1 She was a
A girl B woman
C problem D mystery
2 Her is heart surgery.
A region B site
C field D platform
3 France has kept links with its former African territories.
A friendly B private
C strong D secret
4 You should have the butter with the sugar thoroughly
A spread B mixed
C beaten D covered
5 The industrial revolution the whole structure of English society,
A destroyed B broke
C smashed D changed
6 Tickets are limited and will be to those who apply first.
A posted B sent
C given D handed
7 The change in that village was .
A conservative B amazing
C insignificant D unforgettable
8 Customers often payment for as long as possible
A make B demand
C postpone D obtain
9 Canada will smoking in all offices later this year.
A ban B remove
C eliminate D expel
10 She read a poem which the splendor of the sunset.
A declares B asserts
C describes D announces
11 From my , this thing is just ridiculous
A field B point of view
C knowledge D information
12 The latest is encouraging
A statement B assessment
C evaluation D count.
13 The curious looks from the strangers around her made her feel
A different B proud
C uncomfortable D unconscious
14 Reading the job ad, he wondered whether he was to apply for it.
A able B fortunate
C qualified D competent
15 He was to the post of prime minister.
A pulled B promoted
C lifted D treated
1 D 2 C 3 A 4 B 5 D
6 C 7 B 8 C 9 A 10 C
11 B 12 D 13 C 14 C 15 B
It's in the Cards
In recent years, more and more people have been paying for things with credit cards. There are now 565 million credit cards worldwide, but it doesn't stop there. Debit cards (电子记账卡) are being issued by banks, and store cards are being offered by many department stores. Bills and coins are gradually being replaced by "plastic money." In many countries, phone cards have been introduced for people to use in pay phones. In addition, cards made of paper are being replaced by plastic ones by many organizations and clubs. For example, if you belong to a sports club, your membership card may well be made of plastic.
How safe is the plastic used to make these cards, though? Until now, most cards have been made from a plastic called PVC. While PVC is being produced, harmful chemicals are released into the atmosphere. One of the most dangerous chemicals that is released is dioxin, which is known to cause cancer in humans. A further problem is that, when a PVC card is thrown away, it is not biodegradable; this means that it does not "break down" and cannot be recycled. Obviously, recycling reduces pollution of the environment.
The executive director of the environmental organization and charity Greenpeace, Peter Melchett, says, "If there is a solution to this - and an alternative then it would be madness not to use it." Greenpeace has found a solution and an alternative. Their new credit card is made entirely from a biodegradable plastic that uses plants. The card breaks down in around three months in soil; in this way, it is recycled. In contrast, a PVC card lasts for centuries Greenpeace hopes that many organizations will soon follow their example and issue cards that do not threaten the public health.
1 Fewer and fewer credit cards are made of paper,
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
2The plastic used in credit cards is fairly safe.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
3The cards that are wildly used now are credit cards.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
4Most credit cards are biodegradable
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
5 The new credit card that is being introduced by Greenpeace is not made of plastic.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
6 The new Greenpeace card breaks down in a few months
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
7 Greenpeace cards are widely used in many organizations now.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
1. A 2. B 3. C 4. B 5. B 6. A 7. B.
1 Ford’s great strength was the manufacturing process--not invention.Long before he started a car company，he was a worker, known for picking up pieces of metal and wire and turning them into machines.He started putting cars together in 1 89 1, although it was by no means the first popular automobile，the Model T showed the world just how creative Ford was at combining technology and market.
2 The company’s assembly line alone threw America’s Industrial Revolution into overdrive (高速运转).Instead of having workers put together the entire car, Ford’s friends，who were great toolmakers from Scotland，organized teams that added parts to each Model T as it moved down a line.By the time Ford’s Highland Park plant was humming(嗡嗡作响)along in 1914，the world’s first automatic conveyor belt could turn out a car every 93 minutes.
3 The same year Henry Ford shocked the world with t11e$5-a day minimum Wage scheme.The greatest contribution he had ever made.The average Wage in the auto industry then was$2.34 for a 9-hour shift.Ford not only doubled that.he also took an hour off the workday.In those years it was unthinkable that a man could be paid that much for doing something that didn’t involve an awful lot of training or education.The Wall Street Journal called the plan “an economic crime”. And critics everywhere laughed at Ford.
4 But as the wage increased later to daily$10，it proved a critical component of Ford’s dream to make the automobile accessible(可及的)to a11 The critics were too stupid to understand that because Ford had lowered his costs per car，the higher wages didn’t matter--except for making it possible for more people to buy cars.
3 paragraph 3
A Ford’s Followers
B The Assembly Line
C Ford’s Great Dream
D The Establishment of the Company
E Ford’s Biggest Contribution
F Ford’s Great Talent
5 The assembly line made it possible to
6Ford was the first to adopt
7 Higher wages enabled many people to
8 Ford’s higher-wage and lower-cost strategy was strongly
A criticized by the media
B the low wage in the auto industry
C own a car
D Produce cars in large numbers
E the 8-hour-shift practice
F combined technology and market
Answers: 1.F 2.B 3.E 4 C 5.D 6.E 7.C 8 A.
Backpacks are convenient. They can hold your books，your lunch，and achange of clothes，leaving your hands free to do other things.Someday，if youdon't mind carrying a heavy load，your backpacks might also power your MP31player，keep your cell phone running，and maybe even light your wayhome.
Lawrence C. Rome and his colleagues from the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia2 and the Marine Biological Laboratory in WoodsHole3，Mass.4，have invented a backpack that makes electricity from energyproduced while its wearer walks. In military actions，search-and-rescueoperations，and scientific field studies，people rely increasingly on cellphones，global positioning system (GPS) 5 receivers，night-vision goggles，andother battery powered devices to get around and do their work. The backpack’selectricity- generating feature could dramatically reduce the amount of awearer’s load now devoted to spare batteries，report Rome and his colleagues inthe Sept.9 Science6.
The backpack’s electricity-creating powers depend onsprings used to hang a cloth pack from its metal frame.The frame sits againstthe wearer’s back，and the whole pack moves up and down as the person walks.Agear mechanism converts vertical movements of the pack to rotary motions of anelectrical generator，producing up to 7.4 watts.
Unexpectedly，tests showedthat wearers of the new backpack alter their gaits in response to the pack’soscillations，so that they carry loads more comfortably and with less effortthan they do ordinary backpacks. Because of that surprising advantage，Rome plans to commercialize both electric and non-electric versionsof the backpack.
The backpack could be especially useful forsoldiers，scientists，mountaineers，and emergency workers who typically carryheavy backpacks.For the rest of us，power-generating backpacks could make itpossible to walk，play video games，watch TV，and listen to music，all at the sametime.Electricity-generating packs aren’t on the market yet，but if you do get one eventually，just make sure to look both ways before crossing thestreet!
backpack/5bAkpAk/n.背包 watt/wCt /n.瓦(特)
night-visiongoggle 夜视镜 oscillation/7Csi5leiFEn/n.摆动
spring/spriN /n.弹簧 commercialize/kE5mE:FElaiz/v.商业化
vertical/5vE:tikEl /adj.垂直的 mountaineer/7maunti5niE(r)/n.登山运动员
1. Backpacks are convenient because
A they can be verylarge.
B they can hold as many things as you want to carry.
C your handsare freed to do other things.
D you do not have to carry things withyou.
2. What is the most important feature of the backpack invented byLawrence C.Rome
and his colleagues?
A It produces electricity forelectronic devices while the wearer walks.
B It can be used as cellphones，GPS in the military actions or field studies.
C It is small andconvenient.
D It is light and easy to carry.
3. The word "springs" inParagraph 3 means
A a small stream of water flowing naturally from theearth.
B the season of the year，occurring between winter and summer.
C the act or an instance of jumping or leaping.
D a length of metal woundaround，which returns to its original shape after being pushed..
4. According to Paragraph 4，what does Rome plan to do?
A To make the backpackmore comfortable for the wearer.
B To put the backpack on the market.
C To test the advantage of the backpack.
D To promote the backpack in anewspaper or on television.
5. What is implied in “if you do get oneeventually，just make sure to took both
ways before crossing the street!”?
A You will be too excited to watch the traffic.
B Enjoyingelectronic devices while walking may invite traffic accidents.
C It is notpossible for you to get such a backpack.
D It is wise of you to have such abackpack.
1.C第一段告诉我们，因为背包可以装许多东西，所以可以将双手解放出来做其他事情：tofree your hands to do other things。
Flying the Hypert1 Skies
A little airplane has given new meaning to the term “going hyper.”
The Hyper-X2 recently broke the record for air-breathing jet planes when it traveled at a hypersonic speed of seven times the speed of sound.That’s about 5,000 miles per hour.At this speed，you’d get around the world — flying along the equator — in less than 5 hours.
The Hyper-X is an unmanned，experimental aircraft just 12 feet long. It achieves hypersonic speed using a special sort of engine known as a scramjet3.It may sound like something from a comic book，but engineers have been experimenting with scramjets since the 1960s.
For an engine to burn fuel and produce energy，it needs oxygen.A jet engine，like those on passenger airplanes，gets oxygen from the air.A rocket engine typically goes faster but has to carry its own supply of oxygen.A scramjet engine goes as fast as a rocket，but it doesn’t have to carry its own oxygen supply.A scramjet's special design allows it to obtain oxygen from the air that flows through the engine.And it does so without letting the fast-moving air put out the combustion flames. However，a scramjet engine works properly only at speeds greater than five times the speed of sound.A booster rocket carried the Hyper-X to an altitude of about 100,000 feet for its test flight.The aircraft’s record-beating flight lasted just 11 seconds.Although the little plane’s self-powered flight lasted only 11 seconds，that brief journey on March 27 makes a major milestone on the way to a new breed of very fast airplanes，comments Werner J.A.Dahm of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor4.In the future，engineers predict，airplanes equipped with scramjet engines could transport cargo quickly and cheaply to the brink of space. Such hypersonic jets could potentially carry passengers anywhere in the world in just a few hours.
Out of the three experimental Hyper-X aircrafts built for NASA5，only one is now left.The agency has plans for another 11-second hypersonic flight，this time at 10 times the speed of the sound.
hypersonic/7haipE(:)5sCnik/adj.超音速的 booster/ 5bu:stE/n.助推器
equator/i5kweitE(r)/ n.赤道 milestone/5mailstEun/n.里程碑
unmanned/Qn5mAnd/adj.无人的 booster rocket 助推火箭
scramjet/5skrAmdVet/n.超音速燃烧冲压式， cargo/5kB:^Eu/n.货物 喷气发动机
1. The Hyper-X broke the record because
A it was the first air-breathing jet plane.
B it flew along the equator.
C it flew at speeds smaller than five times the speed of sound.
D it traveled at a supersonic speed.
2. What kind of an engine did the Hyper-X use?
A A jet engine that gets oxygen from the air.
B A scramjet engine that doesn’t carry its own oxygen supply.
C A rocket engine that carries its own supply of oxygen.
D A iet engine that uses no oxygen.
3. What is NOT true about the scramjet engine?
A It goes slower than a rocket.
B It extracts oxygen from the air that flows through the engine.
C It works only at speeds greater than five times the speed of sound.
D It doesn’t carry its own oxygen supply.
4. What did Werner J.A.Dahm of the University of Michigan say about the Hyper-X test flight?
A It indicated the birth of a very fast airplane.
B It was self-powered，so it lasted only 11 seconds.
C It can transportcargo quickly and cheaply to the brink of space.
D It is a major milestone in the journey of making a new type of very fast airplanes,
5. What has NASA planned to do?
A To make another 11-second hypersonic flight at 10 times the speed of the sound.
B To make three more Hyper-X experiments.
C To retest the aircraft that is left.
D To make the aircraft fly higher and longer.
1. C Hyper-X之所以打破纪录是因为它的飞行速度是音速的7倍。它不是第一架空气喷气式飞机，也不是第一架超音速飞机，所以A和D都不对。Hyper-X的试飞并未绕赤道飞行，所以B也是错误的选择。
2. B 第四段讲了三种发动机的氧气来源：喷气式发动机是从空气中汲取氧气，火箭发动机必须自携氧气，而超音速冲压喷气发动机则不必白携氧气，而这正是Hyper-X使用的发动机装置。
3. A 根据第五段内容，B、C、D都是正确的说法。第四段最后一句告诉我们，A的说法是不正确的。
4. D 文章的第六段中，密歇根大学的研究人员Werner J.A.Dahm说，Hyper-X的试飞成功只是研制一种新式快速飞机过程中的一个里程碑(a major milestone on the way to a new breed of very fast airplanes)，而不是新型飞机的诞生。所以，D是正确选择，A是错误选择。B也不是Werner J.A.Dahm想要表达的意思。C是其他下程师而不是Werner J.A.Dahm说的话。
5. A 答案可在最后一段找到。.
Sugar Power for Cell Phones
Using enzymes commonly found in living cells，a new type of fuel cell produces small amounts of electricity from sugar.If the technology is able to succeed in mass production，you may some day share your sweet drinks with your cell phone.
In fuel cells，chemical reactions generate electrical currents.The process usually relies on precious metals，such as platinum.In living cells，enzymes perform a similar job，breaking down sugars to obtain electrons and produce energy.
When researchers previously used enzymes in fuel cells，they had trouble keeping them active，says Shelley D.Minteer of St Louis University1.Whereas biological cells continually produce fresh enzymes，there’s no mechanism in fuel cells to replace enzymes as they quickly degrade.
Minteer and Tamara Klotzbach，also of St Louis University，have now developed polymers that wrap around an enzyme and preserve it in a microscopic pocket.“We tailor these pockets to provide the ideal microenvironment” for the enzyme，Minteer says.The polymers keep the enzyme active for months instead of days.
In the new fuel Cell，tiny polymer bags of enzyme are embedded in a membrane that coats one of the electrodes.When glucose from a sugary liquid gets into a pocket，the enzyme oxidizes it，releasing electrons and protons.The electrons cross the membrane and enter a wire through which they travel to the other electrode，where they react with.oxygen in the atmosphere to produce water.The flow of electrons through the wire constitutes an electrical current that can generate power.
So far，the new fuel cells don’t produce much power，but the fact that they work at all is exciting，says Paul Kenis，a chemical engineer at the University of Illinois2 at Urhana-Champaign3.“Just getting it to work.” Kenis says，“is a major accomplishment.”
Sugar-eating fuel cells could be an efficient way to make electricity.Sugar is easy to find. And the new fuel cells that run on it are biodegradable，so the technology wouldn’t hurt the environment.The scientists are now trying to use different enzymes that will get more power from sugar.They predict that popular products may be using the new technology in as little as 3 years.
enzyme/5enzaIm/n.酶 electrode/I5lektrEJd/n.电极platinum/5plAtinEm/n.铂，白金 membrane/5membrein/n.膜，薄膜
electron/I5lektrRn/n.电子 oxidize/5Cksi7daiz/v.氧化degrade/di5reid/v.降解 glucose/5lu:kEus/n.葡萄糖
microenvironment n.微环境 embed/im5bed/v.埋置，插入
1. According to the first paragraph，when can we share our sweet drinks with our cell phones?
A When enzymes can be commonly found in living ceils.
B When the technology of producing a new type of fuel cell appears.
C When the technology of a new type of fuel cell is suitable for mass production.
D When the technology of mass producing cell phones appears.
2. What trouble did Minteer and Klotzhach have in their research?
A They had trouble keeping enzymes in fuel cells active.
B They had trouble keeping biological cells active.
C They had trouble producing fresh enzymes.
D They had trouble finding mechanism for producing enzymes.
3. According to Paragraph 5，electrons are released
A when bags of enzyme are embedded in the new fuel cell.
B when glucose from a sugary liquid goes through the enzyme.
C when the enzyme oxidizes the glucose from a sugary liquid that goes through a pocket.
D when the enzyme oxidizes the sugary liquid that goes through a pocket..
4. What is exciting about the new fuel cells?
A Their limitless power generation capacity is amazing.
B Their limited power generation capacity is a good beginning.
C Their limited power generation capacity is the result of great efforts.
D Their limitless power generation capacity is a major accomplishment,
5. According to the last paragraph，what is NOT true of the new fuel cells?
A The new fuel cells run on sugar that is easy to find.
B The new fuel cells are environment friendly.
C The new fuel cells are biologically degradable,
D It will take some time before the new fuel cells can be used in popular products.
1. C A和D明显不是正确答案。B不是正确选择，因为只有当这种新的燃料电池被大规模生产时，才有可能实现用甜饮料给手机提供电能。
2. A 文章第三段的第一句是问题的答案。
3. C 该段第二句“When glucose from a sugary liquid penetrates a pocket，the enzyme oxidizes it，releasing electrons and proton”中的it指代glucose，而不是a sugary liquid，因 此C是正确选择。
4. B 第六段的大意是，尽管这种新型燃料电池还不能产牛很多电能，但是，它能够产生电能的事实就已经是很大的成就了。因而激动人心。所以只有B是正确答案。
5. D 文章的最后一段指出了这种新型燃料电池的优点，即A、B、C所述内容。最后一句说，科学家预计，在不到三年的时间里这种新技术便可在大众的流行产品中使用。所以D是正确选择。
Growing cooperation among branches of tourism has proved valuable to all concerned. Government bureaus, trade and travel associations, carriers and properties are all working together to bring about optimum conditions for travelers.
Travel operators, specialists in the field of planning, sponsor extensive research programs. They have knowledge of all areas and all carrier services, and they are experts in organizing different types of tours and ____(1)____. They distribute materials to agencies, such as journals, brochures and advertising projects. They offer familiarization and workshop tours ____(2)____.
Tourist counselors give valuable seminars to acquaint agents with new programs and techniques in selling. In this way agents learn ____(3)____ and to suggest different modes and combinations of travel - planes; ships, trains, motorcoaches, car-rentals, and even car purchases.
Properties and agencies work closely together to make the most suitable contracts, considering both the comfort of the clients and their own profitable financial arrangement. Agencies rely upon the good services of hotels, and, conversely, ____(4)____, to fulfill their contracts and to send them clients.
The same confidence exists between agencies and carriers, ____(5)____. Carriers are dependent upon agencies to supply passengers, and agencies are dependent upon carriers to present them with marketable tours. All services must work together for greater efficiency, fair pricing and contented customers.
A including car-rental and sight-seeing services.
B so that in a short time agents can obtain first-hand knowledge of the tours.
C in preparing effective advertising campaigns
D as a result tourism is flouring in all countries
E hotels rely upon agencies
F to explain destinations
1.C 2.B 3.F 4.E 5.A.
“Hello，Jill.How nice to see you here，”said Jack，“l here often?'“‘Not as much as Ia like.1 0f.ten used to meet my~iends here，but now I live a long way away，”Jill explained.“In fact，it's exactly three years 2 “Well，”said Jack，“tell me what 3 here today，then.’’“Last week my mother had an accident in her car.She 4 when it happened.Suddenly a motorcycle came out 0f another street and she 5 stop very quickly，and she 6 another car from behind.She banged her head 0n the car roof.”
“ 7 her safety belt on at the time?"Jack asked.‘‘No，she never wears one—dont think—8—in that car，”Jill explained.“I hope your mother 9，”said Jack.“No，thank goodness，but the doctor said she 10 stay in hospital 11 completely better，”explained Jill.“And s0 you—12—see her now?'’Jack wanted to know.“Yes，”said Jill，“every day someone goes to the hospital—13—.She's lot better now.”“I 'm glad t0 hear that，”said Jack.“Anyway—14—coffee.”
dont know where they are.”she said.“When i—10—them，11l phone you·Oh!here they are·Let me—11 them back after you~e read them.”
When I told my friends about it they a11 said，“—12—一—13—，”I said-But next day l told the manager l wanted t0 g0 and he said，“I hoped—14—”
1.A.Are you comingB.Are you goingC.Do you comeD.1)o you go
2.A.since then we movedB.since we moved
C.that we moved usD.that we move
3.A.youi'e doingB.you doC.do you doD.takes you
4.A.went the Oxford Street alongB.was going Oxford Street ahmg
C.was going along Oxtord StreetD.went along the Oxlbrd Street
5.A.mustB.had toC.ought toD.had better
6.A_was b.eaten withB.was hil withC.was beaten byD.was hit by
7.A.Was she havingB.Did she haveC.Has she putD.Was she put on
A.1in workingB.D,e been working
C.I am workerD.I have been worker
2.A.I should see himB.me see himC.that I saw himD·me 10 see him
3.A.when I should haveB.then I should have
C.when I hadD.then I had
4.A.how he WOUldbeB.how he should bHe
C.what he would be likeD.how he should like me
5.A.that you will helpB_that you should help
C.you t0 helpD·you helping
6.A.if you mayB.if you canC·may youIJ·can you
7.A.exDlained him I likedB.explained him I，d like
C.told him I likedD.told him I'd like。
8.A.will giveB.is going to giveC.givesD.is givwing
9.A_pleaseB.toc.please toD·that she、
10.A.am going t0 findB.will findc.findD·am finding
11.A.to hayeB.haveC·t0 getIJ·get
12.A.It looks to be marvellousB.I looks marvellously
c.It seems marvellousD.It seems marvellousIy
13.A.didnt yet say that yesB·havent said yes yet
c.havent yet said that yesD.didnI yet say yes
14.A.that you'd agreeB.that yOU agreed
C.for you to agreeD.you to agree