2017年职称英语等级考试卫生AB级模拟试题(一)

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2017年职称英语等级考试卫生AB级模拟试题(一)

  一、单选题

  (词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分) 。下面共有l5个句子,每个句子中均有1个词或短语划有底横线,请从每个句子后面所给的4个选项中选择1个与划线部分意义最相近的词或短语。)

  1、

  下面共有15句子,每个句子均有一个词或短语划有底横线,请从每个句子后面所给的四个选项中选择一个与划线部分意义最相近的词或短语。答案一律涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  The committee comprises five persons.

  A) absorbs

  B)concerns

  C)excludes

  D)involves

  标准答案: d

  解析: D. comprise v.包含, 由...组成;该词和D(involve vt.包括) 是近义词。absorb vt.吸收, 吸引; concern vt.涉及, 关系到n.(利害)关系, 关心; exclude vt. 把...排除在外; 该句含义是“这个委员会是由5个人组成。”

  2、

  The room was furnished with the simplest essentials, a bed, a chair, and a table

  A)supplied

  B) gathered

  C)grasped

  D)made

  标准答案: a

  解析:根据划线词后的介词搭配(with)判断答案A。furnish..with..= supply/provide..with../给..提供..; gather n.集合, 聚集vi.集合, 聚集vt.使聚集; grasp

  vt./ n.抓住,掌握, 领会;该句含义是“这个房间配备了最基本的物品:一张床,一把椅子,和一张桌子。”

  3、

  The local government decided to merge the two firms into a big one.

  A)motivate

  B) combine

  C)compact

  D)nominate

  标准答案: b

  解析:根据句意(当地的政府决定把两家公司合并成一家公司)判断B((使)联合)是答案。motivate v.激发; compact adj.紧凑的, 紧密的, 简洁的; nominate vt.提名, 推荐, 任命

  4、

  He emphasized a feasible plan which can be accepted by the both sides.

  A)favorable

  B) possible

  C)formal

  D)genuine

  标准答案: b

  解析:该句含义是“他强调要制定出一个能够被双方都接受的可行计划” 。feasible adj.可行的, 切实可行的; favorable adj.赞成的, 有利的, 赞许的;genuine adj.真实的, 真正的

  5、

  Because administering the whole company, he sometimes has to work around the clock.

  A)adjusting

  B) evaluating

  C)engaging

  D)managing

  标准答案: d

  解析:根据句意(因为管理着整个公司,他有时候得夜以继日地工作)判断D(管理)是答案。evaluate vt.评价, 估计; adjust vt.调整, 调节, 校准; engage vt.使忙碌, 使从事于, 使参加 vi.答应, 从事

  6、

  He invested a considerable amount of money in the project.

  A) immense

  B) positive

  C) powerful

  D) realistic

  标准答案: a

  解析:借助划线词所在搭配结构:amount(数量)只能说大小, 因此只有A(大的) 是答案。该句大意是“他在这个项目上投了一大笔的钱”。 positive是“确实的,积极的”,powerful是“有力的,强大的”,realistic是“现实主义的”。

  7、

  The interview took place around the kitchen table and was very causal.

  A) formal

  B) informal

  C) regular

  D)irregular

  标准答案: b

  解析:被选项A和B, C和D从词形上看都分别构成正反义词。句子中前面部分的内容说“采访是在餐桌旁进行”, 因此推断该采访应该是“非正式的” , 所以答案是B。regular是“规则的, 定期的”, irregular是“不规则的, 非定期的”。

  8、

  We should contemplated the problem from all sides.

  A) deliberated

  B)thought

  C) described

  D) designed

  标准答案: a

  解析:借助搭配结构“…问题”排除B(think后通常带宾语从句)和D(与“问题”搭配不合理)。根据句意(我们应该…问题的各个方面)判断A(仔细考虑)最合适。

  9、

  He has a passionate interest in music.

  A) enthusiastic

  B) perfect

  C) practical

  D)funny

  标准答案: a

  解析:借助搭配结构直接判断答案。划线词修饰的词语是“interest(兴趣)”, 从这个搭配语义上看, A(强烈的, 热烈的)是最合适的选项。该句的大意是“他对音乐有着强烈的兴趣。”passionate是“热烈的, 强烈的, 多情的”, perfect是“完全的,完美的”, practical是“事实上的,实际上的”, funny是“有趣的,好笑的”。

  10、

  He has a very outgoing personality and makes friends very easily.

  A)capacity

  B) character

  C) reality

  D)attitude

  标准答案: b

  解析:借助搭配结构直接判断答案。修饰划线词的形容词是outgoing(开朗的), 借助这个搭配结构判断B(性格, 特征) 是最合适的选项。 该句的大意是“他的性格很开朗, 很容易与人交朋友。”personality是“人格,品格, (有名)人物”, capacity是“能力,才干,容积 ”, reality是“现实”, attitude是“态度”。

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  11、

  He is assigned to oversee the production of the assembly lines.

  A)supervise

  B) watch

  C)suspect

  D)predict

  标准答案: a

  解析:借助搭配结构直接判断答案。借助搭配结构“…装配线的生产”判断A(监督,指导)是答案;oversee v.俯瞰, 检查, 视察;suspect v.怀疑, 猜想; predict v.预知, 预言, 预报

  12、

  Soldiers have to obey orders.

  A)reply to

  B) apply for

  C)abide with

  D)comply with

  标准答案: d

  解析:借助搭配结构直接判断答案。借助搭配结构“…命令”判断D(遵守)是答案。reply to v.回答; apply for请求, 申请; abide with sb.和某人住在一起。abide by v.坚持, 遵守

  13、

  She wore a gorgeous Victorian gown which was said to be worth thousands of dollars.

  A)beauty

  B) splendid

  C)expensive

  D)simple

  标准答案: b

  解析:该句含义是“ 她穿着一件维多利亚时期的…长袍,而这件长袍的价值据说是上千美圆。”。gorgeous在口语中常用,其含义是“华丽的, 灿烂的”,splendid (adj.壮丽的, 辉煌的, 极好的)是该词的近义词。beauty n.美, 美景, 美好的东西; expensive adj.花费的, 昂贵的

  14、

  His health had deteriorated while he was in prison.

  A) became better

  B)became worse

  C) became stronger

  D) became weaker

  标准答案: b

  解析:借助搭配“健康…”,排除C和D(strong(强)和 weak(弱)都不和“健康”搭配使用,只能说“身体” strong或 weak),再借助句意(在监狱服刑期间他的健康变得恶化了)判断B(变得更糟糕)是答案。deteriorate v.(使)恶化。

  15、

  Smoking is inhibited in public places.

  A) instructed

  B)inquired

  C) forbidden

  D) strived

  标准答案: c

  解析:借助句意(吸烟在公共场合被..)判断C是答案。instruct vt.教, 命令, 指示;inquire

  v.询问, 问明, 查究;forbid vt.禁止, 不许;strive v.努力, 奋斗。

  二、匹配题

  ()

  16、

  阅读下面这篇短文,短文后列出了七个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子作出判断。如果该句提供的是正确信息,请在答题卡上把A涂黑;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请在答题卡上把B涂黑;如果该句的信息文章中没有提及,请在答题卡上把C涂黑

  An Observation and an Explanation

  It is worth looking at one or two aspects of the way a mother behaves towards her baby. The usual fondling, cuddling and cleaning require little comment, but the position in which she holds the baby against her body when resting is rather revealing. Careful studies have shown the fact that 80 percent of mothers hold their infants in their left arms, holding them against the left side of their bodies. If asked to explain the significance of this preference most people reply that it is obviously the result of the predominance of right-handedness in the population. By holding the babies in their left arms, the mothers keep their dominant arm free for manipulations. But a detailed analysis shows that this is not the case. True, there is a slight difference between right-handed and left-handed females; but not enough to provide adequate explanation. It emerges that 83 percent of right-handed mothers hold the baby on the left side, but so do 78 percent of left-handed mothers. In other words, only 22 percent of the left-handed mothers have their dominant hands free for actions. Clearly there must be some other, less obvious explanation.

  The only other clue comes from the fact that the heart is on the side of the mother's body. Could it be that the sound of her heartbeat is the vital factor? And in what way? Thinking along these lines it was argued that perhaps during its existence inside the body of the mother the unborn baby get used to the sound of the heart beat. If this is so, then the re-discovery of this familiar sound after birth might have a claiming effect on the infant, especially as it has just been born into a strange and frighteningly new world. if this is so then the mother would, somehow, soon arrive at the discovery that her baby is more at peace if held on the left against her heart than on the right.

  1. We can learn a lot by observing the position in which a mother holds her baby against her body.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  2. Most left-handed women feel comfortable by holding their babies in their left arm and keep the right arm free.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  3. The number of right-handed mothers who hold the baby on the left side exceeds that of left-handed ones by 22%.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  4. The fact that most left-handed mothers hold the baby on their left side renders the first explanation unsustainable.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  标准答案: A,C,B,A

  解析:阅读判断题答案选择特点:

  阅读判断的7道题中,最多的答案选项是A(正确),通常2-4道题答案选择A;其次是选项B(错误), 通常2-4道题的答案选择B;“没提到”这个答案通常在1-2道题中出现,通常7道题中有1-2道题的答案是“没提到”。

  阅读判断/阅读理解解题技巧说明:

  解答阅读判断题时可以考虑采用“新信息词/新信息短语定位法”。“新信息词/新信息短语定位法”就是利用新信息词/新信息短语作为答案线索,在文章中快速找到与问题相关的答案相关句的方法。“新信息词/新信息短语”是指问题句中出现的, 传递出前面的问题中没有提到过的新信息的词语或短语。 这些“新信息词/新信息短语”通常是出现在问题句中的主句和从句中的主语,或句子结尾部分的状语结构中。例如coffee and meat(咖啡和肉)(信息词)”, 由于其词义的特点( “咖啡”和“肉”分别作为其对应事物的名称, 具有所指的唯一性), 如果文章中有与它们相关的内容,则coffee and meat两个结构很可能会直接出现在文章中,因此考虑采用 “coffee and meat(咖啡和肉)”作为直接答案线索, 从而借助对这两个短语的查找而快速地在文章中进行与问题句相关内容的查找和确认。 在确认最终可作为答案线索的新信息词/新信息短语的时候,还要注意“特征结构优先原则”。 典型的“特征结构”包括“时间状语结构”, “数字”, 和作为专有名词的“人名”,“地名”和“ 组织机构名”等这类“特征性结构”。这些结构总是以特殊形式(容易查找的形式)出现在文章中:“时间”—涉及到年代或表述的数量大于100时,往往是以阿拉伯数字的形式出现;“人名”, “地名”, “组织机构名”—作为专有名词往往以单词首字母大写的形式出现。

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  An Observation and an Explanation

  1。A.分析:题干分析:大意:我们能通过母亲把孩子靠着身体抱着的姿势了解很多东西。从句意来看是概括性的话语而且与文章的主题相关,所以推测可能需要考生进行推断。 利用题干中出现的核心结构:holds her baby against her body作为答案线索,这样找到答案相关句:

  It is worth looking at one or two aspects of the way a mother behaves towards her baby. The usual fondling, cuddling and cleaning require little comment, but the position in which she holds the baby against her body when resting is rather revealing. 划线句说“母亲把孩子靠着身体抱着的姿势很具有启迪性”,可见问题句的说法与该句的说法一致。

  2. C。分析:题干分析:大意:大多数的妇女用左手怀抱婴儿,让右手闲着,这样做她们感到舒服。利用题干中出现的核心结构:holding their babies in their left arm and keep the right arm free作为答案线索,这样发现答案相关句:Careful studies have shown the fact that 80 percent of mothers hold their infants in their left arms, holding them against the left side of their bodies. If asked to explain the significance of this preference most people reply that it is obviously the result of the predominance of right-handedness in the population. By holding the babies in their left arms, the mothers keep their dominant arm free for manipulations. ... It emerges that 83 percent of right-handed mothers hold the baby on the left side, but so do 78 percent of left-handed mothers. 划线句子中提到了78%的母亲是左手怀抱婴儿,但是并没有提到这使他们舒服,所以判断问题句的说法为“没提到”。

  3.B。分析:题干分析:大意:惯用右手的母亲中把孩子靠着身体的左侧怀抱的人数比惯用左手把孩子靠着身体的左侧怀抱的母亲人数多22%。利用题干中出现的特征词22%作为答案线索,这样发现答案相关句:It emerges that 83 percent of right-handed mothers hold the baby on the left side, but so do 78 percent of left-handed mothers. In other words, only 22 percent of the left-handed mothers have their dominant hands free for actions. (文章中直接出现的数字22%是有关惯用左手的母亲让左手空出来用于做其他的工作,而与问题句的内容无关,而前一句已经点明了两种母亲人数上的差距是5%)因此判断问题句的说法“不正确”。

  4.A.分析:题干分析:大意:大多数惯用左手的母亲把孩子抱在身体的左侧这个事实表明第一种解释是不正确的。利用题干中的核心词first explanation作为答案线索,这样发现答案相关句:Clearly there must be some other, less obvious explanation.该句暗示题干中提到的first explanation在前文中,这样发现了直接答案相关句:If asked to explain (与explanation呼应)the significance of this preference most people reply that it is obviously the result of the predominance of right-handedness in the population. By holding the babies in their left arms, the mothers keep their dominant arm free for manipulations. (该句揭示了第一种解释的内容)... It emerges that 83 percent of right-handed mothers hold the baby on the left side, but so do 78 percent of left-handed mothers.该句说明大多数用左手的母亲也是左手怀抱孩子,因此判断问题句的说法正确:大多数惯用左手的母亲把孩子抱在身体的左侧这个事实表明第一种解释(为了让占主导作用的手空闲出来做其他的事情)是不正确的。

  17、

  5. The fact that the heart is on the left side of the mother's body provides the most convincing explanation of all.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  6. A baby held in the right arm of its mother can be easily frightened.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  7. The writer's explanation of the phenomenon is supported by the fact that babies tend to be more peaceful if held in their mothers' left arms than in the right arms.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  标准答案: A,C,A

  本题分数: 3.00 分,你答题的情况为 错误 所以你的得分为 .00 分

  解析:7.A.分析:题干分析:大意:孩子抱在左手中要比抱在右手中显地更平静这个事实支持了作者对于这个现象(大多数母亲左手怀抱孩子)的解释。该问题句是总结性的话语,因此推测该题可能需要考生进行推断。利用题干中出现的修饰词peaceful作为答案线索,这样发现答案相关句:

  If this is so, then the re-discovery of this familiar sound after birth might have a calming effect (与peaceful呼应)on the infant, especially as it has just been born into a strange and frighteningly new world. If this is so then the mother would, somehow, soon arrive at the discovery that her baby is more at peace (与peaceful呼应)if held on the left against her heart than on the right. 该句说“如果是这样(母亲的心跳对孩子有安静的作用),则母亲很快会发现她孩子在母亲的身体的左边靠着心脏抱要比孩子在母亲的身体右边更显的平静” ,反之可以借助这个现象得出作者的解释是正确的。

  18、

  阅读下面这篇短文,短文后有2项测试任务:(1)1---4 题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2--5 段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第5--8题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确的选项,分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  More Than 8 Hours Sleep Too Much of a Good Thing

  Although the dangers of too little sleep are widely known,new research suggests that people who sleep too much may also suffer the consequences.

  Investigators at the University of California in San Diego found that people who clock up 9 or 10 hours each weeknight appear to have more trouble falling and staying asleep,as well as a number of other sleep problems,than people who sleep 8 hours a night.People who slept only 7 hours each night also said they had more trouble falling asleep and feeling refreshed after a night’s sleep than 8-hour sleepers.

  These findings, which DL Daniel Kripke reported in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine, demonstrate that people who want to get a good night’s rest may not need to set aside。more than 8 hours a night.He added that“it might be a good idea'’for people who sleep more than 8 hours each night to consider reducing the amount of time they spend in bed, but cautioned that more research is needed to confirm this.

  Previous studies have shown the potential dangers of chronic shortages of sleep一for instance, one report demonstrated that people who habitually sleep less than 7 hours each night have a higher risk of dying within a fixed period than people who sleep more.

  For the current report,Kripke reviewed the responses of 1,004 adults to sleep questionnaires,in which participants indicated how much they slept during the Week and whether they experienced any sleep problems.Sleep problems included waking in the middle of the night,arising early in the morning and being unable to fall back to sleep,and having fatigue interfere with day-to-day functioning.

  KriDke found that people who slept between 9 and 10 hours each night were more likely to report experiencing each sleep problem than people who slept 8 hours.In an interview, Kripke noted that long sleepers may struggle to get rest at night simply because they spend too much time in bed.As evidence,he added that one way to help insomnia is to spend less time in bed.“It stands to reason that if a person spends too long a time in bed, then they’ll spend a higher percentage of time awake.”he said.

  1. Paragraph 2 ___.

  2. Paragraph 4___.

  3. Paragraph 5___.

  4. Paragraph 6___.

  A. Keprike’s research tool

  B. Dangers of Habitual shortages of sleep

  C. Criticism on Kripke’s report

  D. A way of overcoming insomnia

  E. Sleep problems of long and short sleepers

  F. Classification of sleep problems

  标准答案: E,B,A,D

  解析:1.概括大意题解题思路如果段落的段首句和/或段尾句是观点句,则往往段首句和/或段尾句的句意应该与所选择的段落小标题内容呼应;

  2.如果段落中有反复出现的词语/结构,则该词语/结构应该出现在段落小标题中;

  3.如果段落中有举例或例举的内容,则往往该例子或例举的内容所反应的信息在段落小标题中有呼应;

  4.如果段落中出现有观点句(引导出观点句的常见结构: to sum up (adv.总之, 总而言之); in a word (adv.总之), in conclusion (adv.最后, 总之)等), 或段落中有句子表述的内容是“..研究发现..”, “.某某研究者发现..”,或段落的开头或结尾处出现转折句(转折句子中往往有“but, however, although, though, nevertheless”等表述语意转折的逻辑副词或逻辑连词),则这些句子可能就是段落的中心句,这些句子的句意应该在该段段落小标

  题中有呼应;

  完成句子题解题思路:

  1.利用语法搭配结构判断答案范围。 即:借助空格前句子结构的语法特征判断空格处应该出现具有什么样语法特征的结构, 从而在被选项中确认答案可能出现的范围;

  2.利用搭配结构的语意判断答案范围。即:语意搭配最通顺的被选项放入空格中,语意最通顺的被选项是答案;

  利用文章中的答案相关句判断答案。利用问题句中的核心词/特征词能帮助快速找到答案相关句。 核心词通常是“出现在空格前面结构中的主语和/或谓语部分的词语”, 因为它们传递出了所在结构的主要内容信息 ,核心词还包括在空格前面结构中起修饰,限制作用的形容词/副词。 特征词包括“时间”, “数字”及“机构名称”, “人名”, “地名”等专有名词。

  More Than 8 Hours Sleep Too Much of a Good Thing

  1. E: Investigators ...found that people who clock up 9 or 10 hours each weeknight appear to have more trouble falling, than...该句回应了文章的主题—睡眠时间太长不是好事;对应被选项发现只有E和F与这个内容有关系,但段落最后一句中又提到了睡眠不足的人的问题,因此判断E是答案(睡眠长和睡眠短的人所面临的睡眠问题)。

  2。B.分析:段落的结构-- Previous studies have shown the potential dangers of chronic shortages of sleep一for instance..表明了该段的中心是讲述“长期睡眠不足的潜在危险”。

  3. A. 分析:对于该段落答案的选择具有一定的迷惑性,A和F容易相互成为干扰项,但由于段落中提到的“睡眠问题”是属于问卷上要回答的内容,是和Keprike的直接研究有关,所以判断A是答案。同时猜测F可能是出题者设置的干扰项。

  4. D: 段落中出现的Kripke found, Kripke noted和he added表明“Kripke的观点和态度应该是该段的中心”,对比被选项排除C(段落中没有出现批评的话语)和F(段落中没有具体提到睡眠问题的表现形式),而段落最后第2句提到了克服失眠的方法—少花时间在床上,与D呼应。

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  19、

  5.To get a good night’s rest,people may not need to ___.

  6.Long sleepers are reported to be more likely to___.

  7. One of the sleep problems is waking in the middle of the night,unable to___.

  8. One survey showed that people who habitually ___each night have a higher risk of dying.

  A fall asleep again .

  B become more energetic the following day

  C sleep less than 7 hours

  D confirm those serious consequences

  E suffer sleep problems

  F sleep more than 8 hours

  标准答案: F,E,A,C

  解析:5.F.分析:根据搭配结构need to do sth.判断所有选项都在语法上合适。借助搭配句意:“为了获得晚上好的休息,人们没有必要。。”判断F(睡眠超过8小时)。

  6.E.分析:借助搭配句意:“睡眠时间长的人根据报道更有可能。。”,并结合文章主题—睡眠时间长不是好事情,判断E合适。也可借助文章中的相关内容(利用题干中的Long sleepers和more likely 作为答案线索):KriDke found that people who slept between 9 and 10 hours each night were more likely to report experiencing each sleep problem than people who slept 8 hours.

  7.A. 分析:借助搭配句意:“其中的一个睡眠问题是在午夜醒来,不能。。”,直接判断A(再次入睡)合适。

  8. C.分析:借助搭配句意:“一项调查显示那些习惯性每晚...的人有更高的死亡风险。”

  20、

  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题,每道题后面有4个选项。请仔细阅读短文并根据短文回答其后面的问题,从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  第1篇

  Study says dogs can smell cancer

  Dogs are known for their sense of smell. They can find missing people and things like bombs and illegal drugs. Now a study suggests that the animal known as man’s best friend can even find bladder cancer.

  Cancer cells are thought to produce chemicals with unusual odors. Researchers think dogs have the ability to smell these odors, even in very small amounts, in urine. The sense of smell in dogs is thousands of times better than in humans.

  The study follows reports of cases where, for example, a dog showed great interest in a growth on the leg of its owner. The mole was later found to be skin cancer.

  Carolyn Willis led a team of researchers at Amersham Hospital in England. They trained different kinds of dogs for the experiment. The study involved urine collected from bladder cancer patients, from people with other diseases and from healthy people.

  Each dog was tested eight times. In each test there were samples for the dogs to smell. The dog was supposed to signal the one from a bladder cancer patient by lying down next to it.

  Two cocker spaniels were correct fifty-six percent of the time. But the scientists reported an average success rate of forty-one percent.

  As a group, the study found that the dogs chose the correct sample twenty-two out of fifty-four times. That is almost three times more often than would be expected by chance alone.

  The British Medical Journal published the research. In all, thirty-six bladder cancer patients and one hundred eight other people took part.

  During training, all the dogs reportedly even identified a cancer in a person who had tested healthy before the study. Doctors found a growth on the person’s right kidney.

  Baldder cancer is the ninth most common cancer worldwide. The International Agency for Research on Cancer says this disease kills more than one hundred thousand people each year. Doctors say cigarette smoking is the leading cause of bladder cancer.

  1. Where was the experiment conducted?

  A. In a private home

  B. In a training school

  C In a hospital

  D In a police station

  2. What was the dogs’ average success rate

  A. 56% B. 41% C. 22% D. 54%

  3. How many people took part in the experiment?

  A. 36 bladder cancer patients.

  B 144 cancer patients

  C 108 healthy people

  D. 144 sick and healthy people

  4. What happened to a person who had tested healthy before the study?

  A. He dropped out

  B. B He died

  C He was found to have cancer.

  D He was found to have one kidney

  5. Which is NOT true of bladder cancer?

  A. It is the 9th most common cancer worldwide.

  B It can be identified only by dogs

  C It kills more than 100,000 people each year.

  D. It is mainly caused by smoking

  标准答案: C,B,D,C,B

  解析:阅读理解题解题步骤:

  1.了解文章主题:借助文章标题,借助文章各段落的段首句, 借助文章的用词(注意文章中是否有反复出现的词汇或结构,因为它们往往是文章的核心词)了解文章的主题,文章主要涉及的内容。

  2.如果文章内容与考生已有的背景知识有关,可借助常识和背景知识对被选项进行首次筛选, 然后再利用“问题句新信息词/结构定位法”解题。 即利用题干中的核心词/特征词(请参看“阅读判断”部分的相关介绍)作为寻找答案的线索,在文章中快速找到答案相关句,确认答案。

  3.如果考生对文章内容不熟悉,没有这方面的背景知识,可直接采用“问题句新信息词/特征词定位法”。 有时还可以借助被选项中的核心词/特征词作为答案线索在文章中对应的查找与被选项内容相关的语句,确认答案。

  Study says dogs can smell cancer

  1. C。 解析:问题问“在哪里完成的实验?” 利用问题句中的细节信息词(experiment)作为答案线索, 被选项也都涉及具体细节信息, 因此也共同利用它们作为答案线索,在文章中查找答案相关句:

  The study follows reports of cases where, for example, a dog showed great interest in a growth on the leg of its owner. The mole was later found to be skin cancer.

  (第4段)Carolyn Willis led(领导) a team of (一组)researchers(研究者) at Amersham Hospital in England(英格兰). They trained(训练) different (不同的)kinds (种类)of dogs for the experiment(实验). The study involved (包括,涉及到)urine(尿) collected(收集, 聚集) from bladder (膀胱)cancer patients(病人), from people with(患有。。的) other(其他的) diseases(疾病) and from healthy (健康的)people.

  答案相关句出现在第4段:Carolyn Willis领导一组研究工作者在英格兰的Amersham医院工作。 他们为这个实验训练了各种各样的狗。根据这两个句子可知: Carolyn Willis领导的研究小组是在Amersham医院进行实验, 因此答案是C。

  2.B. 解析: 问题问“狗的平均成功率是多少?”被选项中全是特征词—数字, 因此利用被选项中的这些数字作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第6段)Two cocker spaniels (短腿长毛小猎犬)were correct(正确的) fifty-six percent of the time(次, 时间). But the scientists (科学家)reported(报告) an average success rate of forty-one percent.

  As a group, the study found that the dogs chose the correct sample twenty-two out of fifty-four times. That is almost three times more often than would be expected by chance alone.

  答案相关句出现在第6段, 该句说“但是科学家报告平均成功率是41%” ,虽然该句没有说是否是狗的平均成功率, 但是该句前句提到“两只短腿长毛小猎犬每次的正确率是56%”, 根据相临语句句意相关, 判断答案相关句中提到的41%也应该属于狗的正确率, 因此答案是B。

  3. D。解析: 问题问“有多少人参加实验?”被选项中都出现了特征词—数字, 所以利用这些特征词作为答案线索, 查找与这些被选项分别呼应的句子:

  (第8段)The British(英国的) Medical (医学的)Journal (杂志)published(出版, 刊登) the research(研究). In all(总之), thirty-six bladder(膀胱) cancer patients and one hundred eight other people took part.

  答案相关句出现在第8段: 该句说“总共有36名膀胱碍患者和108名其他的人参与了。”该句的前一句说“英国医学杂志刊登了这项研究”, 相临语句句意相关, 因此答案相关句中提到的“参与”, 就是“参与”前句中提到的“研究(实验)”, 因此D是答案。

  4. C。 C是答案, 因为其涉及文章主题词(癌症)。 答案相关句在第9段。

  (第9段)During training, all the dogs reportedly(据报道) even identified (识别, 鉴别)a cancer in a person who had tested healthy before the study. Doctors found a growth(生长, 种植, 发育) on the person’s right(右侧的, 正确的, 恰当的, 健康的) kidney.

  5. 答案: B。 违背常识, 所以肯定错误, 也肯定与膀胱癌的情况不一致。 答案相关句在文章最后一段:

  During training, all the dogs reportedly even identified a cancer in a person who had tested healthy before the study. Doctors found a growth on the person’s right kidney.

  Baldder cancer is the ninth most common(常见的) cancer worldwide(在全世界范围)(与A一致). The International(国际的) Agency(机构) for Research(研究) on Cancer says this disease(疾病) kills (杀死)more than one hundred thousand people each year. (与C一致)Doctors say cigarette smoking(吸烟) is the leading (主要的, 领导的)cause(烟瘾) of bladder cancer.(与D一致)

  21、 下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题,每道题后面有4个选项。请仔细阅读短文并根据短文回答其后面的问题,从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

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  第2篇

  Kobe Bryant

  After 10 seasons wearing the No. 8 on his back, Kobe Bryant will become No 24 next season. The reason for the surprising decision by the Los Angeles Lakers super guard last week has become a hot topic for debate.

  Bryant wore No at when he was in early high school, but he changed to No 33 in his senior year. He switched to No 8 when he was selected by the Lakers in 1996, and has been not changed since.

  Bryant has refused to explain the decision until the end of the play-offs. So guessing Bryant’s motive has become a popular game among NBA fans and newspaper columnists.

  There are all kinds of speculations. Many say that Bryant wants to leave the past behind and have a fresh start. He has often been criticized for playing to benefit himself and not the team as a whole. Others say that he may be trying to compare himself to Michael Jordan. Jordan was famous for his No 23 jersey. Some, such as NBC Sport columnist Michael Ventre, argue that it is “all about money”. Bryant will make more money by selling new jersey to his fans.

  Some speculations are more about fun. For example, there is an opinion that Kobe is actually just a dihard fan of the popular TV drama “24”.

  All this talk has turned the number changed into a major issue. It seems that there is a lot of fuss over something that should be pretty simple.

  Jersey numbers have their own special significance in American sports, especially basketball. Players choose their number when they join a team and they usually stick with that number for the rest of their career. When a great player retires, his team will honor him by retiring his number.

  To some extent, the jersey is the player, and the player is jersey. Thus, when you see the famous No 23 for the Chicago Bulls, you immediately think about Michael Jordan. A No 32 Miami Heats jersey recalls the image of Shaquille O’ Neal, and the Houston rockets’ No 11 belongs only to Yao Ming.

  Lots of stories are behind players’ jersey number selections. Jordan said that he choose No 23 because it was roughly half of 45. Jordan’s elder brother wore the No 45 in college. Yao Ming once revealed that the No 11 stands for two people in love – meaning him and his girlfriend Ye Li.

  1. Which team has Bryant played for?

  A. the Los Angels Lakers

  B. The Houston rockets.

  C. The Chicago Bulls

  D. The Miami Heats

  2.How long has Bryant Wore No 8?

  A. for two years and a half

  B. for ten years

  C. since he entered high school

  D.since he left high school.

  3. Which of the following is NOT a speculation about Bryant’s motive to change his number?

  A. he wants to leave his past behind and have a fresh start

  B. he wants to compare himself to Jordan

  C. he wants to earn more money

  D.he wants to show that he is man of great importance

  4. Why did Jordan choose No 23?

  A. because that number would make him famous

  B. because that number will make you miss him

  C. because that number was related to the number his brother once wore

  D. because that number was easy to remember

  5. What does the number Yao Ming chose stand for?

  A. two long legs

  B. two long arms

  C. two tall people in love

  D. tow big countries

  标准答案: A,B,D,C,C

  解析:Kobe Bryant (科比. 布莱恩特)

  1.A. 问题问“Bryant一直是为哪个队打比赛?”, 被选项都是专有名词(特征词), 分别利用它们作为答案线索, 在文章中查找与它们分别对应的相关句,进行一一判断:

  (第1段)After 10 seasons wearing the No. 8 on his back, Kobe Bryant will become No 24 next season. The reason for (…的原因)the surprising (令人吃惊的)decision by (由…作出的决定)the Los Angeles Lakers super guard last week (上周)has become a hot topic for (…的话题)debate.

  第1段最后一句中出现了the Los Angels Lakers, 该句说“洛杉矶盐胡人队的这位超级后卫作出的这个决定, 让人吃惊, 而造成其决定的原因成为了人们讨论的一个热点话题。 ”从该句中可知, Bryant现在是在为洛杉矶盐胡人队打比赛。

  (第2段)Bryant wore No at when he was in early high school, but he changed to No 33 in his senior year. He switched to (转变成)No 8 when he was selected by (被…挑选)the Lakers in 1996, and has been not changed(改变) since(后来,自从, 既然 ).

  第2段的最后一句中再次出现the Los Angels Lakers, 该句说“1996年他被洛杉矶盐胡人队选为队员后, 他的球衣变成了8号, 从那以后他的球衣号就再也没有变过。”根据该句内容可知, Bryant从1996年以后一直是为洛杉矶盐胡人队打比赛。 因此A是答案。

  2.B. 问题问“Bryant穿8号球衣穿了多久?”利用题干中的特征词No 8作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第1段)After 10 seasons wearing the No. 8 on his back, Kobe Bryant will become No 24 next season. The reason for the surprising decision by the Los Angeles Lakers super guard last week has become a hot topic for debate.

  (第2段)Bryant wore No at when he was in early high school, but he changed to No 33 in his senior year. He switched to No 8 when he was selected by the Lakers in 1996, and has been not changed since.

  第1段中的答案相关句说“Bryant穿8号球衣穿了10个赛季”, 第2段中的答案相关句说“1996年他被洛杉矶盐胡人队选为队员后, 他的球衣变成了8号, 从那以后他的球衣号就再也没有变过。”可见Bryant穿8号球衣穿了10个赛季(也就是10年), 因此B是答案。

  3.D. 问题问“下列哪项不是对Bryant改变他球衣号码动机的推测?”,被选项中分别出现了细节信息及特征词语(Jordan), 分别利用它们作为答案线索结构, 在文章中查找对应的答案相关句, 可以首先对选项B进行判断(包含特征词Jordan):

  After 10 seasons wearing the No. 8 on his back, Kobe Bryant will become No 24 next season. The reason for the surprising decision by the Los Angeles Lakers super guard last week has become a hot topic for debate.

  Bryant wore No at when he was in early high school, but he changed to No 33 in his senior year. He switched to No 8 when he was selected by the Lakers in 1996, and has been not changed since.

  Bryant has refused to explain the decision until the end of the play-offs. So guessing Bryant’s motive has become a popular game among NBA fans and newspaper columnists.

  (第4段)There are all kinds of(各种各样的) speculations. Many say that Bryant wants to leave the past behind and have a fresh start(与选项A一致). He has often been criticized for playing to benefit himself and not the team as a whole. Others(其他人) say that he may be trying to compare himself to Michael Jordan. Jordan was famous for (因…而出名)his No 23 jersey(运动衫). (与选项B内容一致)Some, such as(例如) NBC Sport columnist (专栏作家)Michael Ventre, argue(主张认为) that it is “all about money”. Bryant will make more money by selling new jersey(球衣) to his fans(球迷) (与选项C一致).

  第4段中的倒数第3句(其他人说他可能正试图把自己与迈克尔, 乔丹进行比较)与选项B内容一致, 因此B不是答案。 而该段段首句说“有各种各样的推测” , 因此该段内容应该与人们的推测有关。 因此该段就应该是答案相关段。 选项A和C都在该段中有呼应得内容, 因此只有D没有被提到。

  4.C. 问题问“乔丹为什么选择23号球衣?”利用题干中的特征词Jordan和No 23作为答案线索,在文章中找到答案相关句:

  (第4段) There are all kinds of speculations. Many say that Bryant wants to leave the past behind and have a fresh start. He has often been criticized for playing to benefit himself and not the team as a whole. Others say that he may be trying to compare himself to Michael Jordan. Jordan was famous for (因为…而出名)his No 23 jersey(运动衫). Some, such as NBC Sport columnist Michael Ventre, argue that it is “all about money”. Bryant will make more money by selling new jersey to his fans. (该段中的答案相关句没有解释乔丹选择13号球衣的原因)

  Some speculations are more about fun. For example, there is an opinion that Kobe is actually just a dihard fan of the popular TV drama “24”.

  All this talk has turned the number changed into a major issue. It seems that there is a lot of fuss over something that should be pretty simple.

  Jersey numbers have their own special significance in American sports, especially basketball. Players choose their number when they join a team and they usually stick with that number for the rest of their career. When a great player retires, his team will honor him by retiring his number.

  To some extent, the jersey is the player, and the player is jersey. Thus, when you see the famous No 23 for the Chicago Bulls(芝加哥公牛队), you immediately think about(想起, 考虑) Michael Jordan. A No 32 Miami Heats jersey recalls the image of Shaquille O’ Neal, and the Houston rockets’ No 11 belongs only to Yao Ming.(该段的答案相关句只是说“当你看到芝加哥公牛队的著名23号时,你会立刻想起迈克尔. 乔丹”, 没有解释乔丹选择23号球衣的原因)

  (最后一段)Lots of stories are behind players’ jersey number selections. Jordan said that he choose No 23 because it was roughly(大致, 粗略地) half(一半) of 45. Jordan’s elder brother(大哥) wore the No 45 in college(学院). Yao Ming once revealed that the No 11 stands for two people in love – meaning him and his girlfriend Ye Li.

  该段中的答案相关句说“乔丹说他选择23号球衣是因为23大致是45的一半, 而他的大哥在大学里穿的是45号球衣”。显然该句内容与选项C(这个数字与他哥哥曾经穿的球衣号有关)内容一致。

  5.解析:问题问“姚明选择的数字所代表的意义是什么? ”利用问题句中的特征词Yao Ming 作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (倒数第2段)To some extent, the jersey is the player, and the player is jersey. Thus, when you see the famous No 23 for the Chicago Bulls, you immediately think about Michael Jordan. A No 32 Miami Heats (迈阿密. 热火) jersey recalls(使回忆起) the image(映像,肖像,图像) of Shaquille O’ Neal(沙奎尔. 奥尼尔), and the Houston rockets(休士顿火箭队) ’ No 11 belongs only to(属于) Yao Ming.

  (倒数第1段)Lots of stories are behind players’ jersey number selections. Jordan said that he choose No 23 because it was roughly half of 45. Jordan’s elder brother wore the No 45 in college. Yao Ming once (曾经)revealed (揭示(球衣数字的秘密))that the No 11 stands for (代表)two people in love(相爱的) – meaning(意思是指, 想要, 关系重大) him and his girlfriend Ye Li.

  文章最后一句是该题的真正答案相关句,该句说“姚明曾经揭示了11号球衣数字的秘密, 他说11代表两个相爱的人 – 他和他的女朋友叶莉。 ”

  22、 下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题,每道题后面有4个选项。请仔细阅读短文并根据短文回答其后面的问题,从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

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  第3篇

  Chronic(慢性的) diseases(疾病): the world’s leading (最主要的)killer

  Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death in the world. Yet health experts say these conditions are often the most preventable. Chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes and lung disorders.

  The World HEALTH organization says chronic diseases lead to about seventeen million early deaths each year. The United Nations agency expects more than three hundred eighty million people to die of chronic diseases by two thousand fifteen. It says about eighty percent of the deaths will happen in developing countries.

  The WHO says chronic diseases now cause two-thirds of all deaths in the Asia- Pacific area. In ten years it could be almost three-fourths. People are getting sick in their most economically productive years. In fact, experts say chronic diseases are killing more middle-aged people in poorer countries than in wealthier ones.

  The WHO estimates that chronic diseases will cost China alone more than five hundred million dollars in the next ten years. That estimate represents the costs of medical treatment and lost productivity. Russia and India are also expected to face huge economic losses.

  Kim Hak-Su is the head of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Last week in Bangkok he presented a W.H.O. report on the problem. It says deaths from chronic diseases have increased largely as the result of economic gains in man countries.

  The report details the latest findings from nine countries. They include Brazil, Britain, Canada, China, India, and Nigeria. The others are Pakistan, Russia and Tanzania.

  Mister Kim said infectious and parasitic diseases have until recently been the main killers in Asia and the Pacific. But he says they are no longer the major cause of death in most countries.

  Health officials say as many as eighty percent of deaths from chronic diseases could be prevented. They say an important tool for governments is to restrict the marketing alcohol and tobacco to young people. Also, more programs are needed to urge healthy eating and more physical activity.

  U.N. officials aim through international action to reduce chronic-disease deaths by two percent each year through two thousand fifteen. They say meeting that target could save thirty-six million lives. That includes twenty-five million in Asia and the Pacific.

  1. How many people in developing countries are expected to die of chronic diseases by 2015?

  A. more than 17 million

  B. more than 380 million

  C. more than 304 million

  D. more than 25 million

  2. Due to chronic diseases China will face

  A. great pressure from other countries

  B. a limited economic market

  C. a shortage of the labor force

  D. huge economic losses

  3. Which can NOT be learned from the passage?

  A. many chronic-disease deaths are preventable

  B. chronic diseases are the major cause of death in most countries

  C. chronic diseases are killing more middle-aged people than elderly people

  D.economic gains in many countries have contributed to chronic-disease deaths

  4. Until recently the main killers in Asia and the Pacific have been

  A. economic gains

  B. lost productivity

  C. chronic diseases

  D. infectious and parasitic diseases

  5. Which is Not mentioned as a way to prevent chronic-disease deaths?

  A. timely medical treatment

  B. healthy eating

  C. more physical activity

  D. reduction in drinking and smoking

  标准答案: C,D,C,D,A

  解析:Chronic(慢性的) diseases(疾病): the world’s leading killer

  1.C. 答案:细节题。利用问题中的特征词“by 2015”和细节信息结构“people in developing countries” 作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death in the world. Yet health experts say these conditions are often the most preventable. Chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes and lung disorders.

  (第2段)The World HEALTH organization says chronic diseases lead to about seventeen million early deaths each year. The United Nations(联合国) agency(机构)expects(预计) more than(比。。。多) three hundred eighty million(百万) people to die of(死于) chronic diseases by two thousand fifteen. It says about eighty percent of the deaths(死亡) will happen(发生) in developing countries.

  借助答案相关句的内容可知:380 * 80% = 304百万人将死于慢性疾病。

  2. D. 答案:B, D为有关系选项, 从中可能出答案。 利用问题句中的特征词China作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第4段)The WHO (世界健康组织)estimates(估计) that chronic diseases will cost(花费) China alone(独自地, 单独的) more than(比。。。多) five hundred million(百万) dollars in the next (下一个的)ten years. That estimate represents the costs of medical treatment and lost productivity. Russia(俄国) and India(印度) are also expected (预计)to face(面临) huge economic losses.

  第4段最后一句提到“俄国和印度也被预计将面临巨大的经济损失”, 因此判断同一段落中提到的中国面临的问题也是巨大的经济损失。因此D是答案。

  3.C. 答案:C选项涉及典型细节信息词,因此可以首先对这个选项进行判断。

  (第3段)The WHO says chronic diseases now cause two-thirds of all deaths in the Asia- Pacific area. In ten years it could be almost three-fourths. People are getting sick in their most economically productive years. In fact(实际上), experts (专家)say chronic diseases are killing(杀死) more middle-aged people in poorer(更穷的) countries than in wealthier (更富有的)ones(代词, 指代国家). (与C不一致, 而且文章中的其他地方没有再提到“中年人”的情况, 因此判断C的内容在文章中没有呼应的内容)

  The WHO estimates that chronic diseases will cost alone more than five hundred million dollars in the next ten years. That estimate represents the costs of medical treatment and lost productivity. Russia and India are also expected to face huge economic losses.

  (第5段)Kim Hak-Su is the head of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Last week in Bangkok he presented a W.H.O. report on the problem. It(报告) says deaths from (由于。。。造成的死亡)chronic diseases have increased(增加) largely(大大地, 主要地) as the result of(作为。。。的结果) economic gains in many countries(国家).(与D一致)

  4.答案:D。 可利用问题句中的特征词Asia和the Pacific作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第7段) Mister Kim said infectious(传染性的) and parasitic(寄生虫的) diseases have until recently been the main killers in Asia and the Pacific. But he says they are no longer the major cause of death in most countries.

  根据答案相关句判断D是答案。

  5.A. 利用被选项中的细节信息结构作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第8段)Health officials (健康官员)say as many as (与。。。一样多的, 多达)eighty percent of deaths from (因为。。造成的死亡)chronic diseases could be prevented(防止). They say (说)an important(重要的)tool(手段, 工具) for governments(政府) is to restrict (限制)the marketing(销售) alcohol and tobacco(烟草) to young people. Also(同样, 也), more programs(计划) are needed (需要)to urge(促进, 催促) healthy eating and more physical activity.

  从答案相关句可以看出只有A(及时的医学治疗)没有提到。

  23、

  阅读下面的短文,文章中有5处空白,文章后有6组文字,请根据文章的内容选择5组文字,将其分别放会文章原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置。

  Vitamins

  Vitamins are organic compounds which are present in certain foods and are essential to the health of men and other animals. __1__. Without these substances, the breakdown and absorption of foods could not occur. Certain vitamins participate in the formation of blood cells, hormones, nervous system chemicals, and genetic materials. __2__.Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A,D,E and K. The water-soluble vitamins include vitamin C and the B-vitamin complex.

  Fat-soluble vitamins are usually absorbed with foods that contain fat. Excessive amounts of these vitamins are stored in the body's fat, the liver and kidneys. Because fat-soluble vitamins can be stored, they do not have to be consumed every day.

  __3__. A deficiency of vitamin A leads to skin changes and night blindness, or failure of the eye to adapt to the dark. Vitamin A can be obtained directly from foods of animal origin such as milk, eggs, and liver.__4__.

  Vitamin D acts muck like a hormone and regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption and metabolism. Some vitamin D is obtained from such foods as eggs, fish, liver, butter, and milk. But humans get most of their vitamin D from exposure of the skin to sunlight. A deficiency of vitamin D leads to bone problems.

  The role of vitamin E in the human body has not been established. ­­__5__ Vitamin E is found in seed oil and wheat.

  Vitamin K is necessary for the clotting of blood. It is produced in sufficient quantities by bacteria in the intestine, but is also provided by leafy green vegetables and eggs.

  The water-soluble vitamins, C and B complex, cannot be stored and therefore need to be consumed daily to satisfy the body's needs. Vitamin C is important in the formation and maintenance of connective tissue. It protects gums, skin, and mucous membranes. It is mainly found in fruits like oranges.

  B-complex vitamins serve a wide range of important metabolic functions and prevent some diseases. They are found mostly in the liver.

  A. Vitamins are classified into two groups, that is, the fat-soluble(溶解脂肪的) and the water-soluble(溶解水的) vitamins.

  B. Their functions are mainly to enhance the metabolism(新陈代谢) of proteins and fats.

  C. It is necessary for a healthy life.

  D. Vitamin A is essential for normal growth and for the health of epithelial cells.

  E. It has been popularly advocated for a great variety of diseases, but no clear evidence exists that it eases any specific disease.

  F. Vitamin A can also be obtained through eating green and yellow fruits and vegetables

  标准答案: B,A,D,F,E

  解析: 补全短文解题常用思路:

  1. 借助空格前后句句意进行判断;

  2. 如果空格所在的段落的段首句是观点句,可借助段首句的句意进行判断;

  3. 借助空格前后句中的核心词/核心结构与被选项中用词的呼应进行判断;

  4. 借助被选项中出现的逻辑词(逻辑连词,逻辑副词)判断空格前句可能的语意。

  5. 借助被选项中出现的人称代词,指示代词,定冠词结构在空格前句中寻找相呼应的内容,判断答案。

  6. 借助空格在段落中出现的位置猜测空格处的句子可能是具有的语意功能:在段首句/出现的句子可能是观点句/总结句/概括句;在段尾句中出现的句子可能是观点句/总结句/概括句/承上启下句;在文章最后一句中出现的句子往往是观点句或中心引申句。

  7. 观点句,举例句,语意转折句, 因果句等常常是考察点。

  Vitamins

  1.B.B中的Their与前句中的Vitamins呼应;而后句的句意(没有这些物质,食物的碎化和吸收就不能进行。)揭示前句的内容应该是在谈论Vitamins的“好处”,同时B中metabolism与后句中提到的“食物的碎化和吸收”呼应。

  2.A.A在句意上总领后面两句:后面两句分别是在对fat-soluble(溶解脂肪的) vitamins 和 water-soluble(溶解水的) vitamins进行解释。

  3.D. 该段的核心词(反复出现词)是vitamin A,而后句谈到vitamin A缺乏会造成的问题。在句意上与后句句意相关:一正(功效)一反(缺乏的后果)。

  4.F.前句说到Vitamin A能如何被获得,而F在句意上与之相呼应:谈及Vitamin A“还能”怎样被获得。

  5.E. 空格前句说vitamin E在人体中的功能还没有被确认,后句说vitamin E在哪里能找到,同C相比,E更合理:E的句意也是表明vitamin E的“不确定的”功效,在句意上前后承接,而C只是笼统的说vitamin E是有必要的。

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  24、

  阅读下面的短文,文中有15处空白,每处空白给出了4个选项,请根据短文的内容从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案,并涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  Rise in number of Cancer Survivors

  Cancer is the second cause of death in the United States, after heart disease. In the __1__, it was often considered a death sentence. But many patients now live longer __2__ of improvements in discovery and treatment.

  Researchers say death __3__ in the United States from all cancers combined have fallen for thirty years. Survival rates have increased for most of the top fifteen cancers in both men and women, and for cancers in __4__.

  The National Cancer Institute and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention studied the number of cancer survivors. A cancer survivor is defined __5__ anyone who has been found to have cancer. This would include current patients.

  The study covered the period __6__ 1971 to 2001. the researchers found there are three __7__ as many cancer survivors today as there were thirty years ago. In 1971, the United States has about three-million __8__ survivors. Today there are about ten-million.

  The study also found that 64% of adults with cancer can expect to still be __9__ in five years. Thirty years ago, the five-year survival rate was 50%. The government wants to __10__ the five-year survival rate to 70% by 2010.

  The risk of cancer increases with age. The report says the majority of survivors are 65 years and __11__.

  But it says medical improvements have also have also helped children with cancer live __12__ longer. Researchers say 80% of children with cancer will survive at least five years after the discovery. About 75% will survive at __13__ ten years.

  In the 1970s, the five-year survival rate for children was about 50%. In the 1960s, most children did not survive cancer. Researchers __14__ they expect more improvements in cancer treatment in the future. In fact, they say traditional cancer-prevention programs are not enough anymore. They say public health programs should also aim to support the __15__ numbers of cancer survivors and their families.

  1. A. past B. present C. future D. old

  2. A. due B. because C. despite D. regardless

  3. A. chances B. results C. orders D. rates

  4. A. men B. women C. children D. people

  5. A. as B. by C. at D. for

  标准答案: A,B,D,C,A

  解析: 完型填空解题思路:

  1. 借助被选项的特点缩小答案范围,确认答案判断方向;

  2. 借助空格两端的搭配结构特点判断答案;

  3. 借助空格所在句子中用词特点猜测答案;

  4. 借助空格所在句子句意判断答案;

  5. 围绕文章中心(标题反应内容)猜测答案;

  6. 借助上下文用词/语意判断答案;

  Rise in number of Cancer(癌症) Survivors(存活者)

  1.A.解析:借助搭配结构特点:in the past(在过去), at present(目前), in the future(未来),old不于介词in 搭配使用, 因此首先排除B和D。空格所在的句子使用一般过去时态, 因此空格处所在的时间状语应该与过去的时间相关, 因此A是答案。

  2.B. 解析:借助搭配:due to/因为; because of/因为; despite是一个独立使用的介词; regardless of/不管, 不顾; 因此答案只能来自B或D。 空格所在句子的前面部分结构说“许多病人现在活的时间更长”, 空格后面的结构说“在病情确诊和治疗方面的改进”, 显然这两个部分在句意上存在因果关系, 因此B是答案。

  3. D。 解析:借助空格所在的搭配结构“死亡...”判断D((死亡)率)最通顺, 该句的基本结构说“死亡...在过去三十年间下降了”, 把D(比率)放入空格中也很通顺, 因此D就是答案。

  4.C. 解析:空格前面的结构中出现了“男人”和“女人”,被选项中能与“男人”和“女人”能形成并列的是“孩子”, 因此C是答案。

  5.A. 解析:define...as.../把...定义为....。

  25、

  6. A. between B. from C. during D. since

  7. A. numbers B. periods C. times D. rounds

  8. A. cancer B. accidents C. flood D. fire

  9. A. strong B. alive C. healthy D. happy

  10. A. fix B. lower C. study D. increase

  标准答案: B,C,A,B,D

  解析:

  6.B.解析:from...to.../从...到...

  7.C. 解析: ...数字 + times+ as many/ much/big/ as...(...是...的...倍), 如: Our house is two times as big as yours.我们的房子是你房子大小的2倍。

  8.A. 解析:选项A放入空格中与其后面的名词(幸存者)恰好组成文章主题词—-癌症幸存者,因此A是答案。

  9.B. 解析:空格所在的句子说“研究也发现64%患有癌症的成年人能期望在五年以后还...”, 结合文章主题—癌症幸存者(癌症患者的生存问题), 综合判断B(活着的)是答案。

  10.D. 解析:被选项中B和D在词义上相关(正反义词词组),答案可能出自这两个选项。 空格所在的句子说“政府希望五年的生存率到2010年能...到70%”, 因此D(增加)是答案。

  26、

  11. A. order B. old C. younger D. young

  12. A. very B. rather C. much D. more

  13. A. little B. least C. less D. better

  14. A. say B. tell C. speak D. talk

  15. A. small B. growing C. fixed D. mixed

  标准答案: A,C,B,A,B

  解析:11.A. 解析:连词and引导的并列结构在语意色彩上应该一致, 因此首先排除C 和D(它们与and 前面的内容(65岁)形成了语意的对比, 而不是一致)。 空格所在的句子说“报告说大多数的生存者年纪为65岁, ...”, 借助该句意判断A(更年长的)是答案。

  12.C. 解析:能修饰形容词/副词比较级结构结构的副词是much, too, even, still等, 因此C是答案。

  补充:

  more 修饰三个及三个音节以上的形容词/副词, 构成它们的比较级,如:more beautiful, more difficult

  13.B. 解析:被选项中只有least能与at搭配使用:at least/最少;

  14.A.解析:空格后面是作宾语的从句, 被选项中能带宾语从句的只有say

  提示:完型部分的一个常见考点是考察习惯搭配, 所以复习中要注意单词的习惯搭配特点及常见搭配结构。

  15.B. 解析:借助空格所在的搭配结构(...数字)首先排除D(混合的)。其它三个选项都可以与“数字”搭配, 分别形成:“小的数字/少量的”, “不断增大的数字/ 越来越多的”, “固定的数字/数量不变的”。而选项B放在空格中形成的短语结构(越来越多的癌症幸存者)与文章主题内容(癌症幸存者人数增加)一致,因此B是答案。

  .

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