Vermont,got prisoners to volunteer to gain weight.In four to six months,they ate as much as they could.They succeeded in increasing their weight by 20 to 25 percent. But months after the study ended,they were back to normal weight and stayed there.

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  This did not mean that people are completely without hope in controlling their weight.It means that those who tend to be fat will have to constantly battle their genetic inheritance if they want to significantly lower their weight.

  The findings also provide evidence for something scientists thought was true-each person has a comfortable weight range3.The range might be as much as 9kg.Someone might weigh 60-69 kg without too much effort But going above of below the natural weight range is difficult. The body resists by feeling hungry or full and changing the metabolism to push the weight back to the range it seeks.

  词汇:

  obese adj.肥胖的

  metabolic adj.新陈代谢的

  psychiatric adj.精神病的

  练习:

  1. What determines your weight?

  A)Your working manner.

  B)Your eating habit.

  C)Your life style.

  D)Your genes.

  2.What did Jules Hirsch do in his study?

  A)He let the eight fat people skip supper.

  B)He let the eight fat people skip breakfast.

  C)He let the eight fat people run every mornin8 and evening.

  D)He gave the eight fat people a liquid formula providing 600 calories a day.

  3.What happened to the eight fat people after they left the hospital?

  A)They went mad.

  B)They killed themselves.

  C)They were back to normal weight.

  D)They attempted suicide

  4.What did Ethan Sims make his subjects do?

  A)Battle their genetic inheritance.

  B)Increase their weight.

  C)Stay at home.

  D)Lower their weight.

  5. What did scientists think was true?

  A)Each person has a fixed weight range.

  B)Each person has a weight range of 9 kg.

  C)Each person wants to control his weight.

  D)Each person wants to eat to his heart's content.

  你的答案: 请选择,请选择,请选择,请选择,请选择  标准答案:D,D,C,B,A

  解  析:1.D. 细节题。利用被选项中的细节信息结构(A:working manner; B: eating habit; C: life style; D: genes)共同作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  You hear this:“No Wonder you are fat.An you ever do is eat(选项B中eating的家族词汇).”You feel sad:“I skip my breakfast and supper.I run every morning and evening.What else can I do?”Basically you can do nothing. Your genes(基因),not your life habits(习惯),determine your weight(问题句中的核心结构) and your body constantly (不断地,经常地)tries to maintain(保持,维修, 主张) it.

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  答案相关句说:你的基因而不是你的生活习惯决定了你的体重,因此你的身体总是试图保持它。因此D是答案。

  2. D。 细节题。利用问题句中的特征词(Jules Hirsch), 被选项中的共有结构(eight fat people)及被选相中的一些细节信息词及特征结构(A: supper; B: breakfast; C: every morning and evening; D: liquid formula, 600 calories )共同作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  How can obese people become normal or even thin through dieting? Well,dieting can be effective, but the health costs are tremendous.Jules Hirsch,a research(研究) physician(医生)at Rockefeller University, did a study(研究) of eight fat people. They were given (被给)a liquid formula (流食配方)providing 600 calories a day1. After more than(超过) 10 weeks,the subjects(研究对象) lost 45kg on average(平均).But after leaving the hospital,they all regained.The results were surprising:by metabolic measurement,fat people who lost large amounts of weight seemed like they were starving.They had psychiatric problems. They dreamed of food or breaking their diet2.They were anxious and depressed;some were suicidal.They hid food in their rooms.Researchers warn that it is possible that weight reduction doesn't result in normal weight,but in an abnormal state resembling that of starved non-obese people.

  答案相关句说“八个肥胖者被给予一种流食配方,每天提供600热卡”,因此D是答案。

  3.C. 细节题。 利用问题句中的细节信息结构(eight fat people, hospital)及被选项中的细节信息结构(C:normal weight; D: suicide)共同作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第3段) How can obese people become normal or even thin through dieting? Well,dieting can be effective.but the health costs are tremendous.(第2题答案相关句)Jules Hirsch,a research physician at Rockefeller University, did a study of eight fat people.They were given a liquid formula providing 600 calories a day1.After more than (超过)10 weeks,the subjects(研究对象, 主题,学科, 受...影响的) lost(失去, 输(比赛)) 45kg (4.5公斤???)on average(平均).(第4句)But after leaving the hospital,they all regained(恢复).The results were surprising:by metabolic measurement,fat people who lost large amounts of weight seemed like they were starving.They had psychiatric problems. They dreamed of food or breaking their diet2.They were anxious and depressed;some were suicidal(是选项D中的细节信息词的家族词汇).They hid food in their rooms.Researchers warn that it is possible that weight reduction doesn't result in normal weight(选项C中的细节信息词),but in an abnormal state resembling that of starved non-obese people.

  (第4段) Thin people,however, suffer from the opposite:They have to make a great effort to gain weight.Ethan Sims,of the University of Vermont,got (说服)prisoners(犯人) to volunteer to (自愿...)gain weight(增肥, 体重增加) .In four to six months,they ate as much as they could.They succeeded in increasing their weight by 20 to 25 percent. But(但是) months after the study ended(结束),they were back to(恢复到) normal(正常的) weight and stayed停留在那里 there.

  根据第3段中答案相关句的内容判断:这八个肥胖者出院后都恢复到了正常的体重。

  4.B. 细节题。 利用问题句中的特征词(Ethan Sims)及被选项中的细节信息结构(A:genetic(遗传的) inheritance; B:Increase (增加)their weight; C:Stay(逗留,保持) at home; D:Lower(降低) their weight)共同作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第4段)Thin people,however, suffer from the opposite:They have to make a great effort to gain weight.Ethan Sims(问题句中的特征词),of the University of Vermont,got(说服,使, 变成, 获得) prisoners(犯人) to volunteer to (自愿)gain weight(与选项B中的细节信息结构呼应).In four to six months,they ate as much as they could(尽可能地...).They succeeded in (成功地)increasing their weight(与选项B中的细节信息结构呼应) by(了) 20 to 25 percent. But months after the study ended,they were back to normal weight and stayed there.

  (第5段)This did not mean that people are completely without hope in controlling their weight.It means that those who tend to be fat will have to constantly battle their genetic inheritance (选项A中的细节信息结构)if they want to significantly lower their weight(与选项D中的细节信息结构呼应).

  第4段中的答案相关句说:让犯人自愿增加体重。可见B是正确的答案。

  5.A. 细节题。 利用问题句中的细节信息词(Scientists)和备选项A和备选项B中的共有词(weight range)共同作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第4段)Thin people,however, suffer from the opposite:They have to make a great effort to gain weight.(第4题答案相关句)Ethan Sims,of the University of Vermont,got prisoners to volunteer to gain weight.In four to six months,they ate as much as they could.They succeeded in increasing their weight by 20 to 25 percent. But months after the study ended,they were back to normal weight and stayed there.

  This did not mean that people are completely without hope in controlling their weight.It means that those who tend to be fat will have to constantly battle their genetic inheritance if they want to significantly lower their weight.

  The findings (发现)also provide(提供) evidence(证据, 迹象)for something scientists (科学家)thought was true (正确的, 真实的, 忠诚的) --- each person has a comfortable(舒适的) weight range .The range might be as much as(大约)9kg. Someone might weigh 60-69 kg without too much effort. But going above of below the natural weight range is difficult. The body resists by feeling hungry or full and changing the metabolism to push the weight back to the range it seeks.

  答案相关句(最后一段的第一句话)说:结论还证实了科学家认为是正确的一点,即每个人的体重有大约9公斤的一个固定范围.因此A是答案。

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  Black holes trigger stars’ self-destruction

  Scientists have long understood that supermasvive black holes weighing. Millions or billions of suns can tear apart stars that come too close. The black hole’gravity pulls harder on the neatest part of the star, an imbalance that pulls the star apart over a period of minutes or hours, once it gets close enough.

  Scientists say this uneven pulling is not the only hazard facing the star. The strain of these unbalanced forces can also trigger a nuclear explosion powerful enough to destroy the star from within: Matthieu Brassart and Jean-Pierre Luminet of the Observatoire of the Paris in Meudon, France, carried out computer simulations of the final moments of such an unfortunate star’s life, as it veered towards a supermassive black hole.

  When the star gets Close enough, the uneven forces flatten it into a pancake shape. Some previous studies had suggested this flattening would increase the density and temperature inside the star enough to trigger intense nuclear reactions that would tear it apart. But other studies had suggested that the picture would he complicated by shock waves generated during the flattening process and that not nuclear explosion should occur.

  The new simulations investigated the effects of shock waves in detail, and fund that even when their effects are included, the conditions favor a nuclear explosion. “There will be an explosion of the star. It will be completely destroyed,”Brassart says. Although the explosion obliterates the star, it saves some of the start’s matter from being devoured by the black hole. The explosion is powerful enough to hurl much of the star’s matter out of the black hole’s reach, he says.

  The devouring of stars by black holes may already have been observed, although at a much later stage. It is thought that several months after the event that rips the star apart, its matter starts swirling into the hole itself. It heats up as it does so, releasing ultraviolet light and X-rays.

  If stars disrupted near black holes really do explode, then they could in principle allow these events to be detected at a much earlier stage, says Jules Halpern of Columbia University in New York, US. “It may make it possible to see the disruption of that star immediately if it gets hot enough.”

  Brassart aggress. “Perhaps it can be observed in the X-rays and gamma rays, but it’s something that needs to be more studied,”he says. Supernova researcher Chris Fryer of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Almos, New Mexico, US, says the deaths of these stars are difficult to simulate, and he is not sure whether the researchers have proven their case they exploded in the process.

  1. Something destructive could happen to a star that gets too close to a black hole. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?

  A the black hole could tear apart the star

  B the black hole could trigger a nuclear explosion in the star

  C the black hole could dwindle its size considerably

  D the black hole could devour the star

  2. According to the third paragraph, researchers differed from each other in the problem of

  A whether nuclear reaction would occur

  B whether the stars would increase its density and temperature

  C whether shock waves would occur

  D whether the uneven forces would flatten the stars

  3. According to the fourth paragraph, which of the following is NOT true?

  A No nuclear explosion would be triggered inside the star

  B The star would be destroyed completely

  C. Much of the star’s matter thrown by the explosion would be beyond the black hole’s reach

  D. The black hole would completely devour the star

  4. What will happen several months after the explosion of the star?

  A The star’s matter will move further away from by the black hole

  B the black hole’s matter will heat up

  C the black hole’s matter will swirl into the black hole

  D the black hole’s matter will release ultraviolet light and X-rays

  5. According to the context, the word “disruption” in paragraph 6 means

  A confusion

  B tearing apart

  C interruption

  D flattening

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  标准答案:C,A,D,C,B

  解  析:1.C. 利用问题句及被选项中的细节信息词(black hole, tear apart, nuclear explosion, size)作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  Scientists(科学家) have long(长期地) understood(理解, 认为) that supermasvive(特大质量的) black holes weighing(重) millions(数百万) or billions(数亿) of suns(太阳) can tear apart stars that come too close(与选项A内容一致). The black hole’s gravity(重力) pulls (一直拉)harder(强烈地) on the neatest(最近的) part of the star, an imbalance(不平衡的力量) that pulls(拉裂) the star apart over a period(期间) of minutes or hours, once(一旦) it gets close(接近的) enough(足够).

  Scientists say this uneven(不均匀的) pulling (拉力)is not the only hazard(危险) facing(面对) the star. The strain(拉力) of these unbalanced(不平衡的) forces(力量) can also trigger(引发) a nuclear explosion powerful(强大的) enough(足够) to destroy(毁灭) the star from within(里面)(与选项B内容一致). Matthieu Brassart and Jean-Pierre Luminet of the Observatoire of the Paris in Meudon, France, carried out computer simulations of the final moments of such an unfortunate star’s life, as it veered towards a supermassive black hole.

  The devouring (吞灭,毁灭)of stars by(被) black holes (与选项D内容一致)may already have been observed, although at a much later stage. It is though that several months after the event that rips the star apart, its matter starts swirling into the hole itself. It heats up as it does so, releasing ultraviolet light and X-rays.

  选项A, B和D均在文章中有相呼应的内容, 因此答案是C。

  2.A. 利用问题句及被选项中的细节信息词(researchers, nuclear reaction, density and temperature, shock waves)作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第3段)When the star gets close enough, the uneven forces flatten it into a pancake shape. Some(一些) previous(以前的) studies(研究) had suggested(表明) this flattening(夷平) would increase(增加) the density(密度) and temperature(温度) inside(在...里面) the star enough(足够) to trigger(引发) intense(强烈的) nuclear reactions (核反应)that would tear it apart. But (考点提示词)other(其他的) studies(research的近义词) had suggested(表明) that the picture(图片,照片) would be complicated(复杂的) by shock waves (冲击波)generated(产生) during(在...期间) the flattening(夷平) process (过程)and that no nuclear explosion (核爆炸/与“核反应”词义相关)should occur(发生)(该句内容暗示可能选项A是答案).

  该段中的第2句和第3句直接与问题相关, 这两种研究的焦点在于是否会引发核爆炸, 因此A是答案。

  3.D.利用问题句及被选项中的细节信息词(nuclear explosion, matter, devour)作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  The new simulations investigated the effects of shock waves in detail, and fund that even when their effects are included, the conditions favor a nuclear explosion. “There will be an explosion of the star. It will be completely destroyed,”Brassart says. Although(尽管) the explosion(爆炸) obliterates(除去, 毁灭) the star, it saves(挽救) some of the star’s matter(物质) from(防止) being devoured (吞灭)by the black hole(该句内容与D不一致). The explosion (爆炸) is powerful(强大的) enough(足够) to hurl(扔/throw的近义词) much of the star’s matter out of the black hole’s reach, he says.(该句内容与选项C内容一致)

  选项D的说法与文章中相关内容(该段倒数第2句)不一致。

  4.C. 利用问题句及被选项中的细节信息词(several months after the explosion of the star, matter)作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  The new simulations investigated the effects of shock waves in detail, and fund that even when their effects are included, the conditions favor a nuclear explosion. “There will be an explosion of the star. It will be completely destroyed,”Brassart says.(第3题答案相关句) Although the explosion obliterates the star, it saves some of the start’s matter from being devoured by the black hole. The explosion is power enough to hurl much of the star’s matter out of the black holes’s reach, he says.

  (第5段)The devouring of stars by black holes may already have been observed, although at a much later stage. It is thought(认为) that several months after the event(事件) that rips(撕) the star apart(分离)(问题句中时间状语结构的近义结构) , its matter (物质)starts swirling into the hole itself. It heats up as it does so, releasing ultraviolet light and X-rays.

  答案相关句在第5段, 根据该句中的用词可直接判断C是答案。

  5. B。 找到disruption在所在的语句, 其在句子中的搭配结构是“...恒星”, 文章主题涉及恒星的毁灭, 因此B最可能是答案。

  If stars disrupted near(在...附近) black holes really(真正地) do(的确) explode(爆炸), then they could in principle allow these events to be detected at a much earlier stage, says Jules Halpern of Columbia University in New York, US. “It may make it possible(可能的) to see the disruption of that star immediately(立刻) if(如果) it gets hot enough.”

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  第3篇

  Where Have All the Bees Gone?

  Scientists who study insects have a real mystery on their hands. All across the country, honeybees are leaving their hives and never returning. Researchers call this phenomenon colony-collapse1 disorder. According to surveys of beekeepers across the country, 25 to 40 percent of the honeybees in the United States have vanished from their hives since last fall. So far, no one can explain why.

  Colony collapse is a serious concern because bees play an important role in the production of about one-third of the foods we eat. As they feed, honeybees spread pollen from flower to flower. Without this process, a plant can’t produce seeds or fruits.

  Now, a group of scientists and beekeepers have teamed up to try to figure out what’s causing the alarming collapse of so many colonies. By sharing their expertise in honeybee behavior, health, and nutrition, team members hope to find out what’s contributing to the decline and to prevent bee disappearances in the future.

  It could be that disease is causing the disappearance of the bees. To explore that possibility, Jay Evans, a researcher at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Bee Research Laboratory2, examines bees taken from colonies that are collapsing. “We know what s healthy bee should look like on the inside, and we can look for physical signs of disease,” he says. And bees from collapsing colonies don’t look very healthy. “Their stomachs are worn down, compared to the stomachs of healthy bees,” Evans says. It may be that a parasite is damaging the bees’ digestive organs. Their immune systems may not be working as they should. Moreover, they have high levels of bacteria inside their bodies.

  Another cause of colony-collapse disorder may be certain chemicals that farmers apply to kill unwanted insects on crops, says Jerry Hayes, chief bee inspector for the Florida Department of Agriculture3. Some studies, he says, suggest that a certain type of insecticide affects the honeybee’s nervous system (which includes the brain) and memory. “It seems like honeybees are going out and getting confused about where to go and what to do,” he says.

  If it turns out that a disease is contributing to colony collapse, bees’ genes could explain why some colonies have collapsed and others have not. In any group of bees there are many different kinds of genes. The more different genes a group has, the higher the group’s genetic diversity. So far scientists haven’t determined the role of genetic diversity in colony collapse, but it’s a promising theory, says Evans.

  词汇:

  honeybee n. 蜜蜂

  parasite n. 寄生虫;寄生生物

  hive n. 蜂巢; 蜂箱

  digestive adj. 消化的

  pollen n. 花粉

  immune adj. 免疫的

  beekeeper n. 养蜂人

  insecticide n. 杀虫剂

  expertise n. 专门知识,专长

  diversity n. 多样性

  注释:

  1. colony-collapse:群体瘫痪。Colony有“殖民地”的意思,在此意为: a group of the same kind of animals, plants, or one-celled organisms living or growing together. 一群生活或生长在一起的同种动物、植物或单细胞有机体。

  2. the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Bee Research Laboratory:美国农业部蜜蜂研究实验室。

  3. the Florida Department of Agriculture:佛罗里达农业局。佛罗里达是美国东南部的一个州,濒临大西洋和墨西哥湾。

  练习:

  1. What is the mystery that researchers find hard to explain?

  A) Honeybees are flying all across the country.

  B) 25-40 percent of the honeybees in the US have died.

  C) Honeybees are leaving their hives and do not return.

  D) Honeybee hives are in disorder.

  .
       
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