2017年职称英语考试全真模拟试题(理工B)

日期:03-01| http://www.59wj.com |理工类|人气:816

2017年职称英语考试全真模拟试题(理工B)

  一、词汇选项

  1 These are their for doing it

  A reasons

  B excuses

  C answers

  D plans

  2 The river considerably as it begins to turn west

  A twists

  B stretches

  C broadens

  D bends

  3 Henry cannot resist the of drugs.

  A abuse

  B flavor

  C temptation

  D consumption

  4 These programmes are of value to old people.

  A natural

  B fatal

  C tiny

  D enormous

  5 A great deal has been done to the situation

  A maintain

  B improve

  C assess

  D protect

  6 John is with Mary in writing an article

  A cooperating

  B competing

  C combining

  D arguing

  7 He is determined to his power

  A strengthen

  B control

  C abandon

  D exercise

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  8 Many scientists have been psychological problems

  A solving

  C settling

  B exploring

  D handling

  9 Hearing problems may be by changes in diet and exercise habits

  A removed

  B cured

  C worsened

  D relieved

  10 And the cars are tested for before leaving the factory

  A functions

  C motions

  B faults

  D parts

  11 The food is for three people.

  A instant

  B infinite

  C inexpensive

  D inadequate

  12 Thousands of people in the storm.

  A died

  B suffered

  C floated

  D scattered

  13 But he approved of our proposal

  A undoubtedly

  B certainly

  C ultimately

  D necessarily

  14 For young children,getting dressed is a business.

  A strange

  B complex

  C personal

  D funny

  15 In Britain and many other countries is now a tool of management.

  A evaluation

  B efficiency

  C production

  D publicity

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  答案:

  1 A motive:动机;reason:理由。这两个词意思比较接近。There is no reason to doubt his word.没有理由不相信他的话。excuse:借口。answer:回答;plan:计划。

  2 C widen和broaden都有"拓宽"的意思。twist:弯曲;stretch:延伸。The forests stretch for hundreds of miles.森林绵延数百英里。bend:弯曲。

  3 C lure:吸引。temptation:吸引。这两个词意思相近。abuse:滥用;flavor:滋味:consumption:消费。

  4 D immense和enormous都有"巨大的"意思。It was an enormous disappointment.此事太令人失望了。natural:自然的;tiny:微小的;fatal:致命的。

  5 B remedy:补救;improve:改进。这两个词意思相近。Herbal medicine can be used to improve our health.草药可用于增进我们的健康。maintain:保持;protect:保护;assess:评估。

  6 A collaborate:合作;勾结;cooperate:合作。 She has agreed to cooperate with the police in the investigation.她同意在调查中跟警察合作。compete:竞争。combine:合并;argue:争论。

  7 A consolidate:巩固;strengthen:巩固,加强。To strengthen his position in Parliament.he held talks with leaders of the Peasant Party.为了加强在国会中的地位,他跟农民党的领导人进行了会谈。control:控制。abandon:放弃;exercise:行使。

  8 B probe:探索;explore:探索。这两个词意思很相近。Both parties are exploring ways of settling the dispute.双方都在寻求解决争端的办法。solve:解决;settle:解决;handle:处理。

  9 D alleviate:减轻。relieve:减轻;变小。remove:去掉;切除。cure:治疗。worsen:严重。

  10 B defect:缺陷;faults:缺陷;function:功能:motion:意向。part:部分。

  11 D insufficient:不充分的;inadequate:不充分的。Supplies of food and medicine are inadequate.食物和药品供应不足。instant:迫切的;infinite:无限的。inexpensive:不贵的。

  12 A perish:死亡;die:死亡。The old man will die soon.这个老人很快会死去o suffer:蒙受;float:漂浮;scatter:散乱。

  13 C in the end:最后;ultimately:最后。The food ultimately arrived at the end of last month.食品终于在上月末运到了。undoubtedly:无疑地;certainly:当然;necessarily:必定地。

  B complicated:复杂的;complex;复杂的。The issue is very complex.这个问题太复杂了。strange:奇怪的;personal.个人的。funny)r:有趣的。

  15 A appraisal:评价;evaluation:评价。Evaluation is standard practice for all training评价是各种教育通常的做法。production:生产;efficiency:效率。publicity:出名。

  二、阅读判断

  They say Ireland’s the Best

  Ireland is the best place in the world to live in for 2005, according to a life quality ranking that appeared in Britain’s Economist magazine last week.

  The ambitious attempt to compare happiness levels around the world is based on the principle that wealth is not the only measure of human satisfaction and well-being.

  The index of 111 countries uses data on incomes, health, unemployment, climate, political stability, job security, gender equality as well as what the magazine calls “freedom, family and community life”.

  Despite the bad weather, troubled health service, traffic congestion (拥挤), gender inequality, and the high cost of living, Ireland scored an impressive 8.33 points out of 10.

  That put it well ahead of second-place Switzerland, which managed 8.07. Zimbabwe, troubled by political insecurity and hunger, is rated the gloomiest(最差的) , picking up only 3. 89 points.

  “Although rising incomes and increased individual choices are highly valued, ” the report said, “some of the factors associated with modernization such as the breakdown(崩溃) in traditional institutions and family values in part take away from a positive impact.

  “Ireland wins because it successfully combines the most desirable elements of the new with the preservation of certain warm elements of the old, such as stable family and community life.”

  The magazine admitted measuring quality of life is not a straightforward thing to do, and that its findings would have their critics.

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  No. 2 on the list is Switzerland. The other nations in the top 10 are Norway, Luxembourg, Sweden, Australia, Iceland, Italy, Denmark and Spain.

  The UK is positioned at No. 29, a much lower position chiefly because of the social and family breakdown recorded in official statistics. The US, which has the second highest per capita GDP (人均国内生产总值) after Luxembourg, took the 13th place in the survey. China was in the lower half the league at 60th.

  a) For 2,005 years, Ireland has been the best place for humans to live in.

  A. right B. wrong C. not mentioned

  b) Job security is the least important measure of life quality.

  A. right B. wrong C. not mentioned

  3. Cost of living in Ireland is pretty high.

  A. right B. wrong C. not mentioned

  4. Family life in Zimbabwe is not stable.

  A. right B. wrong C. not mentioned

  5. Ireland is positioned at No. 1 because it combines the most desirable elements of the new with some good elements of the old.

  A. right B. wrong C. not mentioned

  6. To measure life quality is easy.

  A. right B. wrong C. not mentioned

  7. The United States of America is among the top 10 countries.

  A. right B. wrong C. not mentioned

  阅读判断解析及参考答案:

  1. B. 分析: 问题句说“在2005年的时间里,爱尔兰一直是最适合人类居住的地方。” 句子中的时间状语结构恰恰就是我们所说的一种可作为线索的特征结构(因为数字容易在文章中被查找到), 我们利用2,005作为答案线索,这样在文章中找到答案相关句:Ireland is the best place in the world to live in for 2005, according to a life quality ranking that appeared in Britain’s Economist magazine last week.划线结构中提到的是“for 2005(对2005年而言)”, 不是问题句中说的“For 2,005 years(在2005年的时间里)”,而且划线结构说“爱尔兰是2005年世界上最适合居住的地方” , 显然这个内容与问题句的内容不一致, 因此判断问题句的说法错误。

  2. C. 分析:问题句说“职业稳定是衡量生活质量的最不重要的标准。”利用题干中出现的核心短语“(主语)Job security/职业稳定”和“(表语)life quality/生活质量”作为答案线索,同时关注题干中出现的修饰结构“the least important/最不重要的”, 这样找到答案相关句:Ireland is the best place in the world to live in for 2005, according to a life quality ranking that appeared in Britain’s Economist magazine last week.

  The ambitious attempt to compare happiness levels around the world is based on the principle that wealth is not the only measure of human satisfaction and well-being.

  The index of 111 countries uses data on incomes, health, unemployment, climate, political stability, job security, gender equality as well as what the magazine calls “freedom, family and community life”. 题干中的核心短语分散在了两个句子中, 但是在这两个看似与问题句相关的句子中并没有出现比较的结构,推测这道题可能在考察考生的推断能力。第一个划线句说“根据上周出现在英国经济学家杂志上的生活质量排名,爱尔兰是2005年世界上最适合居住的地方。”这句话的内容与问题句不相关,第2个划线句说“111个国家使用的标准除了包括那本杂志上提到的“自由,家庭和社会生活”这方面的数据, 还涉及到了有关收入, 健康, 失业, 气候, 政治稳定性, 职业稳定, 和性别平等的数据内容。”这句话表明“工作稳定与收入, 健康等这些内容共同组成衡量标准”,而且前一个划线句提到“爱尔兰在生活质量排名中位于第一位”, 因此可以推断出这111个国家应该是参加“生活质量”排名的国家,当然这些国家所使用的标准也就是“衡量生活质量标准”,但是文章中并没有对“职业稳定”等这些衡量标准进行比较, 没有说哪方面的因素最重要的/最不重要的衡量标准。因此判断这个问题句的说法为“没提到”。

  3. A.分析:问题句说“爱尔兰的生活费用高”。 利用题干中的核心短语“(主语)Cost of living/生活费用”作为答案线索, 同时关注题干中出现的修饰结构“pretty high/相当高”,这样找到答案相关句:Despite the bad weather, troubled health service, traffic congestion (拥挤), gender inequality, and the high cost of living, Ireland scored an impressive 8.33 points out of 10. 题干的核心短语和修饰结构都出现在这个句子中,因此判断这个句子很可能就是直接答案相关句,该句说“尽管气候恶劣, 健康机构混乱, 交通拥挤, 性别歧视仍然存在, 生活费用高,爱尔兰所获得的分数仍然给人留下了深刻的印象:满分为十分,爱尔兰获得了8.33分”。根据这个句子的内容可以知道“爱尔兰的生活费用高”,因此问题句的说法与原文的说法一致。

  4. C. 分析:问题句说“在津巴布韦家庭生活是不稳定的”。利用题干中的核心结构“(主语)Family life/家庭生活”和特征词“Zimbabwe/津巴布韦”作为答案线索,同时关注题干中出现的修饰结构“not stable(不稳定的)”, 发现题干中的核心词Family life根本就没有在文章中出现 (文章中相关的句子:Zimbabwe, troubled by political insecurity and hunger, is rated the gloomiest(最差的) , picking up only 3. 89 points.),因为判断该问题句为“没提到”。

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  5. A. 分析:问题句说“爱尔兰位居第一,因为它把新时期里最理想的因素和过去的一些好的东西融合在一起。”利用题干中出现的特征词No. 1作为答案线索, 同时关注问题句中出现的修饰结构“the most desirable (elements)/最理想的” 和“some good (elements)/一些好的”, 这样找到答案相关句:

  Despite the bad weather, troubled health service, traffic congestion (拥挤), gender inequality, and the high cost of living, Ireland scored an impressive 8.33 points out of 10.

  That put it well ahead of second-place Switzerland, which managed 8.07. Zimbabwe, troubled by political insecurity and hunger, is rated the gloomiest(最差的) , picking up only 3. 89 points.

  “Although rising incomes and increased individual choices are highly valued, ” the report said, “some of the factors associated with modernization such as the breakdown(崩溃) in traditional institutions and family values in part take away form a positive impact.

  “Ireland wins because it successfully combines the most desirable elements of the new with the preservation of certain warm elements of the old, such as stable family and community life.” 在这个斜体句中直接出现了问题句中的一个修饰结构the most desirable,推测句子中“Ireland wins(爱尔兰获胜了)”可能与题干中的特征结构“爱尔兰位居第一”呼应,“certain warm”可能与题干中的另一个修饰结构“一些好的”呼应,这个句子很可能就是直接答案相关句, 该句说“爱尔兰获胜了,因为它成功地把新时期最理想的因素和对过去某些温暖的东西(如稳定的家庭和社会生活)的保护结合了起来。” 从这个句意上看“温暖的东西” 就是“好的东西”, 所以现在只需要确认“Ireland wins(爱尔兰获胜了)”就是指“爱尔兰位居第一”。 在前文中我们看到“爱尔兰获得的分数给人留下了深刻的印象”(划线句),接着看到“这使它远远高于第2名瑞士”(划线句), 因此判断原文中说的“Ireland wins(爱尔兰获胜了)”就是指“爱尔兰位居第一”, 因此判断问题句的说法正确。

  6. B. 分析:问题句说“衡量生活质量很容易”。利用题干中的核心结构“measure life quality”作为答案线索, 同时关注题干中出现的修饰词easy,这样找到答案相关句:The magazine admitted measuring quality of life is not a straightforward thing to do, and that its findings would have their critics批评家. 该句说“该杂志承认衡量生活质量不是一件直截了当的事情,承认杂志上的数据将可能会受到批评。”显然, 该句内容表明“衡量生活质量不是一件容易的事情”,因此问题句的说法“错误”。

  7. B. 分析:问题句说“美国位于前十个国家的行列”。利用题干中的特征结构The United States of America和top 10 countries(前十个国家)作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关句:The US, which has the second highest per capita GDP (人均国内生产总值) after Luxembourg, took the 13th place in the survey. 题干中的两个特征结构都在这个句子中出现了, 因此判断这个句子应该是直接答案相关句, 该句说“美国的人均国内生产总值排名第2, 仅位于卢森堡之后, 因此美国在这项调查中位于第13位。”, 显然问题句的说法与该句的说法不一致,因此判断问题句“错误”。

  三、概括大意

  A Star Is Born

  1 The VLT(Very Large Telescope)is the world’s largest telescope(望远镜)and is taking astronomers(天文学家)further back to the Big Bang than they ever thought possible.Located 2,600 meters up to the Chilean Andes,it has four huge mirrors,each about the size of a London bus.The VLT is so powerful it Can spot a burning match 10.000 kilometers away.

  2 This astonishing power will allow astronomers to see events in space from the birth of stars to the collision(碰撞)of galaxies(星系)on the edge of the cosmos(宇宙).The VLT is giving astronomers their best-ever view of the cosmos.The power of the VLT to see the smallest detail at the furthest distances makes its designers amazed.

  3 Take the case of Eta Carinae,one of the most explosive stars in the universe.This star produces ultraviolet laser rays(紫外线)and it will destroy itself in a few million years’time.It is five times brighter than the sun and when it explodes it is going to be a sight worth waiting for!

  4 But it is at distances of millions,even billions,of light years that the VLT really shows its power.The VLT can detect light that set out on its journey before the earth even existed.This gives astronomers their first—ever detailed views of events that took place in the earliest days of the cosmos.

  5 In other words.the VLT is a kind of a time machine.It takes astronomers back to a time when complete galaxies crashed into each other.The effects of these past collisions can now be seen by scientists,and astronomers believe the telescope will reveal more about these exciting events in the years to come.One day, we might be able to say we have traveled back to the beginning of time,and we will have a much clearer picture of how our planet was born.

  1. Paragraph 1 ___.

  2. Paragraph 2 ___.

  3. Paragraph 3 ___.

  4. Paragraph 4 ___.

  A. Events that took place before the earth existed

  B. Power of the telescope

  C. Details of Eta Carinae

  D. Invention of a time machine

  E. Biggest telescope

  F. Birth of the new worlds

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  5. The VLT will allow scientists to see events ___.

  6. The designers of the VLT are surprised at ___.

  7. Eta Carinae is taken ___.

  8. Scientists believe the VLT will tell us more about ___.

  A. its detecting power

  B. millions of light years away in space

  C. the location of VLT

  D. as an example

  E. the birth of the earth

  F. the rotation of the earth

  答案与解析:

  第一步: 分析文章标题A Star Is Born

  标题中的星星到底是什么?结合文章开头的句子:

  1 The VLT(Very Large Telescope)is the world’s largest telescope(望远镜)and is taking astronomers(天文学家)further back to the Big Bang than they ever thought possible.Located 2,600 meters up to the Chilean Andes,it has four huge mirrors,each about the size of a London bus.The VLT is so powerful it Can spot a burning match 10.000 kilometers away.

  文章第一段中没有出现Star这个词,但是根据文章中出现的中文注释:望远镜,天文学家,星系, 宇宙(第二段)等词,可以知道文章标题中的Star应该是指宇宙中的某颗星星。从标题内容来看,这篇文章应该是说明文, 可能将具体讲述某颗星星的诞生过程。

  解题第2步:结合文章主题(文章标题所揭示的内容)分析概括大意被选项之间的关系。

  A. Events that took place before the earth existed

  B. Power of the telescope

  C. Details of Eta Carinae

  D. Invention of a time machine

  E. Biggest telescope

  F Birth of the new worlds

  被选项中B和E都涉及到“telescope(望远镜)”,因此推测这两个选项中应该至少有一个是答案(提示: 相关选项中通常出答案); F 与文章主题(一颗星星的诞生)呼应, 所以成为答案的可能性较大, C中出现了特征词Eta Carinae, 所以C在解题中容易被判断。

  第3步: 直接解题, 在解题中注意各种解题技巧的巧妙运用。

  A. Events that took place before the earth existed

  B. Power of the telescope

  C. Details of Eta Carinae

  D. Invention of a time machine

  E. Biggest telescope

  F Birth of the new worlds

  1. Paragraph 1 ___.

  1 The VLT(Very Large Telescope)is the world’s largest telescope(望远镜)and is taking astronomers(天文学家)further back to the Big Bang than they ever thought possible.Located 2,600 meters up to the Chilean Andes,it has four huge mirrors,each about the size of a London bus.The VLT is so powerful it can spot a burning match 10.000 kilometers away.

  1. E. 分析: 段落中VLT(大望远镜)中反复出现(第2句中的代词it也是指VLT), 因此判断VLT是该段核心词, 比较被选项B和E, 判断E是答案(VLT是大望远镜, 段落中也是在强调望远镜的“大”(段落中出现了Large, largest, huge)), 因此判断E是答案。

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  解题线索: 利用段落中的核心词直接判断段落主题。

  A. Events that took place before the earth existed

  B. Power of the telescope

  C. Details of Eta Carinae

  D. Invention of a time machine

  F Birth of the new worlds

  2. Paragraph 2 ___.

  2 This astonishing power will allow astronomers to see events in space from the birth of stars to the collision(碰撞)of galaxies(星系)on the edge of the cosmos(宇宙).The VLT is giving astronomers their best-ever view of the cosmos.The power of the VLT to see the smallest detail at the furthest distances makes its designers amazed.

  2. B。 分析:段落中VLT(大望远镜) 和power(能量)反复出现, 因此这两个词是该段主题词, 因此判断B是答案。

  解题线索: 利用段落中的核心词直接判断段落主题。

  A. Events that took place before the earth existed

  C. Details of Eta Carinae

  D. Invention of a time machine

  F Birth of the new worlds

  1.Paragraph 3 ___.

  3 Take the case of Eta Carinae,one of the most explosive stars in the universe.This star produces ultraviolet laser rays(紫外线)and it will destroy itself in a few million years’time.It is five times brighter than the sun and when it explodes it is going to be a sight worth waiting for!

  3. C。 分析:整个段落围绕Eta Carinae进行介绍: 段落中的This star和代词it都是指Eta Carinae, 因此Eta Carinae是段落的主题词, 因此判断C是答案。

  解题线索: 利用段落中的核心词直接判断段落主题。

  A. Events that took place before the earth existed

  D. Invention of a time machine

  F Birth of the new worlds

  2.Paragraph 4 ___.

  4But it(it指代前段中的Eta Carinae) is at distances of millions,even billions,of light years that the VLT really shows its power.The VLT can detect light that set out on its journey before the earth even existed.This gives astronomers their first—ever detailed views of events that took place in the earliest days of the cosmos.

  4.A. 分析: 比较被选项: D说“时光机器”, 可是该段落提到的仪器是VLT(大望远镜), 不是“时光机器”, 因此D不是答案; A中的状语结构“before the earth existed”在该段第2句中出现了,该句中没有提到A中的核心词Events(事件/事情), 但是在该段落的最后一句中出现了Events(事件), 该句说“这就使天文学家有史以来第一次观察到了宇宙早期发生的事情”, 结合这个句意来看A是答案。

  解题线索: 被选项中的核心词应该在段落中有呼应的词语或结构。

  A。 its detecting power

  B. millions of light years away in space

  C. the location of VLT

  D. as an example

  E. the birth of the earth

  F. the rotation of the earth

  6. The VLT will allow scientists to see events ___.

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  6.B. 分析: 解题思路1: 借助句子句意判断答案: 空格前面内容说“VLT允许科学家观察事件…”, 判断B最合适:B作定语修饰前面的events, 整个句子大意是“VLT允许科学家观察发生在距离是数百万光年以外的事件”。解题思路2: 借助句子中的特征词scientists和VLT作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关句:

  1 The VLT(Very Large Telescope)is the world’s largest telescope(望远镜)and is taking astronomers(天文学家)(与scientists是近义词)further back to the Big Bang than they ever thought possible.带领天文学家回到远古的大爆炸时代,这是他们从没想象到的.这句话没有直接揭示答案, 接续看后面的句子,

  2 This astonishing power (指代VLT的惊人能力)will allow astronomers (与scientists是近义词)to see events in space from the birth of stars to the collision of galaxies(星系)on the edge of the cosmos.该句也没有直接揭示答案, 接续看后面的句子: The VLT is giving astronomers their best-ever view of the cosmos.The power of the VLT to see the smallest detail at the furthest distances makes its designers amazed.该句说“VLT能使天文学家看见宇宙中最远地方发生的最小的事情,这使它的设计者很吃惊。” 该句间接的揭示了答案。

  考点:考察考生对文章中重要细节内容的归纳总结。VLT是文章中涉及到的重要细节。

  A。 its detecting power

  C. the location of VLT

  D. as an example

  E. the birth of the earth

  F. the rotation of the earth

  6. The designers of the VLT are surprised at ___.

  6. A。分析:借助搭配结构特点:空格处需要名词性的结构或代词作介词at的宾语, 所以D肯定不是答案; 利用句子中的核心词designers of the VLT 和修饰词surprised作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关句:

  The power of the VLT to see the smallest detail at the furthest distances makes its designers amazed(surprised的近义词), 判断A是答案。

  考点: 考察近义词的替换。

  C. the location of VLT

  D. as an example

  E. the birth of the earth

  F. the rotation of the earth

  7. Eta Carinae is taken ___.

  7. D。分析: 可以直接借助常见的搭配结构: take…as…(把…看成是…)判断D是答案. 也可以利用句子中的核心词(也是特征词)作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关内容: Take the case of Eta Carinae,one of the most explosive最容易爆炸的stars in the universe. “Take the case of …”是“以…为例”, 判断D是答案.

  C. the location of VLT

  E. the birth of the earth

  F. the rotation of the earth

  8. Scientists believe the VLT will tell us more about ___.

  8. E。分析: 有两个选项(E和F)提到了“地球”, 因此判断它们中出答案的可能性较大, 利用“the earth”作为答案线索, 同时注意句子中出现的比较结构, 查找答案相关句:

  6 The VLT can detect light that set out on its journey before the earth even existed. 该句中没有比较结构出现,所以不看, 继续看后面的句子:(文章最后一句) One day, we might be able to say we have traveled back to the beginning of time,and we will have a much clearer picture of how our planet (指地球)was born.该句中出现了“地球”,而且也出现了比较级结构, 该句说“有一天, 我们可以说我们已经返回到时间开始的时候, 而且我们将对我们所在的星球是如何诞生的有更加清楚的理解。”,借助该句判断E是答案。

  提示:相关的选项中往往出答案。

  文章中的难句和长句:

  1. Located 2,600 meters up to the Chilean Andes,it has four huge mirrors,each about the size of a London bus.

  2. The VLT is so powerful it can spot a burning match 10.000 kilometers away.

  spot – see --watch

  3. It is five times brighter than the sun and when it explodes it is going to be a sight worth waiting for!

  4. The effects of these past collisions can now be seen by scientists,and astronomers believe the telescope will reveal more about these exciting events in the years to come.

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  四、阅读理解

  Invisibility Ring

  Scientists can’t yet make an invisibility cloak1 like the one that Harry Potter2 uses.But,for the first time,they’ve constructed a simple cloaking device that makes itself and somethingplaced inside it invisible to microwaves.

  When a person “sees” an object,his or her eye senses many different waves of visiblelight as they bounce off the object.The eye and brain then work together to organize thesesensations and reconstruct the object’s original shape. So,to make an object invisible,scientists have to keep waves from bouncing off it.And they have to make sure the objectcasts no shadow.Otherwise,the absence of reflected light on one side would give the obiectaway.

  Invisibility isn’t possible yet with waves of light that the human eye can see.But it is nowpossible with microwaves.Like visible light,microwaves are a form of radiant energy.Theyare part of the electromagnetic spectrum,which also includes radio waves,infrared light,ultraviolet rays,X rays,and gamma rays.The wavelengths of microwaves are shorter thanthose of radio waves but longer than those of visible light.

  The scientists’ new “invisibility device” is the size of a drink coaster and shaped like aring.The ring is made of a special material with unusual ability.When microwaves strike thering,very few bounce off it.Instead,they pass through the ring,which bends the waves allthe way around until they reach the opposite side.The waves then return to their originalpaths.

  To a detector set up to receive microwaves on the other side of the ring,it looks as if thewaves never changed their paths as if there were no object in the way! So,the ring is effectively invisible.

  When the researchers put a small cdpper loop inside the ring,it,too,is nearly invisible. However,the cloaking device and anything inside it do cast a pale shadow.And the deviceworks only for microwaves,not for visible light or any kind of electromagnetic radiation.So,Harry Potter’s invisibility cloak doesn’t have any real competition yet.

  词汇:

  invisibility/invizE5biliti/n.看不见,无形 spectrum/5spektrEm/n.光谱

  cloak/klEuk/斗篷,披风 infrared/5infrE5red/adj.红外线的

  microwave/5maikrEuweiv/n.微波 ultraviolet ray 紫外线

  reconstruct/5ri:kEn5strQkt/v.重建 gamma ray 伽马射线

  radiant/5reidjEnt/adj.辐射的 wavelength/5weivleNW/n.波长

  electromagnetic/IlektrEJ5mA^nItIk/adj.电磁的coaster/5kEustE(r)/n.托盘,垫子

  练习:

  1.Harry Potter is mentioned in the passage,because scientists

  Acan now make an invisible cloak of the same kind as he uses.

  Btry to make an invisible cloak of the same kind as he uses.

  Ctry to invent a device Similar in idea to the invisible cloak he uses.

  Dknow that it is possible to make an invisible cloak of the same kind.

  2.What is true of microwaves?

  ATheir wavelengths are shorter than those of visible light.

  BTheir wavelengths are longer than those of visible light.

  CThey are different from visible light as they are a kind of radiant energy.

  DThey are visible to the human eye.

  3.What is NOT true of the invisibility device?

  AIt is made of a special material with unusual ability.

  BMicrowaves bounce off it when they strike it.

  CMicrowaves pass through it when they strike it.

  DIt bends the microwaves all the way around until they reach the opposite side.

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  4.What does the word “coaster” mean in the passage?

  AA disk or plate placed under a drinking glass to protect a table top.

  BA vessel engaged in coastal trade.

  CA roller coaster.

  DA resident of a coastal area.

  5.Harry Potter’s invisibility cloak doesn’t have any real competition yet,

  because

  Ascientists have not found out how his cloak works.

  Bthe cloaking device is a total failure.

  Cthe cloaking device works only for microwaves.

  Dthe cloaking device works only for visible light.

  答案与题解:

  1.C文章的第一段告诉我们,科学家还没有发明哈里·波特使用的那种隐身衣,所以不能选 A;该段还告诉我们,科学家已制造了,一种装置,这种装置能使自身或置于其中的物体不被微波发现,所以C是正确选择,也就是说,科学家发明的隐形装置和哈里波特的隐身衣仅仅在概念上相同,这同时说明B和D是错误的选择。

  2.B第三段最后一句中告诉我们,A是错误选择,B是正确选择。该段第三句说,微波与可见光一样都是一种辐射能,所以C的说法是错误的,不能选择;根据该段第一句:with wavesof light that the human eye can see和第三句:Like visible light,可以得知D是错误的说法,也不能选择。

  3.B第四段第三句说,当微波到达装置表面时,very few bounce off。very few是几乎没有的意思,所以选择B。其他选择所述内容都可以很容易在该段中找到。

  4.A第四段第一句告诉我们,科学家的这个隐形装置和一个杯垫差不多大小,所以A是正确选择。coaster是一个多义词,其他几个选择是该词的其他意思,B:从事沿海贸易的船;C:过山车,摩天轮;D:海岸地区居民。

  5.CA句在短文中没有提到;按文章的内容B不是正确的说法;文章最后一段说,And thedevice works only for microwaves,not forvisible light,所以C是正确选择。

  Japanese Car Keeps Watch for Drunk Drivers

  A concept car developed by Japanese company Nissan1 has a breathalyzer-like detection system and other instruments that could help keep drunk or over tired drivers off the road.

  The car’s sensors check odors inside the car and monitor a driver’s sweat for traces of alcohol.An in-car computer system can issue an alert or even lock up the ignition system if the driver seems over-the-limit.The air odor sensors are fixed firmly and deeply in the driver

  and passenger seats,while a detector in the gear-shift knob measures perspiration from the driver’s palm.

  Other carmakers have developed similar detection systems. For example,Sweden’s Volvo2 has developed a breathalyzer attached to a car’s seat belt that drivers must blow into before the engine will start.

  Nissan’s new concept vehicle also includes a dashboard-mounted camera that tracks a drivers alertness by monitoring their eyes.It will sound an alarm and issue a spoken warning in Japanese or English if it judges that the driver needs to pull over and rest3.

  The car technology is still in development,but general manager Kazuhiro Doi says the combination of different detection systems should improve the overall effectiveness of the technology. “For example,if the gear-shift sensor was bypassed by a passenger using it instead of the driver,the facial recognition system would still be used,” Doi says.Nissan has no specific timetable for marketing the system,but aims to use technology to cut the number of fatalities involving its vehicles to half 1995 levels by 2015.

  The car’s seat belt can also tighten if drowsiness is detected,while an external camera checks that the car is keeping to its lane properly. However,Doi admits that some of the technology,such as the alcohol odor sensor,should be improved.“If you drink one beer,it’s going to register,so we need to study what’s the appropriate level for the system to activate,” he says.

  In the UK4,some research groups are using similar advanced techniques to understand driver behavior and the effectiveness of different road designs.

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