The committee comprises five persons.
We derive knowledge mainly from books
The room was furnished with the simplest essentials, a bed, a chair, and a table
The local government decided to merge the two firms into a big one.
He emphasized a feasible plan which can be accepted by the both sides.
When does the next train depart?
B) pull down
Because administering the whole company, he sometimes has to work around the clock.
The town is notable (A)for its beautiful scenery in winter.
He is assigned to oversee the production of the assembly lines.
Soldiers have to obey orders.
B) apply for
The advertising company was surprised by the adverse public reaction to the poster.
It is said that the house along the street will soon be demolished.
A) pulled down
In his two-hour-long lecture he made an exhaustive analysis of the issue.
A) extremely thorough
B) long and strong
These are our motive for doing it.
Do you think there is any likelihood of his agreeing to it?
tanning parlors take heat
People who seek a glamorous tan through sun lamps may double their risk of developing common types of skin cancer, according to a new study that found the risk was highest for those who start at a young age.
The study, appearing in the latest issue of Journal of the U.S.National Cancer Institute，concluded that people who use tanning devices were 1.5 to 2.5 times more 1ikely to have common kinds of skin cancer than were people who did not use the devices.
The study confirmed what doctors have long suspected—that sun lamp use increases the risk of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers，said Margaret R.Karagas，first author of the study.
Either going to the tanning parlor，or getting an infrequent sunburn can seriously damage the skin，said Dr.James Spencer，vice chairman of the department of dermatology at Mount Hospital，but the small.day.to.day exposure is worse for the skin in the long run.
Joseph A.Levy，vice president of the International Smart Tan Network，however，said occasional sunburn “is a risk factor in all forms of skin cancer and intermittent sunburn is what the tanning industry is trying to stop.’’
In the study, Karagas and her colleagues interviewed 603 basal eell skin cancer patients and 293 with squamous eell skin cancer.They talked to 540 control subjects, who did not have either type of skin cancer.
About l million Americans are diagnosed annually with skin cancer.Among those skin cancer patients，about 80 percent are with basal cell skin cancer,16 percent，with squamous cell skin cancer and 4 percent, with melanoma.the most serious form of skin cancers.Back to the interviewed patients，190 reported that they had used tanning devices at some time.In the control groups，only 75 had used such devices.Karagas said a statistical analysis shows that those who used tanning equipment were 2.5 times more likely to get squamous cell skin cancer than those who had not used the devices.For basal cell cancer.the risk was 1.5 times greater.
The risk was highest for those who first used the tanning devices before the age of 20，said Karagas.For this group，the squamous cell cancer risk was 3.6 times greater than that of the controls while the basal cell cancer risk was 1.3 times greater.
1.The passage confirms that using tanning equipment is harmful to one’s health.
A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned
2.The highest rate of skin cancers is found in teenagers who use sun lamps frequently.
A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned
3.Melanoma is a more serious cancer than lung cancer.
A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned
4.Karagas reported her research results basing on interviews with a group of skin cancer patients and a control group of people with no skin cancers.
A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned
本题分数： 4.00 分，你答题的情况为 错误 所以你的得分为 0 分
5.Doctor James Spencer’s argument implies that in the long run，getting all infrequent sunburn is worse than the small.day-to-day exposure.
A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned
6.The passage mentions three forms of skin cancers, of which squamous cell skin cancer is the most dangerous. .
A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned
7.It is implied in Mr.Levy’s argument(Paragraph 5)that frequent exposure to sun lamps is safe.
A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned
阅读下面这篇短文，短文后有2项测试任务：(1)1---4 题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2--5 段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第5--8题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确的选项，分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
China seek donors to narrow bone marrow(骨髓)gap
1 China has launched a campaign to recruit more bone marrow donors，amid a shortage of funds as well as of sibling donors who could help the growing number of patients in need of life-saving transplants，state media reported on Monday.
2 The Chinese Red Cross began the national campaign over the weekend to find donors for some 4 million patients suffering from leukaemia, thalassaemia and other blood diseases and awaiting bone marrow transplants，the official China Daily said.Every year China has 40,000 new leukaemia patients，most of them under 35 and 50 per cent of them children， the newspaper said.Other reports have linked China’s growing childhood leukaemia to solvents and building materials used in interior decoration.
3 With a tiny pool of bone marrow donors, weakened by the absence of sibling donors for most children because of China’s one-child policy, doctors rely on donors from Taiwan to save many young leukaemia patients，the Beijing Evening News said last weekend.Taiwan，with a population of 22 million，has 210，000 registered donors compared with fewer than 30，000 donors among mainland China’s 1.3 billion people.the newspaper said.
4 Yet the lack of registered donors may reflect a lack of funding for testing and recording data on potential donors rather than a lack of volunteers，the newspaper said.China needs a pool of at least 100.000 donors but testing them would cost more than 50 million yuan (6 million dollars)，it said.
5 The Hong Kong Marrow Match Foundation said it has helped “a handful” of patients in
Beijing，Shanghai and other cities.‘‘The number of requests is increasing’’ from mainland
China;including direct calls to the charity from desperate patients or relatives.said the foundation’s donor coordinator Marven Chin.But the cost of extracting bone marrow from one of the foundation’s 40,000 registered donors and flying it by courier has to be borne by the patients，and many of them have to be aided financially，Chin said.
1. Paragraph 2
2. Paragraph 3
3. Paragraph 4
4. Paragraph 5
A Urgent Need for Both Donors and Funds
B Shortage of Donors
C Desperate Leukaemia Patients
D Seriousness of the Current Situation
E Shortage of Funds
F Comparison Between Mainland and Hong Kong and Taiwan
5. It seems that many of the recipients are not rich enough
6. At present the number of bone marrow donors in mainland China is
7. Some solvents and building materials are considered
8. Obviously，recruiting voluntary bone marrow donors in mainland China is
A about one percent of the total population
B to be responsible for childhood leukaemia
C an urgent and tough task to be accomplished
D less than one third of the minimum
E an expensive cost to be paid
F to afford the cost of bone marrow transplantation
Smoking one or two cigars a day doubles the risk of cancers of the lip，tongue，mouth，and throat，according to a government study.
Daily cigars also increase the risk of lung cancer and cancer of the esophagus，and increase the risk of cancer of the larynx(voicebox)sixfold ，say researchers at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda，Maryland.
In addition，the report revealed that smoking three or four cigars a day increased the risk of oral cancer to 8.5 times the risk for nonsmokers and the risk of esophageal cancer by four times the risk of nonsmokers.
The health effects of smoking cigars is one of eight sections of the article“Cigars：Health Effects and Trends.”The researchers report that，compared with a cigarette，a large cigar emits up to 90 times as much carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines. "This article provides clear and invaluable information about the disturbing increase in
cigar use and the significant public health consequences4 for the country，”said Dr.Richard Klausner director of the National Cancer Institute，in a statement.
“The data are clear—the harmful substances and carcinogens in cigar smoke，like
cigarettes，are associated with the increased risks of several kinds of cancers as well as heart and lung diseases.”he added.“In other words，cigars are not safe alternatiyes to cigarettes”and may be addictive.”
“To those individuals who may be thinking about smoking cigars,our advice is—don’t.To those currently smoking cigars,quitting is the only way to eliminate completely the cancer， heart and 1ung disease risks，”warned K1ausner.
According to a National Cancer Institute press release，there haven’t been any studies on the health effects on nonsmokers at cigar social events，but“…a significant body of evidence clearly demonstrates all increased lung cancer risk from secondhand smoke.”
1.According co the report,smoking three orfour cigars a day
A)increases the risk of oral cancer for non-smokers.
B)greatly increases the risk of oral cancer for smokers.
C)increases the risk of more than one cancer for non-smokers，
D)greatly increases the risk of more than one cancer for smokers.
2.In the passage how many cancers are mentioned in relation to smoking cigars daily?
3.What is the main idea of the article“Cigars：Health Effects and Trends”?
A)Whenitcomesto cancer，cigars arenotany saferthan cigarettes.
B)Cigars may be addictive while cigarettes are not easily so.
C)Cigars contain less harmful substances than cigarettes.
D)Increase in cigar-smoking does not affect public health much.
4.What is the doctors’advice to those cigar-smokers?
A)To give it up completely.
C)Not to think about it any more.
D)To cure the diseases first.
5.In the context of this passage,“secondhand smoke”means
A)smoking bad-quality cigars.
B)smoking very cheap cigars.
C)being near cigar smokers when they are not smoking.
D)being near cigar smokers when they are smoking.
High Stress May Damage Memory
According to a report issued in May 1998，elderly people who have consistently high blood levels of cortisol don’t score as well on memory tests as their peers with 10wer levels of the stress hormone.What’s more.high 1evels of cortisol are also associated with shrinking of the hippocampus，a region of the brain that plays a key role in learning and memory.
The findings suggest that even cortisol levels in the normal，“healthy”range can actually accelerate brain aging.
The study results“now provide substantial evidence that long—term exposure to adrenal stress hormones may promote hippocampal aging in normal elderly humans，”write Nada Porter and Philip Landfield of the University of Kentucky in Lexington in their editorial.Cortisol is a hormone released in response to stress by the adrenal glands，which sit on top of the kidneys.
Over a 5 to 6-year period，Dr.Sonia Lupien and his colleagues measured 24-0hour cortiso1 levels in 51 healthy volunteers，most of Whom were in their 70s.
Despite wide variation in cortis01 levels.the participants could be divided into three subgroups：those whose cortisol progressively increased over time and was currently high (increasing/high);those whose cortisol progressively increased over time and was currently moderate(increasing/moderate);and subjects whose cortisol decreased, but was currently moderate(decreasing/moderate).
The researchers tested the volunteers’memory on six people in the increasing/high category and five people in the decreasing/moderate group.The groups did not differ on tests of immediate memory，but the increasing/high cortisol group had other memory problems compared with those in the decreasing/moderate group.
The researchers also found that the total volume of the hippocampus in those in the increasing/high group was 14%lower than those in the decreasing/moderate group, although there were no differences in other brain regions.
The results suggest that“…brain aging Can be accelerated by levels of adrenal hormones that are not generally regarded as pathological and that variation within this normal range is related to variation in the rate of brain aging，”write Porter and Landfield.“This further suggests that chronic stress may accelerate the worsening of hippocampus.”
1. The part of the brain important for a person’s learning and memory is
B)the adrenal glands.
C)the stress hormones
2.When the levels of cortisol go higher，the hippocampus in the brain may
D)be totally damaged.
3.According to the article，when people feel too worried or nervous or when they overwork，
A)the adrenal glands will produce a stress hormone.
B)the kidneys will produce adrenal glands.
C)the hippocampus will produce high levels of cortisol in the blood.
D)the brain will work more effectively.
4.It appears that when the total volume of the hippocampus becomes smaller as a result of high blood levels of cortisol，other brain regions
A) become smaller too.
C)may remain the same in size.
5.The research conducted by Porter and Landfield shows that
A)changes in the levels of adrenal hormones have nothing to do with brain aging
B)changes in the levels of adrenal hormones may affect brain aging.
C)chronic stress may strengthen a man’s memory.
D)the rate of brain aging always remains stable.
Education of Students with Vision Impairments
This is specially designed education for children who are either partially sighted or blind. Vision impairments are diagnosed by medical doctors who examine the physical structures in the eye and evaluate the child’s ability to see shapes of different sizes at various distances.In the United States，approximately 12 out of l,000 children receive some form of special education
because of visual impairments.
Partially sighted children may use a variety of adaptive aids to see more clearly and to read
printed text.These aids include magnifiers，which may be attached to eyeglasses;electronic systems for enlarging print and making it easier to see; and large-print books.Blind children usually are taught to read Braille，a system of raised dots embossed on paper and read by touch. In the past，turning conventional books into pages of Braille was very time-consuming, and the large books required enornlous storage areas.However, most Braille texts are now done electronically. Many students read paperless Braille with the aid of machines that mechanically raise the dots in a small panel as the reader progresses through the text.Because Braille cannot be
read very rapidly，many blind students prefer to listen to books being read on tapes.Some students also use reading machines equipped with cameras that scan lines of print，which computers then convert to synthesized speech.
Many blind and partially sighted children receive orientation and mobility training as a part of their education.Specialists teach them how to travel independently in their schools and communities，often with an aid，such as a cane.
Most children with vision impairments are educated in schools within their communities. Vision specialists may provide special materials and equipment，help teachers and classmates understand the children’s condition，and possibly provide additional instruction.The specialists may also teach partially sighted children how to use their remaining vision more effectively and instruct them in the use of adaptive aids.
Some children with vision impairments attend special schools designed to meet their particular needs.Like boarding schools，these schools often provide residential services as well
as educational programs. They also have specially designed facilities，which may not be found in neighborhood schools，for blind children to participate in athletics and other activities.
The education of many children with vision impairments is further complicated by their having other disabilities，such as physical disabilities，developmental impairments, or hearing loss.Education for those children might emphasize the development of language and communication，and personal，social，and vocational skills rather than academic skills.
1.Various adaptive aids are used to
A) cure children of their vision impairments.
B) help children see more clearly。read books and so on.
C) teach children how to turn Braille into synthesized speech.
D) teach children how to use their remaining vision more effectively.
2.Large-print books are those books which
A) are printed with large pages.
B) have large words in them.
C) can be read by using a magnifier.
D) can be read with the aid of machines.
3.Marry blind students prefer listening to books because
A) these books can talk by themselves.
B) the synthesized speech is very interesting.
C) this can save time.
D) these students are lazy.
4.“Orientation and mobility training’’is meant to teach blind and partially sighted children
A)how to complete their education.
B)how to use a cane.
C)how to move around without other people’s help.
D)how to help other people to travel independently.
5.It may be good for children with vision impairments to live in special schools because these schools
A) can save them the trouble of coming from and going back to their homes.
B) are built of nice wooden boards and so are clean and comfortable.
C) have educational programs for the blind.
D) offer training in vocational skills rather than academic skills.
The first four minutes
When do people decide whether or not they want to become friends? During their first four minutes together, according to a book by Dr. Leonard Zunin. In his book, "Contact: The first four minutes," he offers this advice to anyone interested in starting new friendships: __1__. A lot of people's whole lives would change if they did just that.
You may have noticed that average person does not give his undivided attention to someone he as just met.__2__. If anyone has ever done this to you, you probably did not like him very much.
When we are introduced to new people, the author suggests, we should try to appear friendly and self-confident. In general, he says, "People like people who like themselves."
On the other hand, we should not make the other person think we are too sure of ourselves. It is important to appear interested and sympathetic, realizing that the other person has his won needs, fears, and hopes.
Hearing such advice, one might say, "But I'm not a friendly, self-confident person. That's not my nature. It would be dishonest for me to at that way."
__3__. We can become accustomed to any changes we choose to make in our personality. "It is like getting used to a new car. It may be unfamiliar at first, but it goes much better than the old one."
But isn't it dishonest to give the appearance of friendly self-confidence when we don't actually feel that way? Perhaps, but according to Dr. Zunin, "total honest" is not always good for social relationships, especially during the first few minutes of contact. There is a time for everything, and a certain amount of play-acting may be best for the first few minutes of contact with a stranger. That is not the time to complain about one's health or to mention faults one finds in other people. It is not the time to tell the whole truth about one's opinions and impressions.
__4__. For a husband and wife or a parent and child, problems often arise during their first four minutes together after they have been apart. Dr. Zunin suggests that these first few minutes together be treated with care. If there are unpleasant matters to be discussed, they should be dealt with later.
The author says that interpersonal relations should be taught as a required course in every school, along with reading, writing, and mathematics. __5__ that is at least as important as how much we know.
A. In reply, Dr. Zunin would claim that a little practice can help us feel comfortable about changing our social habits.
B. Much of what has been said about strangers also applies to relationships with family members and friends.
C. In his opinion, success in life depends mainly on how we get along with other people.
D. Every time you meet someone in a social situation, give him your undivided attention for four minutes.
E. He keeps looking over the other person's shoulder, as if hoping to find someone more interesting in another part of the room.
F. He is eager to make friends with everyone.
According to a study，most medical interns report experiencing mistreatment，including humiliation by senior doctors， 1 threatened，or physical abuse in their first year out of medical sch001.
The findings come from analysis of the 2 a 13-page survey mailed in January 1991
to 1,733 second-year residents.The survey and 3 appear in the April 15th issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Overall，out of the l，277 residents 4 completed surveys，1,1 85 said that they had experienced at least one incident of mistreatment in their intern year. 5 reporting
incidents where they were abused.more than 45% of the residents said they had witnessed at
least one incident where other persons 6 false medical records.Moreover，nearly three
quarters of the residents said they had witnessed mistreatment of patients by other residents，
attending physicians，or nurses.Almost 40% said patient mistreatment was a frequent 7 .
More than 10% of the residents said they were 8 to have enough sleep，and
the average number of hours 9 sleep was 37.6. The average on-call hours during
a 10 week was 56.9 hours，but about 25% of the residents said their on-call assignments
were more than 80 hours some weeks.
11 30% of the residents said they experienced some type of sexual harassment
or discrimination，verbal abuse was the most common problem cited.When abusive incidents
were limited to events occurring three or more times, 53%of the respondents reported that
they 12 belittled or humiliated by more senior residents，while just over 21%reported
someone taking credit for their work.Being‘' 13 tasks for punishment，'’“being pushed，
kicked or hit，” and 14 someone “threatening your reputation or career，”were reported as a more 15 occurrence by over 10% of the responding residents.
1. A)be B)been C)were D)being
2. A)responsive B)responses to C)respond to D)responding
3. A)analyze B)analysis C)having analyzed D)be analyzed
4. A)who B)which C)whom D)whose
5. A)In spite of B)In addition to C)Because D)Although
6. A)had made B)have made C)has made D)make
7. A)events B)happens C)event D)happen
8. A)allowed not B)not allowed C)allow not D)not allow
9. A)without B)on C)with D)because of
10. A)unusual B)typical C)easy D)difficult
11. A)In spite of B)Therefore C)Although D)So
12. A)ale B)be C)must be D)were
13. A)give B)giving C)gave D)given
14. A)had B)have C)having D)has
15. A)frequent B)frequency C)dependent D)independent