1、 I hate his adopting an air of importance when he is talked to.
2、 Smoking is banned in school.
3、 We have made an effort to boost participation in the program.
4、 He is said to be very prominent in the field of medicine.
5、 It is in the right for one to do what he likes which doesn’t do any harm to others’ interest.
6、 The desk was a chaos of papers and unopened letters.
7、 To tell you the truth, I did extract (B级)several passages from the speech when writing my speech.
A) take out
B) take off
8、 e is deficient (A级)in courage, which is the main reason why he was refused in the first round of job interviews.
9、 His motive (B级)for working so hard is that he needs money.
A) impulse (A级)
10、 It is so precious a picture that it is kept in a sealed box.
11、 He often congratulates himself on owning such productive(B级)fields.
12、 He doesn’t like the children who are prone (B级)to telling a lie.
C) promising (B级)
13、 I hope you can submit you term papers before the deadline.
A) hand in
C) hand on
14、 The new evidence backed up my argument.
15、 He is always considered to be thoughtful and courteous (A级)and that is why he becomes the best candidate for the job of entertaining guests.
Why is the Native Language Learnt So Well
How does it happen that children learn their mother tongue so well? When we compare them with adults learning a foreign language, we often find this interesting fact. A little child without knowledge or experience often succeeds in a complete mastery of the language. A grown-up person with fully developed mental powers, in most case, may end up with a faulty and inexact command. What accounts for this difference?
Despite other explanations, the real answer in my opinion lies partly in the child himself, partly in the behavior of the people around him. In the first place, the time of learning the mother tongue is the most favorable of all, namely, the first years of life. A child hears it spoken from morning till night and, what is more important, always in its genuine form, with the right pronunciation, right intonation, right use of words and right structure. He drinks in all the words and expressions, which come to him in a flash, ever-bubbling spring. There is no resistance: there is perfect assimilation.
Then the child has, as it were, private lessons all the year round, while an adult language-student has each week a limited number of hours, which he generally shares with others. The child has another advantage: he hears the language in all possible situations, always accompanied by the right kind of gestures and facial expressions. Here there is nothing unnatural, such as is often found in language lessons in schools, when one talks about ice and snow in June or scorching heat in January. And what a child hears is generally what immediately interests him. Again and again, when his attempts at speech are successful, his desires are understood and fulfilled.
Finally, though a child's " teachers " may not have been trained in language teaching, their relations with him are always close and personal. They take great pains to make their lessons easy.
1. Compared with adults learning a foreign language, children learn their native language with ease.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
2. Adults' knowledge and mental powers hinder their complete mastery of a foreign language.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned.
3. The reason why children learn their mother tongue so well lies solely in their environment of learning.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
4. Plenty of practice in listening during the first years of life partly ensures children's success of learning their mother tongue.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
17、 5. A child learning his native language has the advantage of having private lessons all the year round.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
6. Gestures and facial expressions may assist a child in mastering his native language.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
7. So far as language teaching is concerned, the teacher's close personal relationship with the student is more important than the professional language teaching training he has received.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
阅读下面这篇短文，短文后有2项测试任务：(1)1---4 题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2--5 段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第5--8题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确的选项，分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
Soot (煤烟) and Snow：a Hot Combination
New research from NASA scientists suggests emissions of black soot alter the way
sunlight reflects off snow.According to a computer simulation，black soot may be
responsible for 25 percent of observed global warming over the past century.
Soot in the higher latitudes of the Earth，where ice is more common，absorbs more of the sun’s energy and warmth than an icy,white background.Dark-colored black carbon，or soot，absorbs sunlight, while lighter colored ice reflects sunlight.
Soot in areas with snow and ice may play an important role in climate change.Also，if snow and ice covered areas begin melting，the warming effect increases，as the soot becomes more concentrated on the snow surface.”This provides a positive feedback.as glaciers and ice sheets melt，they tend to get even dirtier,”said Dr.James Hansen，a researcher at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies.New York.
Hansen found soot’s effect on snow albedo (solar energy reflected back to space)，which may be contributing to trends toward early springs in the Northern Hemisphere，such as thinning Arctic sea ice，melting glaciers and permafrost.Soot also is believed to play a role in changes in the atmosphere above the oceans and land.
“Black carbon reduces the amount of energy reflected by snow back into space，thus heating the snow surface more than if there were no black carbon‘，”Hansen said.Soot’s increased absorption of solar energy is especially effective in warming the world’s climate.
“This forcing is unusually effective，causing twice as much global warming as a
carbon.dioxide forcing of the same magnitude.’’Hansen noted.
Hansen cautioned，although the role of soot in altering global climate is substantial，it does not alter the fact that greenhouse gases are the primary cause of climate warming during the past century.Such gases are expected to be the largest climate forcing for the rest" of this century.
The researchers found that observed warming in the Northern Hemisphere was large in the winter and spring at middle and high latitudes.These observations were consistent with the researchers’climate model simulations.which showed some of the 1argest warming effects occurred when there were heavy snow cover and sufficient sunlight.
1.Paragraph 3 __.
3.Paragraph 6 __.
4.Paragraph 7 __..
A Soot’s Role in Changes in the Climate and the Atmosphere
B Observations of Warming in the Northern Hemisphere
C Explanation of Increased Warming Effect Caused by Soot
D Effect to Reduce Snow Albedo
E Ways to Reduce Soot Emission
F Greenhouse Gases as the Main Factor of G1obal Warming
5. In the twentieth century，soot __.
6.Hansen cautioned that greenhouse gases__.
7. Black soot covered snow and ice__.
8. A soot forcing is unusually effective，which__.
A produces much more global warming than a carbon-dioxide forcing of the same magnitude
B contributed to 25 percent of observed global warming
C Can produce greenhouse gases
D absorb more of sun’s energy and warmth than white background
E still surpass soot in warming the world’S climate during the last century
F Can be seen mostly in the Northern Hemisphere
Inspecting a Used Car
The scariest part of buying a used car is not being completely sure of what condition it’s in.A car that’s been in a major accident is always a bigger risk，but sellers often try to hide this information.Andrew Bleakley, evaluator-inspector，runs a mobile vehicle inspection service in Montreal.For about$80 he will perform a full，unbiased inspection on a used vehicle.In his 10 years as a professional inspector, Bleakley has seen a lot.He warns.“Watch out for dealer demonstration vehicles which are used.not new.They may have been in a collision.”He adds that it is not uncommon in Ontario and Quebec especially for unscrupulous sellers to roll back the odometer or to even disengage it.Bleakiey has special tools to check for this.
Bleakley always recommends hiring all independent technician to inspect the condition of a used car before you buy it.The problem is finding someone qualified to do the inspection.Which he says generally doesn’t mean just any mechanic.A thorough mechanical inspection includes checking the compression，all major systems，including the engine，electrical and charging systems，transmission and drive line，fluids，brakes，suspension，and steering.Essential，too, is all inspection of the car’s body and finally a road test.There are，however, a few things everyone can do before buying a used Car：
Do a visual check of the car.Look at the right rear door hinges.If they are very worn, or the door doesn’t close well，the car may have been used as a taxi.Holes in the roof could mean the car was used for deliveries.
Check for oil leaks on the pavement.Note that leaks are not necessarily a significant
problem--it depends on the cause.
Don’t assume that new.100king brake and accelerator pedals mean the car hash’t been
driven much.Resellers know people check these details and can buy new pads for around$6.
Copy down the vehicle identification number(VIN)，a 17-character combination of
numbers and letters，from the vehicle’s dashboard.In Ontado，ask the dealer or seller for the Used Vehicle Information Package.This gives details of previous owners，any outstanding liens on the car, and the fair market value of the vehicle..
1. According to the passage, in buying a second-hand vehicle it is most important to know__.
A) How long it has been used.
B) What color it is.
C) Whether it has been in a collision.
D) Whether it leaks oil.
2. All of the following are mentioned as tricks which dishonest second-hand car dealers may play upon their customers EXCEPT___.
A) To re-paint the car.
B) To roll back the odometer.
C) To replace the old pedal.
D) To disengage the odometer.
3. “An independent technician” in the first sentence of the second paragraph means__.
A) A technician who checks a car free of charge.
B) A technician who learned his trade all by himself.
C) A technician who works for a particular car-dealer.
D) A technician who runs his own inspection service.
4.According to Bleakly, before buying a used car all the inspection work can ___.
A) Be done by mechanic together with the dealer.
B) Only be done by a qualified mechanic
C) Be done by the buyer himself.
C) Be done by a qualified mechanic together with the buyer.
5. According to the passage, from which of the following can the buyer obtain reliable information of the previous owner?
A) The vehicle identification number.
B) The unbiased inspector.
C) The second-hand car dealer.
D) The Used Vehicle Information Package.
The American finds his friends next door and among those with whom he works, it has been noted that we take people up quickly and drop them just as quickly. Occasionally a friendship formed during schooldays will persist, but this is rate. For us there are few well-defined rules governing the obligation of friendship. It is difficult to say at which point our friendship gives way to business opportunity (机会主义) or pressure from above. In this we differ from many other people in the world. As a general rule, in foreign countries friendships are not formed as quickly as in the United States but go much deeper, last long, and involve real obligations. For example:
It is important to stress that in the Middle East and Latin America your “Friends” will not let you down. The fact that they personally are in trouble is never an excuse for failing their friends. They are supposed to look out for your interests.
Friends and family around the world represent a sort of social insurance that would be difficult to find in the United States. We do not use our friends to help us out in disaster as much as we do as a means of getting ahead –or, at least, of getting the job done. The United States systems work by means of a series of closely tabulated (把。。列成表格) favors and obligations carefully doled out (以小份分给;少量地发给)where they will do the most good. And the least that we expect in exchange for a favor is gratitude.
The opposite is the case in India, where the friend’s role is to “sense” a person’s need and do something about it. The idea of reciprocity as we know is unheard friendship patterns. He gains nothing by extending himself in behalf of others, least of all gratitude, because the Indian assumes that what he does for others he does for the good of his own psyche(心灵). He will find it impossible to make friends quickly and is unlikely to allow sufficient time for friendships to ripen. He will also note that as he gets to know people better they may become more critical of him, a fact that he finds hard to take. What he does not know is that one sign of friendship is speaking one’s mind.
1. Americans tend to ___
A) make friends with people they don’t know
B) make friends quickly and drop them just as quickly
C) build deep and long-lasting friendships
D. sacrifice business opportunities for friendship obligations
2. Which of the following is NOT true about friendships in the Middle East?
A) they go deep
B) they last long
C) they involve real obligations
D) they form quickly
3. It is more likely that American resort to friends when they ___.
A) need a sense of social insurance
B) are in disaster
C) want to get a job done
D) feel lonely
4. Americans help others in expectation for ___.
D) a return favor
5. Which is NOT true according to the last paragraph?
A) Indians are willing to help friends for no return.
B) Indians don’t want to allow sufficient time for friendships to ripen.
C) Indians know that good friends should reveal their feelings to each other
D. Indians believe that what he does for friends is also good for themselves
Can Buildings be designed to resist terrorist attack?
In the aftermath (后果，结果)of the terrorist attack on the world trade center, structural engineers are trying hard to solve a question that a month ago would have been completely unthinkable: Can building be designed to withstand catastrophic blasts inflicted by terrorists?
Ten days after the terrorist attacks on the twin towers, structural engineers from the University at Buffalo and the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER) headquartered at UB traveled to ground zero as part of a project funded by the National Science Foundation. Visiting the site as part of an MCEER reconnaissance (侦察，勘察)visits, they spent two days beginning the task of formulating ideas about how to design such structures and to search for clues on how to do so in buildings that were damaged, but still are standing.
“Our objective in visiting ground zero was to go and look at the buildings surrounding the World Trade Center, those buildings that are still standing, but that sustained damage,” said M. Brunean, Ph. D. ”Our immediate hope is that we can develop a better understanding as to why those buildings remain standing, while our long-term goal is to see whether earthquake engineering technologies can be married to existing technologies to achieve enhanced performance of buildings in the event of terrorists attacks,” he added.
Photographs taken by the investigators demonstrate in starling detail the monumental damage inflicted on the World Trade Center towers and buildings in the vicinity. One building a block away from the towers remains standing, but was badly damaged. “This buildings is many meters away from the World Trade Center and yet we see a column there that used to be part of that building,” explained A. Whittaker, Ph.D. “The column became a missile that shot across the road, through the window and through the floor.”
The visit to the area also revealed some surprises, according to the engineers. For example, the floor framing system in one of the adjacent buildings was rugged, allowing floors that were pierced by tons of falling debris to remain intact. “ Highly redundant ductile framing systems may provide a simple, but robust strategy for blast resistance,” he added. Other strategies may include providing alternate paths for gravity loads in the event that a load-bearing column fails. “We also need a better understanding of the mechanism of collapse,” said A Whittaker. “We need to find out what causes a building to collapse and how you can predict it.”
A. Reinhorn, Ph.D. noted that “earthquake shaking has led to the collapse of many buildings in the past. It induces dynamic response and extremely high stresses and deformations in structural components. Solutions developed for earthquake-resistant design may be directly applicable to blast engineering and terrorist-resistant design. Part of our mission now at UB is to transfer these solutions and to develop new ones where none exist at present.”
1. The question raised in the first paragraph is one ___.
A. that was asked by structural engineers a month ago.
B. that is too difficult for structural engineers to answer even now
C. that was never thought of before the terrorist attack
D. that terrorists are eager to find a solutions to
2. The project funded by the National Science Foundation ___.
A. was first proposed by some engineers at UB.
B. took about two days to complete.
C. was to investigate the damage caused by the terrorist attack
D. was to find out why some buildings could survive the blasts
3. The column mentioned by Dr. Whittaker ____.
A. was part of the building close to the World Trade Center.
B. was part of the World Trade Center
C. was shot through the window and the floor of the World Trade Center
D. damaged many buildings in the vicinity of the World Trade Center.
4. A surprising discovery made by the investigators during their visit to ground zero is that ___.
A. floors in the adjacent buildings remain undamaged
B. some floor framing systems demonstrate resistance to exploration
C. simple floor framing systems are more blast resistant
D. floors in one of the adjacent buildings were pierced by tons of debris..
5. What Dr. Reinhorn said in the last paragraph may imply all the following EXCEPT that ___.
A. blast engineers should develop new solutions for terror-resistant design.
B. blast engineering can borrow technologies developed for terror-resistant design.
C. solutions developed for earthquake-resistant design may apply to terrorists-resistant design.
D. blast engineering emerges as a new branch of science.
Ludwig Van Beethoven
Ludwig Van Beethoven, a major composer of the nineteenth century, overcame many personal problems to achieve artistic greatness.
Born in Bonn, Germany, in 1770, he first studied music with the court organist, Gilles van der Eeden. His father was excessively strict and given to heavy drinking._________(1)__________Appointed deputy court organist to Christian Gottlob Neefe at a surprisingly early age in 1782, Beethoven also played the harpsichord and the viola. In 1792 he was sent to Vienna by his patron, Count Ferdinand Waldstein, to study music under Haydn.
Beethoven remained unmarried.__________(2)_________ Continually plagued by ill health, he developed an ear infection which led to his tragic deafness in 1819.
__________(3)____________He completed mature masterpieces of great musical depth: three piano sonatas, four string quartets, the Missa Solemnis, and the 9th Symphony. He died in 1827._______(4)________
Noting that Beethoven often flew into fits of rage, Goethe once said of him,” I am astonished by his talent, but he is unfortunately an altogether untamed personality._________(5)________
A In spite of this handicap, however, he continued to write music.
B Because of irregular payments from his publishers and erratic support from his patrons, he was troubled by financial worries throughout his adult life.
C His life was marked by a passionate dedication to independence.
D When his mother died, Beethoven, then a young man, was named guardian of his two younger brothers.
E Although Beethoven’s personality may have been untamed, his music shows great discipline and control, and this is how we remember his best.
F today his music is still being played all over the world.
Scientists know that there are two basic approaches to prolonging life. One approach is the __1__ of the diseases that generally __2__ older people – diseases such as cancer, heart attack and stokes. __3__ is the delay of the process of growing old – the __4__ of the body.
In recent years scientific researchers have spent much time in the study of the process of aging. They believe __5__, within a few years, they will develop the knowledge and the __6__ to delay the aging process for 10 to 15 years. The __7__ will be that more people will live longer, more healthful lives. At present, scientists believe that __8__ the right diet, exercise, medical __9__, and mental attitude many people can live to be 100 years old.
Gerontologists, people who __10__ studies of the problems of growing old, are investigating __11__ body cells slow down and __12__ die. They feel that delaying this slowing down process would help postpone death. In a number of American universities, scientists are __13__ the activity of cells, the effects of diet and internal body temperature __14__ aging. If their studies are successful, the results should help improve the quality of life for older people in the next few years, __15__ increase the life span of the next generation..
1. A) elimination B) deletion
C) demonstration D) conduction
2. A) effect B) affect C) reflect D) perfect
3. A) Others B) Another C) The other D) One more
4. A) decaying B) deleting C) decreasing D) weighing
5. A) which B) what C) that D) having been
6. A) capability B) capacity C) probability D) ability
7. A) conclusion B) result C) summary D) sequence
8. A) about B) over C) with D) on
9. A) treat B) suggestion C) proposal D) advice
10. A) major in B) engage in
C) specialize in D) interest in
11. A) why B) what C) that D) because
12. A) considerably B) suddenly
C) eventually D) actually
13. A) discussing B) concerning
C) studying D) searching
14. A) with B) on
C) over D) within
15. A) as much B) as much as
C) so far as D) as well as