1 How can we the risk of cancer?
A cut in B cut down
C cut off D cut out
2 The rising cost of labor on the waterfront has greatly increased the cost of shipping cargo by water.
A continuously B quickly
C excessively D exceptionally
3 During the past ten years there have been changes in the international situation.
A permanent B powerful
C striking D practical
4 The most problem any economic system faces is how to use its scarce resources.
A puzzling B difficult
C terrifying D urgent
5 His new girlfriend had to tell him that she was married.
A failed B deleted
C refused D rejected
6 The substance can be added to gasoline to the speed of automobiles.
A quicken B shorten
C loosen D enlarge
7 We should never ourselves with a little knowledge only.
A convince B satisfy
C comfort D benefit
8 We should the problem from all sides.
A deliberated B thought
C described D designed.
9 His health had while he was in prison.
A became better B became worse
C became stronger D became weaker
10 If you want my advice, you should your plan for the trip to Beijing.
A change B exchange
C enlarge D encourage
11 Smoking is in public places.
A instructed B inquired
C forbidden D strived
12.He is said to be suffering from terminal cancer and has asked for euthanasia (安乐死)
A acute B chronic
C final D fatal
13 I felt to tell the truth.
A promoted B induced
C compelled D improved
14 Its to take a thick coat in cold weather when you go out.
A controversial B reasonable
C sensible D sensitive
15 Are you that there’s been no mistake?
A rational B reasonable
C certain D bound.
An Observation and an Explanation
It is worth looking at one or two aspects of the way a mother behaves towards her baby. The usual fondling, cuddling and cleaning require little comment, but the position in which she holds the baby against her body when resting is rather revealing. Careful studies have shown the fact that 80 percent of mothers hold their infants in their left arms, holding them against the left side of their bodies. If asked to explain the significance of this preference most people reply that it is obviously the result of the predominance of right-handedness in the population. By holding the babies in their left arms, the mothers keep their dominant arm free for manipulations. But a detailed analysis shows that this is not the casE True, there is a slight difference between right-handed and left-handed females; but not enough to provide adequate explanation. It emerges that 83 percent of right-handed mothers hold the baby on the left side, but so do 78 percent of left-handed mothers. In other words, only 22 percent of the left-handed mothers have their dominant hands free for actions. Clearly there must be some other, less obvious explanation.
The only other clue comes from the fact that the heart is on the side of the mother’s body. Could it be that the sound of her heartbeat is the vital factor? And in what way? Thinking along these lines it was argued that perhaps during its existence inside the body of the mother the unborn baby get used to the sound of the heart beat. If this is so, then the re-discovery of this familiar sound after birth might have a claiming effect on the infant, especially as it has just been born into a strange and frighteningly new worlD if this is so then the mother would, somehow, soon arrive at the discovery that her baby is more at peace if held on the left against her heart than on the right.
16 We can learn a lot by observing the position in which a mother holds her baby against her body.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
17 Most left-handed women feel comfortable by holding their babies in their left arm and keep the right arm free.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
18 The number of right-handed mothers who hold the baby on the left side exceeds that of left-handed ones by 22%.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
19 The fact that most left-handed mothers hold the baby on their left side renders the first explanation unsustainable.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
20 The fact that the heart is on the left side of the mothers body provides the most convincing explanation of all.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
21 A baby held in the right arm of its mother can be easily frightened.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
22 The writers explanation of the phenomenon is supported by the fact that babies tend to be more peaceful if held in their mothers left arms than in the right arms.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned.
Caring for the old
The old do not have to look exclusively to the past. Relieved of some of life’s responsibilities and fortified by many years of experience and knowledge, they may have a much better idea of how to spend their time enjoyably than they did in their youth. And not all enjoyment is restricted to the mental or philosophical. Healthy physical activity remains quite possible for most of us well into our later years.
Old people sometimes display surprising freedom and forthrightness in the expression of their thoughts and feelings, and an ability to transmit affection. It is as though some of the rituals which constrict us in earlier life fall away.
But a higher percentage of people suffer from emotional distress in old age than at any other time in adult life, and the gap between need and care is often filled by dubious measures, such as heavy-handed prescription of medicinE For many years it was assumed that old people were not appropriate candidates for psychotherapy. But a few clinicians have risen to the challenge and discovered that individual and group psychotherapy is just as effective with the old as with the young.
It is easy to understand why an earthquake causes terror. Yet in old age there may be terror of a very private nature, a sense of disintegration sometimes stemming from inner conflicts, sometimes from a premonition of death or the fear of becoming dependent.
Dependency is a grim choice: insecurity and deprivation must be weighed against loss of autonomy and integrity. But if there is nothing shameful about the dependency of a baby or a young child, there should be nothing shameful about the dependencies natural with old age and diminishing physical resources.
The complexity and impersonality of the bureaucratic establishments, which have the means to provide help, are often threatening to old peoplE The younger generation today, on the other hand, will have had many decades to interact with "the system" by the time they reach old age.
Many of us, including healthcare providers, assume that we know what old people and dying people want, but our assumptions are often a reflections of our won thoughts and feelings based on personal interpretations of scanty bits of observation. Such assumptions are really an excuse to avoid close contact with the terminally ill. Assuming we "know" what they want, we observe ourselves from being with them, and sharing their thoughts about the end of life.
We sometimes assume, wrongly, that old people are too confused or senile to be aware of the nearness of death. In consequence, communication between a dying and others is subject to extraordinary omissions and distortions. "Protecting" the dying from knowledge of their condition often serves to protect us from the uncomfortable prospect of talking about dying and death. Evasions like this only lead to increasing isolation at a time when emotional honesty and understanding are most needed.
23 paragraph 1___________
24 paragraph 2___________
25 paragraph 3___________
26 paragraph 5___________
A Knowing better how to enjoy life
B Freedom in expression
C Psychotherapy effective with some of the old
D Period of greater emotional distress
E Dependency: a grim choice
F Guiltiness: dependency.
27 Old people may well be active in__________
28 Old people sometimes know better__________
29 It is a natural thing ___________
30 We often think that we know the feeling of a dying person, _________
A how to show love to others
B how to show anger to others
C yet we know we are wrong
D various kinds of sports
E but we are often wrong
F that old people depend on others
A Gay(n. 同性恋) Biologist(n. 生物学家)
Molecular biologist Dean Hammer has blue eyes, light brown hair and a good sense of humor. He smokes cigarettes, spends long hours in an old laboratory at the US National Institute of Health, and in his free time climbs up cliffs and points his skis down steep slopes. He also happens to be openly, matter-of-factly gay.
What is it that makes Hammer who he is? What, for that matter, accounts for the talents and traits that make up anyone’s personality? Hammer is not content merely to ask such questions; he is trying to answer them as well. A pioneer in the field of molecular psychology, Hammer is exploring the role genes play in governing the very core of our individuality. To a remarkable extent, his work on what might be called the gay, thrill-seeking and quit-smoking genes reflects how own genetic predispositions.
That work, which has appeared mostly in scientific journals, has been gathered into an accessible and quite readable form in Hammer’s creative new book, Living with Our Genes. “you have about as much choice in some aspect of your personality.” Hamer and co-author Peter Copeland write in the introductory chapter, “as you do in the shape of your nose or the size of your feet.”
Until recently, research into behavioral genetics was dominated by psychiatrists and psychologists, who based their most compelling conclusions about the importance of genes on studies of identical twins. For example, psychologist Michael Bailey of Northwestern University famously demonstrated that if one identical twin is gay, there is about a 50% likelihood that the other will be too. Seven years ago, Hamer picked up where the twin studies left off, homing in on specific strips of DNA that appear to influence everything from mood to sexual orientation.
Hamer switched to behavioral genetics from basic research, after receiving his doctorate from Harvard, he spent more than a decade studying the biochemistry of a protein that cells use to metabolize heavy metals like copper and zinc. As he was about to turn 40, however, Hamer suddenly realized he had learned as much about the protein as he cared to. “Frankly, I was bored, ”he remembers, “and ready for something new.”
Homosexual behavior, in particular, seemed ripe for exploration because few scientists had dared tackle such an emotionally and politically charged subject. “Im gay,” Hamer says with a shrug, “but that was not a major motivation. It was more of a question of intellectual curiosity—and the fact that no one else was doing this sort of research”
31 The first paragraph describes Hamer’s
A looks, hobbies and character.
B viewpoint on homosexuality.
C unique life-style.
D scientific research work.
32 Hamer was a
33 What is Hamer doing now?
A He is exploring the role of genes in deciding one’s intelligence.
B He is exploring the role of genes in deciding one’s personality.
C He is writing a book entitled “Live with Our Genes.”
D He is trying to answer some questions on a test paper..
34 What happened to Hamer’s research interest?
A He turned to basic research.
B He sticked to basic research.
C He turned to behavioral genetics.
D He sticked to behavioral genetics.
35 According to Hamer, what was one of the main reasons for him to choose homosexual behavior as his research subject?
A He is a gay and he wants to cure himself.
B He was curious about it as a scientist.
C He was curious about it like everyone else.
D It is a subject that can lead to political success.
Silent and Deadly
Transient ischemic attacks(TIAS), or mini-strokes, result from temporary interruptions of blood flow to the brain. Unlike full strokes, they present symptoms lasting anywhere from a few seconds to 24 hours. Rarely do they cause permanent neurological damage, but they are often precursors of a major stroke.
“Our message is quite clear,” says Dr. Robert Adams, professor of neurology at the Medical College of Georgia in August. “TIAS，while less severe than strokes in the short term, are quite dangerous and need a quick diagnosis and treatment as well as appropriate follow-up to prevent future injury.”
Unfortunately, mini-strokes are greatly under diagnosed. A study conducted for the National Stroke Association indicates that 2.5% of all adults aged 18 or older(about 4.9 million people in the U. S. )have experienced a confirmed TI A. An additional 1.2 million Americans over the age of 45, the study showed, have most likely suffered a mini-stroke without realizing it. These findings suggest that if the public knew how to spot the symptoms of stroke, especially mini-strokes, and sought prompt medical treatment, thousands of lives could be saved and major disability could be avoided.
The problem is that the symptoms of a mini-stroke are often subtle and passing. Nonetheless, there are signs you can look out for:
*Numbness or weakness in the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body.
*Trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
*Confusion and difficulty speaking or understanding.
*Difficulty walking, dizziness or loss of coordination.
*Severe headache with no known cause.
Along with these symptoms, researchers have identified some key indicators that increase your chances of having a full-blown stroke after a TIA: if you’re over 60, have experienced symptoms lasting longer than 10 minutes, feel weak and have a history of diabetes.
As with many diseases, you can help yourself by changing your lifestyle. The first things you should do are quit smoking, limit your intake of alcohol to no more than a drink or two a day and increase your physical activity. Even those who suffer from high blood pressure or diabetes can improve their odds—and minimize complications if they do have a stroke—by keeping their illness under control.
If you experience any of the symptoms, your first call should be to your doctor. It could be the call that saves your life..
36 Which of the following is NOT true of mini-strokes?
A The cause of them remains unidentified.
B They seldom cause permanent neurological damage.
C They symptoms of them are often passing.
D They are not unrelated to major strokes.
37 To prevent mini-strokes from turning into major strokes, it is important to
A save thousands of lives.
B avoid major disability.
C seek prompt medical treatment.
D prevent future injury.
38 The passage indicates that the symptoms of mini-strokes
A are always easy to spot.
B are frequently hard to recognize.
C usually last a couple of days.
D can by no means be avoided.
39 All of the following may be signs of mini-strokes EXCEPT for
A trouble seeing in one eye.
B numbness in the face.
C loss of coordination.
D severe headache caused by external injury.
40 It can be inferred from the passage that mini-strokes are
A more dangerous than major strokes.
B silent and deadly.
C difficult to cure.
D sure to lead to major strokes.
Road Trip Vacations
It’s summer. In the United States, it’s the season of swimming pools, barbeques, camping and road trips.
Road trip vacations where the car journey is part of the fun are especially popular with college students, who like to explore the country on wheels. These budget trips are ideal for students who often have plenty of free time but little money..
"Ever since I went to college, I’ve been traveling around a lot, exploring the country," said Austin Hawkins, a 19-year-old college student from New York. This summer, Hawkins and his friends have spent weekends traveling in New England.
The best part about car trips, said Hawkins, is that you can be spontaneous. "On a road trip, if you get interested in things you see along the way you can stop and explore."
Matt Roberts, a 20-year-old student from Ohio who drove to Montreal, Canada, agrees. "With road trips you dont have to plan in advance, you can just get into a car and drive."
Even with high gas prices, driving with friends is cheaper than flying. Roberts paid about 40 dollars for gas, but a round trip plane ticket would have cost nearly 400 dollars.
Driving trips first became popular in the 1920s. Newly paved roads and improved, cars made it possible to travel longer distances. Motels started appearing outside cities.
By the 1950s, car ownership became the norm. Construction of the US interstate highway system began in 1956 and motel and restaurant chains popped up1 everywhere making long distance trips easier.
Today, the US has the highest car ownership rate in the world. Only 8 percent of American homes have no car, according to the most recent US census.
Though many college students don’t own a car, most have access to one. On many of Hawkins’ trips, they used a borrowed van.
Hawkins’ most memorable road trip took place over spring break. He and two friends drove from New York to New Orleans to volunteer, helping rebuild the city after Hurricane Katrina hit it last July. They crossed the country in two days and slept in their car in church parking lots.
Roberts road trip to Canada last winter was even more eventful. Upon arriving in Montreal, they were lost in a blizzard and shivering in the -25°cold. To find their hotel, they turned on a laptop and drove around in circles until they found a spot with wireless Internet coverage.
"I know we should have planned better, but we’re young. Now, when I see those guys I always say: ‘Remember when we were lost in the snow storm!’ I’ll never forget that."
41 Which of the following statements is NOT true of American college students?
A They have little money.
B They like traveling by bike.
C They like to explore the country.
D They often have plenty of free time.
42 What will Hawkins do when he sees something interesting on a road trip?
A He will turn back.
B He will drive around.
C He will stop to explore.
D He will stop exploring.
43 When did motels suddenly appear?
A After the work to build the interstate highway system started.
B When driving trips became popular.
C After many roads were paved.
D After new cars were made.
44 Which of the following words can best describe Hawkins’ trip to New Orlends?
45 The word blizzard in paragraph 12 can be replaced by
Looking to the future
When a magazine for high-school students asked its readers what life would be like in twenty years, they said: Machines would be run by solar power. Buildings would rotate so they could follow the sun to take maximum advantage of its light and heat. Walls would “radiate light” and “change color with the push of a button. ” food would be replaced by pills.__46__. Cars would have radar. Does this sound like the year 2000? __47__.
The future is much too important to simply guess about, the way the high school students did, so experts are regularly asked to predict accurately. __48__. But can they? One expert on cities wrote: cities of the future would not be crowded, but would have space for farms and fields. People would travel to work in “airbuses”, large all-weather helicopters carrying up to 200 passengers. When a person left the airbus station he could drive a coin-operated car equipped with radar. The radar equipment of cars would make traffic accidents “almost unheard of”. Does that sound familiar? If the expert had been accurate it would, because he was writing in 1957. his subject was “The city of 1982”.
If the professionals sometimes sound like high-school students, it’s probably because future study is still a new fielD But economic forecasting, or predicting what the economy will do, has been around for a long timE It should be accurate, and generally it is. But there have been some big mistakes in this field, too. __49__. In October of that year, the stock market had its worst losses ever, ruining thousands of investors who had put their faith in financial foreseers.
__50__. In 1957, H.J. Rand of the Rad Corporation was asked about the year 2000, “Only one thing is certain, ” he answereD “Children will have reached the age of 43. ”
A By carefully studying the present, skilled businessmen scientists, and politicians are supposedly able to figure out in advance what will happen.
B School would be taught “by electrical impulse while we sleep.”
C One forecaster knew that predictions about the future would always be subject to significant errors.
D In early 1929, most forecasters saw an excellent future for the stock market.
E Everyone may look to the future for it is always promising.
F Actually, the article was written in 1958 and the question was, “what will life be like in 1978?”
Happy Marriage, Happy Heart
Happily married people have lower blood pressure ___51___ unhappily married people or singles, a Brigham Young University study says.
On the other hand, even having a supportive social network did not translate into a blood pressure benefit for singles or unhappily __52___ people1 , according to the study.
"There seem to be some unique health benefits from marriagE It’s not just being married___53___benefits health - what’s really the most protective of health is having a happy ____54___ " study author Julianne Holt-Lunstad, a psychologist who specializes in relationships and health, said in a prepared statement.
The study included 204 married and 99 ____55____ adults who wore portable blood-pressure monitors for 24 hours. The____56____ recorded blood pressure at random intervals and provided a total of about 72 readings.
"We wanted to capture participants’blood pressure doing whatever they normally ____57___in everyday lifE Getting one or two readings in a clinic is not really____58____of the fluctuations that occur throughout the day,"4 Holt-Lunstad said.
Overall, happily married people scored four points____59____on the blood pressure readings than single adults. The study also found that blood ___60___ among married people – especially those in happy marriages ___61 ___more during sleep than in single people..
"Research has shown that people whose blood pressure remains high throughout the night are at___62___greater risk of heart disease than people whose blood pressure drops," Holt-Lunstad said.
The study was published in the March 20___63___of the journal Annals of Behavioral Medicine.
The study also found that unhappily married adults have higher blood pressure than___64___happily married and single adults.
Holt-Lunstad noted that married couples can encourage healthy habits in one ___65___ such as eating a healthy diet and having regular doctor visits. People in happy marriages also have a source of emotional support, she said.
51 A from B to C than D by
52 A married B engaged C linked D loved
53 A which B that C this D what
54 A life B marriage C partner D spouse
55 A young B old C single D experienced
56 A monitors B doctors C nurses D researchers
57 A take B do C make D want
58 A supportive B active C representative D protective
59 A most B lower C higher D least
60 A pressure B speed C level D flow
61 A stopped B dropped C rose D ran
62 A more B some C much D any
63 A page B number C copy D issue
64 A nor B both C neither D either
65 A another B each C other D every