1、 Philip Roth was hailed as a major new author in 1960.
2、 This kind of animals are on the verge of extinction, because so many are being killed for their fur.
B) dying out
C) being reported
3、 The number of United States citizens who are eligible to vote continues to increase.
4、 I feel regret about what's happened.
5、 Evidence exists that hearing problems may be alleviated by changes in diet and exercise habits.
6、 The conclusion can be deduced from the promises.
7、 Since the Great Depression, the United States government has protected farmers from damaging drops in grain prices.
8、 The poet William Carlos Williams was a New Jersey physician.
9、 Long before the concert began, big crowds of pop fans had assembled in the stadium.
10、 During his lifetime he was able to accumulate quite a fortune.
11、 Medicine depends on other fields for basic information, particularly some of their specialized branches.
12、 If wool(羊毛) is put into hot water, it tends to shrink.
13、 They have a far better yield than any other farm for miles around.
14、 They are endeavoring to change society as a whole.
15、 The other women seemed contented and they even exhibited their bellies(腹部) with pride.
阅读下面这篇短文，短文后有2项测试任务：(1)1---4 题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2--5 段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第5--8题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确的选项，分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
Why Does food cost so much
1 In 1959 the average American family paid $989 for a year’s supply of food. In 1972 the family paid $1,311. That was a price increase of nearly one-third. Every family has had this sort of experience. Everyone agrees that the cost of feeding a family has risen sharply. But there is less agreement when reasons for the rise are being discussed. Who is really responsible?
2 Many blame the farmers who produce the vegetables, fruit, meat, eggs, and cheese that stores offer for sale. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the farmer’s share of the $1,311 spent by the family in 1972 was $521. This was 31 per cent more than the farmer had received in 1959.
3 But farmers claim that this increase was very small compared to the increase in their cost of living. Farmers tend to blame others for the sharp rise in food prices. They particularly blame those who process the farm products after the products leave the farm. These include truck drivers, meat packers, manufacturers of packages and other food containers, and the owners of stores where food is sold. They are among the “middlemen” who stand between the farmer and the people who buy and eat the food. Are middlemen the ones to blame for rising food prices?
4 Of the $1,311 family food bill in 1972, middlemen received $790, which was 33 per cent more than they had received in 1959. It appears that the middlemen’s profit has increased more than farmer’s. But some economists claim that the middleman’s actual profit was very low. According to economists at the First National City Bank, the profit for meat packers and food stores amounted to less than one per cent. During the same period all others manufacturers were making a profit of more than 5 per cent. By comparison with other members of the economic system both farmers and middlemen have profited surprisingly little from the rise in food prices.
5 Who then is actually responsible for the size of the bill a housewife must pay before she carries the food home from the store? The economists at First National City Bank have an answer to give housewives, but many people will not like it. These economists blame the housewife herself for the jump in food prices. They say that food costs more now because women don’t want to spend much time in the kitchen. Women prefer to buy food which has already been prepared before it reaches the market.
6 Vegetables and chicken cost more when they have been cut into pieces by someone other than the one who buys it. A family should expect to pay more when several “TV dinners” are taken home from the store. These are fully cooked meals, consisting of meat, vegetables, and sometimes desert, all arranged on a metal dish. The dish is put into the oven and heated while the housewife is doing something else. Such a convenience costs money. Thus, as economists point out: “Some of the basic reasons for widening food price spreads are easily traceable to the increasing use of convenience foods, which transfer much of the time and work of meal preparation from the kitchen to the food processor’s plant.”
7 Economists remind us that many modern housewives have jobs outside the home. They earn money that helps to pay the family food bills. The housewife naturally has less time and energy for cooking after a day’s work. She wants to buy many kinds of food that can be put on her family’s table easily and quickly. “If the housewife wants all of these,” the economists say, “that is her privilege, but she must be prepared to pay for the services of those who make her work easier.”
8 It appears that the answer to the question of rising prices is not a simple one. Producers, consumers, and middlemen all share the responsibility for the sharp rise in food costs.
A The Cost of Convenience
B A Surprising Answer Given by the Economists
C The Effect of Inflation
D Housewives’ Need to Find Jobs
E Farmers’ Denial of Increased Profit
F Middlemen’s Limited Share in the Additional Profit
5.Many people agree that food prices have increased sharply but they have failed _____
6.The farmers have not been benefited very much__________.
7.Housewives have to pay for the time they save_____________.
8.The economists have come to the conclusion that the cause of increased food prices lies in ____________.
A Nor have the middlemen
B to increase the prices for food
C the popularization of convenience food
D to agree on the reasons for the increase
E by buying prepared food
F that they cannot agree on the causes of the increase in prices
Egypt felled by famine
Even ancient Egypts mighty pyramid builders were powerless in the face of the famine that helped bring down their civilian around 2180BC. Now evidence gleaned from mud deposited by the River Nile suggests that a shift in climate thousands of kilometers to the south was ultimately to blem -- and the same or worse could happen today.
The ancient Egyptians depended on the Niles annual floods to irrigate their crops. But any change in climate that pushed the African monsoons southwards out of Ethiopia would have diminished these floods.
Dwindling rains in the Ethiopian highlands would have meant fewer plants to establish the soil. When rain did fall it would have washed large amounts of soil into the Blue Nile and into Egypt, along with sediment from the White Nile.
The Blue Nile mud has a different isotope signature from that of the White Nile. So by analyzing isotope differences in mud deposited in the Nile Delta, Michael Krom of leeds University worked out what proportion of sediment came from each branch of the river.
Krom reasons that during periods of drought, the amount of the Blue Nile mud in the river would be relatively high. He found that one of these periods, from 4,500 to 4,200 years ago, immediately predates the fall of the Egypts Old Kingdom.
The weakened waters would have been catastrophic for the Egyptians. Changes that affect food supply dont have to be very large to have a ripple effect in societies, says Bill Ryan of the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory in New York.
Similar events today could be even more devastating, says team member Daniel Stanley, a geoarchaeologist from the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.. Anything humans do to shift the climate belts would have an even worse effect along the Nile system because the populations have increased dramatically.
1. Why does the author mention pyramid builders?
A. because they once worked miracles.
B. because they were well-built
C. because they were actually very weak
D. because even they were unable to rescue their civilization
2. Which of the following factors was ultimately responsible for the fall of the civilization of ancient Egypt?
A. Change of climate
D. population growth
3. Which of the following statements is true?
A. The White Nile is the trunk of the River Nile
B. The White Nile is the trunk of the Blue Bile
C. The White Nile a branch of the Blue Nile
D. The White Nile and the Blue Nile are branches of the River Nile
4. According to Krom, Egypts Old Kingdom fell
A. immediately after a period of drought
B. immediately after a period of flood
C. just before a drought struck
D. just before a flood struck
5. The word devastating in the last paragraph could be best replaced by
The Greatest Mystery of Whales (鲸鱼)
The whale is a mammal(哺乳动物) - warm-blooded, air-breathing, giving birth to its young alive, sucking them - and, like all mammals, originated on land. There are many signs of this. 1 front flippers(鳍状肢), used for steering and stability, are traces of feet.
Immense strength is built into the great body of the big whales, and in fact most of a whale's body is one gigantic(强有力的) muscle. The blue whale's pulling 2 has been estimated at 400 horsepower. One specimen was reported to have 3 a whaling vessel for seven hours at the 4 of eight knots.
An enraged whale will attack a ship. A famous 5 of this was the fate of whaler Essex, which was sunk 6 South America early in the last century. More recently, steel ships have had their plates buckled in the same way. Sperm whales were known to 7 the old-time whaleboats in their jaws and crush them.
The greatest mystery of whales is their diving ability. The sperm whale 8 the bottom for his favorite food, the octopus. 9 he is known to go as far down as 3,200 feet, where the pressure is 1,400 pounds, to the square inch. Doing 10 he will remain submerged as long as one hour. Two feats are involved in this: storing up enough 11 (all whales are air-breathed) and withstanding the great change in pressure. Just 12 he does it scientists have not determined. It is believed that some of the oxygen is stored in a special system of blood vessels, rather than just held in the lungs. And 13 that a special kind of oil in his head is some sort of compensating mechanism that automatically adjusts the internal pressure
of his body. But 14 you can't bring a live whale into the laboratory for study, no one just 15 how these things work.
1. A) Its B) His C) Theirs D) Their
2. A) width B) strength C) height D) length
3. A) eaten B) crashed C) lifted D) towed
4. A) distance B) voyage C) rate D) sail
5. A) picture B) example C) film D) book
6. A) away the coast of B) of the coast of C) off the coast of D) in the coast of
7. A) seize B) hit C) damage D) overturn
8. A) sink to B) dive to C) rest on D) hide on
9. A) In spite of that B) Because of this C) In that search D) In support of this
10.A) the same B) such C) above D) so
11. A) oxygen B) air C) energy D) heat
12.A) what B) where C) how D) when
13. A) it is believed B) it believes C) we believe D) he believes
14. A) because of B) due to C) owing to D) since
15. A) communicates B) hears C) knows D) develops