The committee comprises five persons.
We derive knowledge mainly from books
The room was furnished with the simplest essentials, a bed, a chair, and a table
The local government decided to merge the two firms into a big one.
He emphasized a feasible plan which can be accepted by the both sides.
When does the next train depart?
B) pull down
Because administering the whole company, he sometimes has to work around the clock.
The town is notable for its beautiful scenery in winter.
He is assigned to oversee the production of the assembly lines.
Soldiers have to obey orders.
B) apply for
11. The advertising company was surprised by the adverse public reaction to the poster.
11. It is said that the house along the street will soon be demolished.
A) pulled down
11. In his two-hour-long lecture he made an exhaustive analysis of the issue.
A) extremely thorough
B) long and strong
11. These are our motive for doing it.
D) stimulus (A)
11. Do you think there is any likelihood of his agreeing to it?
Why is the Native Language Learnt So Well
How does it happen that children learn their mother tongue so well? When we compare them with adults learning a foreign language, we often find this interesting fact. A little child without knowledge or experience often succeeds in a complete mastery of the language. A grown-up person with fully developed mental powers, in most case, may end up with a faulty and inexact command. What accounts for this difference?
Despite other explanations, the real answer in my opinion lies partly in the child himself, partly in the behavior of the people around him. In the first place, the time of learning the mother tongue is the most favorable of all, namely, the first years of life. A child hears it spoken from morning till night and, what is more important, always in its genuine form, with the right pronunciation, right intonation, right use of words and right structure. He drinks in all the words and expressions, which come to him in a flash, ever-bubbling spring. There is no resistance: there is perfect assimilation.
Then the child has, as it were, private lessons all the year round, while an adult language-student has each week a limited number of hours, which he generally shares with others. The child has another advantage: he hears the language in all possible situations, always accompanied by the right kind of gestures and facial expressions. Here there is nothing unnatural, such as is often found in language lessons in schools, when one talks about ice and snow in June or scorching heat in January. And what a child hears is generally what immediately interests him. Again and again, when his attempts at speech are successful, his desires are understood and fulfilled.
Finally, though a child's " teachers " may not have been trained in language teaching, their relations with him are always close and personal. They take great pains to make their lessons easy.
1. Compared with adults learning a foreign language, children learn their native language with ease.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
2. Adults' knowledge and mental powers hinder their complete mastery of a foreign language.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
3. The reason why children learn their mother tongue so well lies solely in their environment of learning.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
4. Plenty of practice in listening during the first years of life partly ensures children's success of learning their mother tongue.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
5. A child learning his native language has the advantage of having private lessons all the year round.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
6. Gestures and facial expressions may assist a child in mastering his native language.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
7. So far as language teaching is concerned, the teacher's close personal relationship with the student is more important than the professional language teaching training he has received.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
1 ------ 请选择 E 2 ------ 请选择 E 3 ------ 请选择 E
阅读下面这篇短文，短文后有2项测试任务：(1)1---4 题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2--5 段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第5--8题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确的选项，分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
The paper Chase
“Running a house is a lot like running a business.” says Stephanie Denton, a professional organizer based in Cincinnati, Ohio, who specializes in both residential and commercial paperwork and record keeping. To get a successful grip on organizing documents, bills, and other materials, Denton suggests the following tips:
Create a space in which you can always do your paperwork. This is perhaps the most important element of a successful system. If you can’t devote an entire desk to the task, at least invest in a rolling file cart to store active paperwork and a two-drawer file cabinet for family records. Store the rolling file cart wherever it is most convenient and comfortable to do your work, whether that is the kitchen, office, or family room.
When in doubt, throw it out. The first step to implementing a workable filing system is to eliminate paper you don’t use, don’t need, or that you could easily access again elsewhere. Throw out duplicate statements, old catalogs, and all of the coupons, mailings, or offerings you’ll never have an opportunity to use or even read.
Set aside two days a month to pay bills. If a monthly due date doesn’t fit into your cycle, call up the creditor and suggest a more convenient date. Keep two manila folders at the front of your system for current bills –one to correspond with each bill-paying day –and file all incoming bills. Keep a list in the front of each folder of what needs to be paid in case the invoice never arrives or gets misplaced.
Think of your filing system not as a rigid tool, but as a living, breathing system that can accommodate your changing needs. A good filing system is both mentally and physically flexible. Everyone’s needs are different, says Denton, but when devising a filling system, ask yourself: “where would I look for this?” Create main headings for your filing system, such as Investments, Taxes, Children, and so forth, and file individual folders under the main headings. Never overstuff your files.
1. Paragraph 2 ___
2. Paragraph 3____
3. Paragraph 4 ___
4. Paragraph 5____
A. Find a place to work on
B. Implementing a workable filing system
C. What is a good filing system
D. How to invest in a rolling file cart
E. Get rid of unimportant things
F. Dealing with bills
5. Stephanie Denton is expert ___.
6. You can put your file cart anywhere you like, on condition ___.
7. Coupons should be thrown away because ___.
8. “Mentally flexible” indicates the fact ___.
A. they are useless
B. in paper chase
C. that it is easily reached
D. that different people have different requirements
E. they are not comfortable
F. in investing in coupons
Inspecting a used car
The scariest part of buying a used car is not being completely sure of what condition it’s in.A car that’s been in a major accident is always a bigger risk，but sellers often try to hide this information.Andrew Bleakley, evaluator-inspector, runs a mobile vehicle inspection service in Montreal.For about$80 he will perform a full, unbiased inspection on a used vehicle.In his 10 years as a professional inspector, Bleakley has seen a lot.He warns, “Watch out for dealer demonstration vehicles which are used.not new.They may have been in a collision.”He adds mat it is not uncommon in Ontario and Quebec especially for unscrupulous sellers to roll back the odometer or to even disengage it.Bleakley has special tools to check for this.
Blealdey always recommends hiring an independent technician to inspect the condition of a used car before you buy it.The problem is finding someone qualified to do the inspection，which he says generally doesn’t mean just any mechanic，A thorough mechanical inspection includes checking the compression，all major systems，including the engine，electrical and charging systems，transmission and drive line，fluids，brakes，suspension，and steering.Essential，too，is all inspection of the car’s body and finally a road test.There are，however a few things everyone can do before buying a used car：
Do a visual check of the car.Look at the right rear door hinges.If they are very worn.Or the door doesn’t close well，the car may have been used as a taxi.Holes in the roof could mean the car was used for deliveries.
Check for oil 1eaks on the pavement.Note that 1eaks are not necessarily a significant
problem—it depends on the cause.
Don’t assume that new-looking brake and accelerator pedals mean the car hasn’t been
driven much.Resellers know people check these details and call buy new Pads for around $6.
Copy down the vehicle identification number(VlN), a 17-character combination of
numbers and letters，from the vehicle’s dashboard.In Ontario，ask the dealer or seller for the Used Vehicle Information Package.this gives details of previous owners，any outstanding liens on the car, and the fair market value of the vehicle.
1. According to the passage，in buying a second-hand vehicle it is most important to know
A)how long it has been used.
B)what color it is.
C)whether it has been in a collision.
D)whether it leaks oil.
2. All of the following are mentioned as tricks which dishonest second-hand Car dealers may play upon their customers EXCEPT
A)To re-Paint the car
B)To roll back the odometer.
C)T0 replace the old pedal.
D)T0 disengage the odometer.
3. ‘‘An independent technician” in the first sentence of the second paragraph means
A)a technician who checks a car free of charge.
B)a technician who learned his trade all by himself.
C)a technician who works for a particular car-dealer.
D)a technician who runs his own inspection service.
4.According to Bleakley, before buying a used Car all the inspection work Can
A)be done by a mechanic together with the dealer.
B)only be done by a qualified mechanic.
C)be done by the buyer himself.
D)be done by a qualified mechanic together with the buyer.
5. According to the passage，from which of the following Call the buyer obtain reliable
information of the previous owner?
A)The vehicle identification number.
B)The unbiased inspector.
C)The second.hand car dealer.
D)The Used Vehicle Information Package.
Thirsty in Karachi
After two weeks in Karachi，I’m not sure whether to laugh or to cry.Either way，it involves water—or rather the lack of it.
In Western Europe or the US，you only have to turn on the tap and you’11 see a jet of cold water, ready to drink，cook and bathe in，or wash the car.Turn on the tap in Karachi and you’ll be lucky to fill a few buckets.Until 1947，the city was part of British India，whose engineers built and maintained a modest water supply network for the city’s 500.000 inthabitants.Today, Karachi is home to around 12 million people.Half of them live in slum townships，with 1ittle or no water through the mains.Even the “rich’’ half usually have to wait days before anything tickles through their pipes.And the coloured liquid that finally emerges is usually too contaminated to drink.
According to the state.owned Karachi Water and Sewerage Board，the city needs more than 2.500 million litres of water each day. The board currently supplies 1，650 million 1itres of which nearly 40 per cent is lost from 1eaks—and theft.Leaks are dime a dozen to water utilities the world over, but theft?
Karachi’s unlikely water pirates turn out to be ordinary families struggling to get adequate supplies of one of life’s necessities.Stealing water takes many forms.The simplest is to buy a suction pump and get it attached to the water pipe that feeds your house from the mains.This should maximize your share of water every time the board switches oil the supply.When the practice started 20 years ago.the pumps would be carefully hidden or disguised as garden ornaments.These days people hardly bother.The pumps are so widespread and water board inspectors so thin on the ground that when officials do confiscate a pump its owner simply buy a replacement.
Insisting that people obey the law won’t work because most households have little
alternative but to steal.For its part, the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board says it would dearly like to make 1ire easier, but finds itself mired in debt because most residents either won’t pay water charges or can’t afford to.According to the Urban Resource Centre, a Karachi-based think tank，of the 1.2 million known consumers of water only 750，000 are billed，of whom just 163.000 actually pay for their supplies.The board makes a perpetual loss，and there is no money to improve the system or even plug the leaks.Worse, the board increasingly relies on international 1oans from institutions such as the Asian Development Bank, which only makes its debt worse.
The joke is that the owners of the suction pumps end up with little—if any—extra water. Your house is in a line with 20 other households all tapping into one horizontal pipeline.All you can end up doing，given you have pumps of equal strength，is redistribute each other’s entitlement and pay higher electricity bills into the bargain.
Back home in London.I’ll remember not to complain about the water meter, or the hosepipe ban.
1.According to the passage，people in Karachi today suffer from a short supply of water because
A)the water supply network built in 1947 has stopped functioning.
B)the city has become much larger than before.
C)old networks Can not meet the need of the city’s greatly-increased population.
D)the city is no longer a part of British India.
2.Now people in Karachi do not hide or disguise the suction pumps they use to steal water because
A)the pumps are no longer wanted as garden ornaments.
C)it does not Cost much money to buy a new one.
D)many households have them and there are very few inspectors around to try to find them.
3.Confronted with a severe shortage of water supply, the city’s Water and Sewerage Board
A)tries to improve the water supply system with borrowed money.
B)is not making any effort to improve the situation.
C)urges the consumers to obey the law.
D)charges the consumers more for the water they use.
4.Which of the following is true of the owners of the suction pumps, if their neighbors have equally powerful pumps as they do?
A)They get some extra water.
B)They only pay more for electricity.
C)They share what they can get with their neighbors.
D)They replace their pumps with new ones.
5.Which of the following is true about the author when he is back home in London?
A)He misses the days he spent in Karachi.
B)He forgets the complaints he made in Karachi.
C)He is content with the water supply in London.
D)He complains about the water supply in London.
Air Pollution Cloud Measured on Both Sides of Pacific
Scientists watched closely last spring as a haze of pollution, which had been tracked by satellite as it crossed the Pacific Ocean，settled over a large swath of North America from Calgary, Canada，into Arizona.Now it appears that，for the first time, researchers on both sides of the Pacific took detailed measurements of the same plume，a cloud that contained Gobi desert dust as well as hydrocarbons from industrial pollution.
Heather Price，a University of Washington doctoral student in chemistry, found that the amount of light reflected by the particles in the air was more than 550 percent greater than normal for that time of year.The mass of Asian air contained elevated levels of all pollutants measured.
Price said，“but the only thing that came close to being alarming was the level of particulate Matter.”
The haze that settled across the western part of the country was widely reported by the news media，and it was measured as far inland as the ski slopes of Aspen, Colo.
Readings on the western side of the Pacific came from the Aerosol Characterization Experiments, a project aimed at understanding how particles in the atmosphere affect Earth’s climate. Additional measurements were taken in the same region at the same time under a project sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Knowing the pollution was approaching Washington state，Price loaded sensing equipment aboard a rented Beechcraft on April 1 4 and flew to Neah Bay on the state’s Northwest coast.Taking samples at various levels from 15，000 feet to 20，000 feet in altitude，she monitored
quantities of dust，ozone，carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons.“From my copilot’s seat.the dust
was thick enough to see with the naked eye.”Price said.
Now she’s trying to correlate her findings with those of the two research teams operating on the other side of the Pacific，where at one point the pollution plume was larger than Japan.The huge size of the cloud showed up clearly in satellite images that gave Price plenty of warning the haze was on its way.“You can see these two blobs coming out of the deserts of Mongolia and growing over Asia，then getting swept out over the ocean and finally setting over North America,”
she said. She intends to continue measuring air samples off the Washington coast and will be looking for air masses with evidence of pollution originating somewhere other than Asia. “We’d
like to see if we can get a signature of pollution coming from Europe because computer models suggest that European sources also can be transported across the Pacific，” she said.“However, we
expect that sources in Europe will contribute less than Asian sources.”
1.The haze of pollution mentioned in the first paragraph is a cloud
A) of moisture over Calgary, Canada.
B) developing over Pacific Ocean.
C) of industrial pollutants.
D) of desert dust and hydrocarbons.
2.One of the Prices’S findings (Paragraph 2)about the particles of the air is that
A) they contain more pollutants than normal particles.
B) they move much faster in high altitudes than in low altitudes.
C) they are finer and lighter than normal particles.
D) their ability to reflect light is much than stronger.
3.What did Price not do during her research?
A) She rented a Beechcraft.
B) She used her sensing equipment aboard the Beechcrah.
C) She collected samples of pollutants on the Northwest coast for further tests.
D) She tested quantities of chemicals in the air.
4.According to the last paragraph，which of the following statements about the two research
teams is true?
A) The two research teams whose findings Price correlates hers with are based in Asia.
B) Price corrects some inaccurate data provided by the two teams operating in Asia.
C) Price is working with the two research teams in Japan.
D) The two teams in Asia volunteer to correlate their findings with Price’s.
5.Which of the statements is closest in meaning to the sentence“…，we expect that sources in
Europe will contribute less than Asian sources.”?
A) Pollution is expected to be less serious in Europe than in Asia.
B) Pollution is studied in more depth in Europe than in Asia.
C) Pollutants coming from Europe are not the main source of pollution in North America.
D)Pollutants coming from Europe are the main source of pollution in North America.
The first four minutes
When do people decide whether or not they want to become friends? During their first four minutes together, according to a book by Dr. Leonard Zunin. In his book, "Contact: The first four minutes," he offers this advice to anyone interested in starting new friendships: __1__. A lot of people's whole lives would change if they did just that.
You may have noticed that average person does not give his undivided attention to someone he as just met.__2__. If anyone has ever done this to you, you probably did not like him very much.
When we are introduced to new people, the author suggests, we should try to appear friendly and self-confident. In general, he says, "People like people who like themselves."
On the other hand, we should not make the other person think we are too sure of ourselves. It is important to appear interested and sympathetic, realizing that the other person has his won needs, fears, and hopes.
Hearing such advice, one might say, "But I'm not a friendly, self-confident person. That's not my nature. It would be dishonest for me to at that way."
__3__. We can become accustomed to any changes we choose to make in our personality. "It is like getting used to a new car. It may be unfamiliar at first, but it goes much better than the old one."
But isn't it dishonest to give the appearance of friendly self-confidence when we don't actually feel that way? Perhaps, but according to Dr. Zunin, "total honest" is not always good for social relationships, especially during the first few minutes of contact. There is a time for everything, and a certain amount of play-acting may be best for the first few minutes of contact with a stranger. That is not the time to complain about one's health or to mention faults one finds in other people. It is not the time to tell the whole truth about one's opinions and impressions.
__4__. For a husband and wife or a parent and child, problems often arise during their first four minutes together after they have been apart. Dr. Zunin suggests that these first few minutes together be treated with care. If there are unpleasant matters to be discussed, they should be dealt with later.
The author says that interpersonal relations should be taught as a required course in every school, along with reading, writing, and mathematics. __5__ that is at least as important as how much we know.
A. In reply, Dr. Zunin would claim that a little practice can help us feel comfortable about changing our social habits.
B. Much of what has been said about strangers also applies to relationships with family members and friends.
C. In his opinion, success in life depends mainly on how we get along with other people.
D. Every time you meet someone in a social situation, give him your undivided attention for four minutes.
E. He keeps looking over the other person's shoulder, as if hoping to find someone more interesting in another part of the room.
F. He is eager to make friends with everyone.
In some countries where racial prejudice is acute, violence has been taken for granted as a means of solving differences; and this is not even questioned. There are countries__1__ the white man imposes his rule by brute force; there are countries where the black man protested by __2__ fire to cities and by looting(掠夺) and pillaging(掠夺). Important people on both sides, who would in other respects appear to be __3__ men, get up and calmly argue __4__ violence -- as if it were a legitimate solution, like any other. What is really frightening, what really fills you __5__ despair, is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress __6__. We may wear collars and ties instead of war paint, but our instincts remain basically unchanged. The whole of the __7__ history of the human race, that tedious documentation of violence, has taught us absolutely nothing. We have still not learnt that violence never __8__ a problem but makes it more acute. The sheer horror, the bloodshed and the suffering __9__ nothing. No solution ever comes to light the morning after when we dismally contemplate the smoking ruins and wonder __ 10__ hit us.
The truly reasonable men who know where the solutions __11__ are finding it harder and harder to get a hearing. They are despised, mistrusted and even persecuted by their own __12__ because they advocate such apparently outrageous things __13__ law enforcement. If half the energy that goes into violent acts were __14__, if our efforts were directed at cleaning up the slums and ghettos, at improving living-standards and providing education and employment __15__ all, we would have gone a long way to arriving at a solution.
1. A) where B) that C) which D) who
2. A) giving B) catching C) setting D) letting
3. A) reasonable B) reasonably C) reasonless D) reason
4. A) for the sake of B) for fear of C) in case of D) in favor of
5. A) of B) with C)by D) up
6. A) at all B) after all C) at last D) in the end
7. A) record B) recording C) recorded D) records
8. A) keeps B) deals C)answers D) solves
9. A) meant B) mean C) is meaning D) are meaning
10. A) what B) that C) / D) which
11. A) lay B) lays C) lie D) lies
12. A) kind B) way C) right D) rule
13. A) like B) so C) that D) as
14. A) put to use good B)put to good use C) put good to use D) good put to use
15. A) by B) at C) for D) with