Sally likes to tease her brother about his girl friends.
B) laugh at
America’s emphasis on the importance of education for everyone has spurred scientific research.
You have to follow the guide whose sole interest is to cover all spots according to his strict schedule.
In 1861 it seemed inevitable that the Southern states would break away from the Union.
Techniques to harness the energy of the sun are being developed.
First editions of certain popular books cannot be obtained for love or money.
A) at any place
B) at any price
C) in any language
D) in any country
In a bullfight, it is the movement, not the color, of objects that arouses the bull.
Sulfur has occasionally been found in the earth in an almost pure state.
Many fine cooks insist on ingredients(成分) of the highest quality.
B) rely on
C) prepare for
The company recommended that a new petrol station(should) be built here.
It hard for the young people to imagine what severe conditions their parents once lived under.
They agreed to settle the dispute by peaceful means.
The police contended that the difficulties they faced were too severe.
He expressed concern that the ship might be in distress.
The most pressing problem any economic system faces is how to use its scarce resources.
Privacy worry may keep HIV patients from therapy
Patients infected with HIV are often concerned about the confidentiality of their HIV-positive status. In fact, some patients are so worried that they will actually give up treatment to prevent the release of this information, according to a report published in the August issue of AIDS Care.
Dr. Kathryn Whetten-Goldstein and colleagues from Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, studied the confidentiality issues of 15 HIV –infected patients from rural North Carolina locations. They were divided into groups designed to explore their attitudes toward, and experiences with, breaches in confidentiality.
“The fear of a breach in confidentiality is definitely affecting the care that HIV-infected patients receive,” Whetten-Goldstein said. “Most studied patients had experienced or knew someone who had experienced a breach in confidentiality.”
“Two types of breaches occurred,” Whetten-Goldstein noted.” The first was a more obvious type of breach. One example was a nurse who told her child that her patient was HIV-positive out of concern that her child would play with the patient’s child. ”
“The other type of breach was more subtle, one that providers might not consider breaches,” Whetten-Goldstein explained. “This type of breach involves providers talking about a patient’s HIV status without the patient’s knowledge of the interaction.”
“The law allows the sharing of information between providers within the same institution, but patient’s consent must be obtained before providers at different institutions can share information,” she pointed out.
“Patients in the study wanted providers to tell them when they are going to share information with other providers and why it is being done,” Whetten-Goldstein said. “They also felt that providers should be punished when a breach occurs.”
“However, because patients are often reluctant to seek legal action which may further expose their status, they felt that the system should regulate itself,” she added.
1. All patients in the study refuse to receive any treatment because of the possibility to expose their HIV status.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
2. Worry about breaches in confidentiality of the HIV status has nothing to do with the culative effects on patients.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
3. Medical worders of an institution cannot freely provide their HIV-patients’ information to those of other institutions.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
4. Whether a HIV-infected patient agrees to other (not his) medical workers’ sharing the information about his HIV status is one of the rights given by the constitution.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
5. Most patients in the study strongly object to the breaches in the confidentiality of their HIV status.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
6. Quite a few patients will firmly defend their own right if such a breach occurs.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
7. Breaches in confidentiality are common in medical circles all over the world.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
本题分数： 3.00 分，你答题的情况为 错误 所以你的得分为 .00 分
A bit Good News for Fat People
Certainly there are millions who need to lose weight. But there are also millions who only imagine they need to. Compulsive and continuous dieting, not to mention eating disorders, shows that some of us will do anything to reduce our bodies down to the currently desirable shape. But is being underweight really desirable?
Scientists have long been looking into the effects of under-nutrition. These studies --rats and mice have been the subjects, not humans -- indicate that carefully controlled food restriction with adequate vitamins and minerals slows the aging process. In experiment after experiment, thin animals consistently(一贯地) outlive(比。。长命) their all-you-can-eat cousins, sometimes doubling their average life span. They seem to age more slowly too. the level of cholesterol(胆固醇)in their blood stays lower longer. Their bodies stay responsive to certain hormones(激素) longer. Their immune systems stay healthier longer. Underfed rats and mice are also less likely to suffer from age-related diseases like cancer, kidney and heart disease.
But we still know little about the effect of scientifically controlled under-nutrition on people. Researchers have kept studying large numbers of people, linking their weight with their health over long periods of time. In direct contrast to the laboratory experiments, these population studies suggest that being underweight can actually be dangerous to your health.
In a major National institutes of Health study that followed more than 5,000 men and women for 24 years, scientists discovered that the thinnest people ran the highest rate of dying. The thinnest group of men had the highest death rates from cancer and all other diseases except those of the cardiovascular(心血管的)system. It is also found that thinnest does not mean wellness. Men 15 percent below average weight die more often from pneumonia(肺炎), influenza, heart disease and suicide than their weightier counterparts(相似的人或物). Women 15 percent less than average are easy to get pneumonia, influenza and digestive(消化的，消化系统的) system diseases. An American cancer society study found that those 20 percent underweight died more often from strokes and digestive disease than their average weight counterparts. In a California study of 7,000 men and women, the highest death rate were among those 10 percent underweight.
Conversely, these and other studies are finding that being slightly or moderately overweight, even as much as 35 percent above standard weight, is good for your health.
1. paragraph 2__________ A. Good things about being a little overweight
2. paragraph 3__________ B. Fashion of being underweight
3. paragraph 4__________ C. Experiments on animals regarding under-nutrition
4. paragraph 5__________ D. Some negative effects of being underweight
E. Contrast between experiments on animals and on people
F. Health of women under nutrition
5. A great many people go on a diet to have ____________.
6. Those all-you-can-eat animals often have ___________.
7. People 15 percent underweight suffer more from ____________.
8. The thinnest group of men are less likely to suffer from ______________.
A. diseases of the cardiovascular system
B. a body shape that all people will admire
C. longer life-time
D. digestive system diseases
E. a shorter life span
F. pneumonia and influenza
Egypt felled by famine
Even ancient Egypts mighty pyramid builders were powerless in the face of the famine that helped bring down their civilian around 2180BC. Now evidence gleaned from mud deposited by the River Nile suggests that a shift in climate thousands of kilometers to the south was ultimately to blem -- and the same or worse could happen today.
The ancient Egyptians depended on the Niles annual floods to irrigate their crops. But any change in climate that pushed the African monsoons southwards out of Ethiopia would have diminished these floods.
Dwindling rains in the Ethiopian highlands would have meant fewer plants to establish the soil. When rain did fall it would have washed large amounts of soil into the Blue Nile and into Egypt, along with sediment from the White Nile.
The Blue Nile mud has a different isotope signature from that of the White Nile. So by analyzing isotope differences in mud deposited in the Nile Delta, Michael Krom of leeds University worked out what proportion of sediment came from each branch of the river.
Krom reasons that during periods of drought, the amount of the Blue Nile mud in the river would be relatively high. He found that one of these periods, from 4,500 to 4,200 years ago, immediately predates the fall of the Egypts Old Kingdom.
The weakened waters would have been catastrophic for the Egyptians. Changes that affect food supply dont have to be very large to have a ripple effect in societies, says Bill Ryan of the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory in New York.
Similar events today could be even more devastating, says team member Daniel Stanley, a geoarchaeologist from the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.. Anything humans do to shift the climate belts would have an even worse effect along the Nile system because the populations have increased dramatically.
1. Why does the author mention pyramid builders?
A. because they once worked miracles.
B. because they were well-built
C. because they were actually very weak
D. because even they were unable to rescue their civilization
2. Which of the following factors was ultimately responsible for the fall of the civilization of ancient Egypt?
A. Change of climate
D. population growth
3. Which of the following statements is true?
A. The White Nile is the trunk of the River Nile
B. The White Nile is the trunk of the Blue Bile
C. The White Nile a branch of the Blue Nile
D. The White Nile and the Blue Nile are branches of the River Nile
4. According to Krom, Egypts Old Kingdom fell
A. immediately after a period of drought
B. immediately after a period of flood
C. just before a drought struck
D. just before a flood struck
5. The word devastating in the last paragraph could be best replaced by
high-stress may damage memory;
According to a report issued in May 1998, elderly people who have consistently high blood levels of cortisol don’t score as well on memory tests as their peers with lower levels of the stress lormone. What’s more, high levels of cortisol are also associated with shrinking of the hippocampus, a region of the brain that plays a key role in learning and memory.
The findings suggest that even cortisol levels in the normal, “healthy” range can actually accelerate brain aging.
The study results“now provide substantial evidence that long-term exposure to adrenal stress hormones may promote hippocampal aging in normal elderly humans,”write Nade Porter and Philip Landfield of the University of Kentucky in Lexington in their editorial. Cortisol is a hormone released in response to stress by the adrenal glands, which sit on top of the kidneys.
Over a 5 to 6-year period, Dr. Sonia Lupien and his colleagues measured 24-hour cortisol levels in 51 healthy volunteers, most of whom were in their 70s.
Despite wide variation in cortisol levels, the participants could be divided into three subgroups: those whose cortisol progressively increased over time and was currently high(increasing/high); those whose cortisol progressively increased over time and was currently moderate(increasing/moderate); and subjects whose cortisol decreased, but was currently moderate(decreasing/moderate).
The researchers tested the volunteers’memory on six people in the increasing/high category and five people in the decreasing/moderate group. The groups did not differ on tests of immediate memory, but the increasing/high cortisol group had other memory problems compared with those in the decreasing/moderate group.
The researchers also found that the total volume of the hippocampus in those in the increasing/high group was 14% lower than those in the decreasing/moderate group, although there were no differences in other brain regions.
The results suggest that “… brain aging can be accelerated by levels of adrenal hormones that are not generally regarded as pathological and that variation within this normal range is related to variation in the rate of brain aging,” write Porter and Landfield. “This further suggests that chronic stress may accelerate the worsening of hippocampus.”
1.The part of the brain important for a person’s learning and memory is
A) the cortisol
B) the adrenal glands
C) the stress hormones
D) the hippocampus
2.When the levels of cortisol go higher, the hippocampus is the brain may
A) become larger
B) become smaller
C) disappear completely
D) be totally damaged
3.According to the article, when people feel too worried or nervous or when they overwork,
A) the adrenal glands will produce a stress hormone
B) the kidneys will produce adrenal glands
C) the hippocampus will produce high levels of cortisol in the blood
D) the brain will work more effectively
4.It appears that when the total volume of the hippocampus becomes smaller as a result of high blood levels of cortisol, other brain regions
A) become smaller too.
B) Become larger
C) May remain the same in size
D) May be damaged
5. The research conducted by Porter and Landfield shows that
A) changes in the levels of adrenal hormones have nothing to do with brain aging
B) changes in the levels of adrenal hormones may affect brain aging
C) chronic stress may strengthen a man’s memory
D) the rate of brain aging always remains stable
Obesity refers to the medical condition characterized by storage of excess body fat. The human body maturally stores fat tissue under the skin and around organs and joints. Fat is critical for good health because it is a source of energy when the body lacks the energy necessary to sustain life processes, and it provides insulation and protection for internal organs. But too much fat in the body is associated with a variety of health problems.
Most physicians use the body mass index(BMI) to determine desirable weights. BMI is calculated as weight divided by height and people with a BMI of 27 or above are considerated obese.
Weight-height tables, such as those published by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, are also used as general measures of desirable weight ranges. These tables assign a range of weights for particular height. For example, a man of 1.8m has a desirable a range 66 to 83 kg, with an average of 75 kg. A woman who is 1.6m has a desirable range between 53 and 70 kg, with an average of 62kg.
The BMI and weight-height tables only provide rough estimates of desirable weights and scientists recognize that many other factors besides height affect weight. Weight alone may not be an indicator of fat, as in the case of a body-builder who may have a high BMI because of a high percentage of muscle tissue, which weighs more fat. Likewise, a person with a sedentary lifestyle may be within a desirable weight range but have excess fat tissue.
Obesity increases the risk of developing disease. Acorrding to some estimates, almost 70 percent of heart disease cases are linked to excess body fat, and obese people are more than twice as likely to develop high blood prssure. Obese women are at nearly twice the risk for developing breast cancer, and all obese people have an estimated 43 percent higher chance of developing colon caner. The risk of medical complications, particularly heart disease, increases when body fat is distributed around the waist, especially in the abdomen. This type of upper body fat distribution is more common in men than in women.
The social and psychological problems experienced by obese people are also formidable. Stereotypes about “fat” people are often translated into discriminatory practices in education, employment, and social relationships. The consequences of being in a world where people had better be “thin” are especially severe for women, whose appearances are often judged against an ideal of exaggerated slimness.
1.What is obesity?
A) Obesity is having fat tissue under the skin
B) Obesity is having fat tissue around organs
C) Obesity is being too fat
D) Obesity is having good health
2. If we say that “fat is critical for good health”, we mean that
A) fat people should be criticized
B) fat is very important for people to keep healty
C) people should be fat if they want to be healthy
D) having much fat in the body in the body is certainly associated with health problems
3. If a woman is 1.6m tall and weighs 49 kg, she
A) is considered within the desirable weight-height range
B) is definitely unhealthy
C) should be consideraed fat
D) should not be considered unhealthy
4. A heavy man
A) certainly has a lot of fat in him
B) usually has a sedentary lifestyle
C) certainly has a lot muscle in him
E) may have muscle tissue that weighs more than fat
5. Acorrding to this article, fat people may be
A) looked down upon by others
B) welcomed by others
C) considered severely ill
D) thought of having special problems.
What makes me the weight I am?
There's no easy answer to this question. Your genetic makeup, the physical traits that get passed down to you from your parents, plays a big part in determining your size and weight. __1__. But if your parents are smaller than average, you may want to rethink that professional basketball career!
The same goes for your body type. Have you ever heard someone say a person is "big boned"? It's a way of saying the person has a large frame, or skeleton. Big bones usually weigh more than small bones. __2__.
Like your height or body type, your genes have a lot to say about what your weight will be. But that's only part of the story. Being overweight can run in someone's family, but it may not be because of their genes. __3__ and even though some kids gain weight more easily than others, when they eat right and exercise, most kids can be a healthy and happy weight that's right for them, it's true -- the way you live can change the way you look.
How much you weigh is a balance between the calories you eat and the calories you use. __4__ if you spend your free time watching TV, your body won't use as many calories as it would if you played basketball, skated, or went for a walk. If you are in balance, your weight will stay right for you as you know. But if you eat more and exercise less, you may become overweight. __5__.
A. That's why it's possible for two kids with the same height, but different weights, to both be right weight.
B. If you eat more calories than your body needs to use, you will gain too much weight.
C. Poor eating and exercise habits also run in families and this may be the reason the members of a family are overweight.
D. However, many overweight people have difficulty reaching their healthy body weight.
E. On the other had, if you eat less and exercise more, you may lose weight.
F. If both your parents are tall, there is a good chance you'll be tall.
Many Children's deaths preventable: WHO
Over five million children die each year from disease, infections and accidents related ___1___ their environment although many of these deaths are largely preventable, says the Would Health Organization.
On Monday, the WHO asked governments and citizens around the world to take action to create healthy ___2 ___ for children as it celebrated World Health Day.
“The biggest threats to children’s health lurk in the very ___3 ____ that should be safest – home, school and community,” said Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, director-general of the WHO at the day’s launch in New Delhi, India.
“Every child has the right to ___4___ up in a healthy home, school and community. The future development of our children – and of their world – depends on ___5___ enjoying good health now. We have their future in our ___ 6___ . Now we must work more effectively together to __ 7___ the risks from the environment which our children face,” Brundtland said.
This year’s theme, “Healthy Environments for Children” focuses on the many dangers __8__ by children in and around the places where they live and play.
These include inadequate access to safe drinking __ 9___ and sanitation, insect-borne diseases, air pollution, chemical hazards and injuries from traffic, falls, burns and drownings.
Communities around the world organized events to promote awareness of children’s health issues, __ 10___ included the world drawing contests for schoolchildren in Vietnam, street plays in India, puppet shows in Namibia and professional lectures for policy makers in Germany and elsewhere.
Activities also took ___11___ in cities across Canada on Monday, including Calgary, Montreal, Halifax and Ottawa.
Although children under five represent only 10 per cent of the world’s population, they bear 40 per cent of the global disease __12__, says the WHO. And as much as one-third of the total burden of disease may be caused by environmental __13__.
World Health Day has been celebrated on April 7th ___14__ 1950. Each year the WHO chooses a theme to highlight areas of particular concern. Last year’s ___ 15___, Move for Health, focused on promoting physical activity as part of healthy living.