1 It is irritating to be forced to listen to such silly conversation.
A chilly B annoying C accessory D furtive
2 Many of novelist Carson McGullers' characters are isolated, disappointed people.
A solitary B grumpy C feeble D frugal
3 One-room schoolhouses can still be found in isolated areas of North America.
A bare B deprived C remote D developed
4 The benzene molecule contains six carbon atoms joined together in the form of a six-sided ring.
A represented B connected C contained D included
5 The old car jolted along the country road at a snail's pace.
A rode B dawdled C honked D bounced
6 Literary historians believe Emily Dickinson had a lonely existence, finding joy only in her poetry.
A friendship B happiness C expression D interest
7 Justices of the peace have jurisdiction over the trials of some civil suits and of criminal cases involving minor offenses.
A supremacy B authority C guidance D obedience
8 Maine is justly famous, for its beautiful lakes and ponds.
A only B rightfully C legally D simply
9 In some libraries young people can check out ten juvenile hooks at one time.
A adventure B large-print C hardcover D children's
10 Cough syrups and cold remedies that are manufactured with alcohol will last much longer than those prepared with water.
A float B finish C remain effective D be prescribed
11 The works of Walt Whitman had a lasting effect on the development of modern American poetry.
A an enduring B an unknown C a startling D a final
12 Not until his play "Beyond the Horizon" was produced wag Eugene O'Neill lauded as the foremost creative American playwright.
A compensated B secretly named C given preference D praised
13 A prominent advocate of woman suffrage. Susan B. Anthony lectured throughout the Unites States for the cause of women's rights.
A raised money B arranged meetings C wrote articles D gave speeches
14 Helen Keller's achievements as an author and lecturer were an inspiration to millions.
A editor B director C correspondent D speaker
15 A corporation is a business organization that is formed to act as a single person and is legally endowed with particular rights and duties.
A by word B by law C laudably D liberally.
Every land has its own dining custom, and the United States is no exception. Americans feel that the first rule of being a polite guest is to be on time. If a person is invited to dinner at 6 : 30, the hostess expects him to be there at 6 : 30 or not more than a few minutes after. Be-cause she usually does her own cooking, she times the meal so that the coffee and meat will be at their best at the time she asks the guest to come. If he is late，the food will not be so good, and the hostess will be disappointed. When the guest cannot come on time，he calls his host or hostess on the telephone, gives the reason, and tells at what time he thinks he can come.
As guests continue to arrive, the men in the group stand when a woman enters and remain standing until she has found a chair. A man always rises when he is being introduced to a woman. A woman does not rise when she is being introduced either to a man or a woman un-less the woman is much older.
When the guests sit down at a dinner table, it is customary for the men to help the ladies by pushing their chairs under them.
Even an American may be confused by the number of knives, forks, and spoons beside his plate when he sits down to a formal dinner. The rule is simple, however, use them in the order
in which they lie, beginning from the outside. Or watch the hostess and do what she does. The small fork on the outside on the left is for salad, which is often served with the soup. The spoon on the outside at the right is for soup, and so on. Sometimes there is a separate little knife, called a butter spreader, on a small bread-and-butter plate at the left. As the bread is passed, each guest puts his piece on the bread-and-butter plate.
16 As a country of immigrants, the U.S. does not have its own dining customs.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
17 The guest is expected to arrive on time because the coffee and meat will be at their best at the time he is required to come.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
18 A woman usually rises when she is being introduced to an aged gentleman.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
19 At a dinner table, it is customary for the men to arrange chairs for ladies.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
20 At formal American dinner, the knives, forks, and spoons beside the plate are placed in a certain order.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
21 The right order to use the knives, forks and spoons at a formal dinner is from the left to the right.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
22 At a formal dinner, bread is usually served together with salad and soup.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned.
1 Paris, the capital and the largest city of the country, is in north central France. The Paris metropolitan area contains nearly 20% of the nation's population and is the economic, cultural, and political center of France. The French governments have historically favored the city as the
site for all decision making, thus powerfully attracting nearly all of the nation's activities.
2 Paris has grown steadily since it was chosen as the national capital in the late 10th century. With the introduction of the Industrial Revolution, a great number of people moved to the city from the country during the l9th century. The migration was especially stimulated by the construction of railroads, which provided easy access to the capital. After World War II more and more immigrants arrived.
3 The city is the centralized control point of most national radio and television broadcasting. It is a place of publication of the most prestigious newspapers and magazines and an international book publishing center. With more than l00 museums, Paris has truly been one of the greatest concentrations of art treasures in the world. The Louvre, opened as a museum in 1793, is one of the largest museums in the world.
4 In the late l980s about 4.1 million pupils annually attended about 47,000 elementary schools. In addition, about 5.4 million students attended some 11,200 secondary schools. Approximately l.2 million students were enrolled annually at universities and colleges in France in the late l980s. French centers of learning have served as academic models throughout the world.
5 Paris is the leading industrial center of France, with about one quarter of the nation's manufacturing concentrated in the metropolitan area. Industries of consumer goods have always been drawn to Paris by the enormous market of the big population, and modern, high-technology industries also have become numerous since World War II. Chief manufactures are machinery, automobiles, chemicals and electrical equipment.
23 Paragraph 2 ________
24 Paragraph 3 ________
25 Paragraph 4 ________
26 Paragraph 5 ________
A History of the city
B Industries of the city
C Population growth
E Cultural center
27 Paris has in history been the center of ________.
28 Since the 10th century, the population of Paris ________.
29 Many valuable works of art ________.
30 Paris is not only the center of education of France, but also the center ________.
A can be found in Paris
B the major events of the nation
C of the country's industries
D a lot of cinemas and theatres
E has been growing steadily
F has been decreasing rapidly.
第一篇 Cultural Code
Every culture attempts to create a "universe of discourse" for its members. a way in which people can interpret their experience and convey it to one another. Without a common system of codifying sensations, life would be absurd and all efforts to share meanings doomed to failure. This universe of discourse—one of the most precious of all cultural legacies—is
transmitted to each generation in part consciously and in part unconsciously. Parents and teachers give explicit instruction in it by praising or criticizing certain ways of dressing, of thinking, of gesturing, of responding to the acts of others. But the most significant aspects of any cultural code may be conveyed implicitly, not by rule or lesson but through modeling behavior. The child is surrounded by others who, through the mere consistency of their actions as males and females, mothers and fathers, salesclerks and policemen, display what is appropriate behavior. Thus the grammar of any culture is sent and received largely unconsciously, making one's own cultural assumptions and biases difficult to recognize. They seem so obviously right that they require no explanation.
In The Open and Closed Mind, Milton Rokeach poses the problem of cultural understanding in its simplest form, but one that can readily demonstrate the complication of communication between cultures. It is called the "Denny Doodlebug Problem". Readers are given all the rules that govern this culture: Denny is an animal that always faces North, and can move only by jumping; he can jump large distances or small distances, but can change direction only after jumping four times I any direction; he can jump North, South, East or West, but not diagonally. Upon concluding a jump ms master places some food three feet directly West of him. Surveying the situation, Denny concludes he must jump four times to reach the food. No mote or less. And he is right. All the reader has to do is to explain the circumstances that make his conclusion correct.
The large majority of people who attempt this problem fail to solve it, despite the fact that they are given all the rules that control behavior in this culture. If there is difficulty in getting inside the simplistic world of Denny Doodlebug—where the cultural code has already been broken and handed to us—imagine the complexity of comprehending behavior in societies whose codes have to yet been deciphered. And where even those who obey these codes are only vaguely aware and can rarely describe the underlying sources of their own actions.
31 We acquire the greater part of our cultural codes by ________.
A creating a universe of discourse
B imitating the behavior of others, especially those of the previous generation
C sharing the same experiences with other people
D taking in the various information we're given with no discrimination
32 What does "the grammar of any culture" refer to in the first paragraph? ________
A The grammatical rules in the language used by the largest population in a culture.
B Rules in a culture that can be modeled on by another culture.
C Any rules that people in a culture receive throughout his life time.
D Rules and codes that shape one’s cultural perspective and behavior.
33 By reading The Open and Closed Mind, we may________.
A find a way of solving the Denny Doodlebug problem
B realize how little we know about the complexity of human behavior
C bring to light codes of some societies which we didn't know before
D be aware of the difficulties of communications between different cultures
34 It can be inferred from the passage that ________.
A in some societies, people's behaviors are not governed by cultural codes
B there are still societies whose cultural codes still remain a mystery to us
C once people accept a cultural code, they'll have a full understanding of their behavior
D The Open and Closed Mind exerts great impact on people's behavior
35 Which one of the following statements about cultural code is TRUE? ________
A People in the same society may be governed by different cultural codes.
B Cultural codes are passed on from one generation to another either in written form or in oral form or in both.
C Cultural codes in different cultures may differ sharply from one another.
D The influence of cultural codes on an individual may decrease as he becomes older..
第二篇 Experts Call for Local and Regional Control of Sites for Radioactive Waste
The withdrawal of Nevada’s Yucca Mountain as a potential nuclear waste repository has reopened the debate over how and where to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. In an article in the July 10 issue of Science, University of Michigan geologist Rodney Ewing and Princeton University nuclear physicist Frank von Hippel argue that, although federal agencies should set standards and issue licenses for the approval of nuclear facilities, local communities and states should have the final approval on the siting of these facilities. The authors propose the development of multiple sites that would service the regions where nuclear reactors are located.
“The main goal.., should be to provide the United States with multiple alternatives and substantial public involvement in an open siting and design process that requires acceptance by host communities and states,” the authors write.
Ewing and von Hippel also analyze the reasons why Yucca Mountain, selected by Congress in 1987 as the only site to be investigated for long-term nuclear waste disposal, finally was shelved after more than three decades of often controversial debate. The reasons include the site’s geological problems, management problems, important changes in the Environmental Protection Agency’s standard, unreliable funding and the failure to involve local communities in the decision-making process.
Going forward, efforts should be directed at locating storage facilities in the nation’ s northeastern, southeastern, midwestern and western regions, and states within a given region should be responsible for developing solutions that suit their particular circumstances. Transportation of nuclear waste over long distances, which was a concern with the Yucca Mountain site, would be less of a problem because temporary storage or geological disposal sites could be located closer to reactors.
“This regional approach would be similar to the current approach in Europe, where spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste from about 150 reactors and reprocessing plants is to be moved to a number of geological repositories in a variety of rock types ,” said Rodney Ewing, who has written extensively about the impact of nuclear waste management on the environment and who has analyzed safety assessment criteria for the controversial Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository.
36. Which of the following words can best substitute the word “withdrawal” in the first paragraph?
37. According to Rodney Ewing and Frand von Hippel, where to locate nuclear facilities
A should be approved by the federal government.
B should be approved by local people and states.
C should be approved by Congress.
D is not an important issue.
38. What is NOT true about the 1987 decision by Congress concerning siting of nuclear waste disposal?
A Yucca Mountain was selected as the only site for a nuclear waste repository.
B The selection of Yucca Mountain for nuclear waste disposal caused much controversy.
C The decision by Congress was put aside due to a number of problems.
D The decision by Congress was accepted by local communities.
39. What does the author of the essay in the fourth paragraph want to say?
A Efforts should be made to solve the problems of transportation of nuclear waste over long distance.
B Efforts should be made to develop as many nuclear disposal sites in the US as possible.
C Efforts should be made to develop nuclear disposal sites to suit the circumstances of the region.
D Efforts should be made to build as many temporary nuclear disposal sites as possible.
40. What is meant by “regional approach” as mentioned in the last paragraph?
A Waste disposal sites are located close to reactors and in places suitable for the regional circumstances.
B Geological repositories are located in a variety of rock types.
C Spent nuclear fuel and high -level nuclear waste is moved to developing countries.
D Waste disposal sites are located far away from reactors..
第三篇 Plant Gas
Scientists have been studying natural sources of methane for decades but hadn't regarded plants as a producer, notes Frank Keppler, a geochemist at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Now Keppler and his colleagues find that plants, from grasses to trees, may also be sources of the greenhouse gas. This is really surprising. because most scientists assumed that methane production requires an oxygen-free environment.
Previously, researchers had thought that it was impossible for plants to make significant amounts of the gas. They had assumed that microbes need to be in environments without oxygen to produce methane. Methane is a greenhouse gas, like carbon dioxide. Gases such as methane and carbon dioxide trap heat in Earth's atmosphere and contribute to global warming.
In its experiments. Keppler's team used sealed chambers that contained the same concentration of oxygen that Earth's atmosphere has. They measured the amounts of methane that Were released by both living plants and dried plant material, such as fallen leaves.
With the dried plants, the researchers took measurement at temperatures ranging from 30 degrees Celsius to 70 degrees C. At 30 degrees C. they found, a gram of dried plant material released up to 3 nanograms of methane per hour. (One nanogram is a billionth of a gram. ) With every 10-degree rise in temperature, the amount of methane released each hour roughly doubled.
Living plants growing at their normal temperatures released as much as 370 nanograms of methane per gram of plant tissue per hour. Methane emissions tripled when living and dead plant was exposed to sunlight.
.Because there was plenty of oxygen available, it's unlikely that the types of bacteria that normally make methane were involved. Experiments on plants that were grown in water rather than soil also resumed in methane emissions. That's another strong sign that the gas came from the plants and not soil microbes.
The new finding is an "interesting observation," says Jennifer Y. King, a biogeochemistry at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul. Because some types of soil microbes consume methane, they may prevent plant-produced methane from reaching the atmosphere. Field tests will be needed to assess the plant's influence, she notes.
41. What was scientists' understanding of methane?
A It was produced from plants.
B It was not a greenhouse gas.
C It was produced in oxygen-free environments.
D It traps more heat than any other greenhouse gas
42. To test whether plants are a source of methane, the scientists created
A a oxygen-free environment.
B an environment with the same concentration of oxygen as the Earth has.
C a carbon dioxide-free environment
D an environment filled with the greenhouse gas.
43. Which statement is true of the methane emissions of plants in the experiment!
A The lower the temperature, the higher the amount of methane emissions.
B Living plants release less methane than dried plants at the same temperature.
C When exposed to sunlight, plants stop releasing methane.
D The higher the temperature, the greater the amount of methane emissions.
44. which of the following about methane is Not mentioned in the passage?
A Plants growing in soil release methane. B Plants gr0wingin water release methane.
C Soil microbes Consume methane. D Microbes in plants produce methane.
45. What is the beneficial point of some microbes consuming plant-produced methane?
A Methane becomes less poisonous. B Methane is turned into a fertilizer.
C Less methane reaches the atmosphere. D Air becomes cleaner..
The Building of the Pyramids
The oldest stone buildings in the world are the pyramids. ____46____ There are over eighty of them scattered along the banks of the Nile, some of which are different in shape from the true pyramids. The most famous of these are the "Step" pyramid and the "Bent" pyramid.
Some of the pyramids still look much the same as they must have done when they were built thousands of years ago. Most of the damage suffered by the others has been at the hands of men who were looking for treasure or, more often, for stone to use in modern buildings.
____47____ These are good reasons why they can still be seen today, but perhaps the most important is that they were planned to last for ever.
____48____ However, there are no writings or pictures to show us how the Egyptians planned or built the pyramids themselves. ____49____ Nevertheless, by examining the actual pyramids and various tools which have been found, archaeologists have formed a fairly clear picture of them.
One thing is certain: there must have been months of careful planning before they could begin to build. ____50____ You may think this would have been easy with miles and miles of empty desert around, but a pyramid could not be built just anywhere. Certain rules had to be followed, and certain problems had to be overcome.
A The dry climate of Egypt has helped to preserve the pyramids, and their very shape have made them less likely to fall into ruin.
B It is practically certain that plans were made for the building of the pyramids because the plans of other large works have fortunately been preserved.
C The first thing they had to do was to choose a suitable place.
D Consequently, we are only able to guess at the methods used.
E Many people were killed while building the pyramids.
F They have stood for nearly 5,000 years, and it seems likely that they will continue to stand for thousands of years yet.
Seeing red Means Danger Ahead
The color red often means danger -- and by paying attention, 51 can be prevented. At railroad crossings, flashing red lights warn cars to stay back. A red light at a traffic intersection tells cars to stop, so 52 don't run into other cars.
In the future, the color red also may help prevent danger 53 construction sites. Thanks to new work by engineers, bridge supports- or other kinds of materials—could one day contain a color-changing material. It will turn red 54 a structure collapses or falls 55 A tiny molecule may make a big difference in future warning systems.
A polymer 56 a color-changing molecule called a mechanophore turns red seconds before it snaps. The technology may one day allow damage to materials or structures to be easily 57 .
The secret behind the color-changing material is a particular type of molecule. A molecule is a group of atoms held together by 58 bonds. Molecules come in all shapes and sizes, and make up 59 you can see, touch or feel. How a molecule behaves depends on what kinds of atoms it contains, and how they're held together.
When a polymer containing a color-changing molecule called a mechanophore is about to breaks, it produces a color. When a polymer with mechanophore molecules becomes "injured" or 60 , one of the mechanophore bonds breaks and the material turns red. "It's a really simple detection method," says Nancy Sottos, one of the scientists who worked on the project. "We're 61 up this one bond, and it changes color. " Sottos and her team tested the color-changing polymers in their lab. The test 62 proved encouraging.
There is a way to get rid of the red color: 63 . When a bright light is shone on the mechanophore, the broken bond is fixed - and the red color disappears. This "self-healing" may be a problem for engineers. They need to use the color-changer in big construction projects that will be 64 , in sunlight. And sunlight will make the mechanophore's warning system useless..
Sottos and her fellow scientists still have 65 work to do before the color-changing molecules can be used outside the lab.
51. A measures B accidents C actions D collapses
52. A they B it C some D most
53. A with B over C at D in
54. A before B after C once D while
55. A together B behind C down D apart
56. A contacting B conducting C containing D considering
57. A controlled B spotted C repaired D changed
58. A technical B electronic C physical D chemical
59. A everything B something C nothing D anything
60. A weak B strong C tough D soft
61. A using B opening C turning D finishing
62. A laws B theories C tools D results
63. A air B electricity C light D sound
64. A aside B beside C inside D outside
65. A a part of B a pair of C a piece of D a lot of