1 We saw a lot of commercial buildings in Chicago.
A condemned B razed C business D vacant
2 Salt has been a respected commodity for much of recorded time.
A flavoring B preservative C remedy for illness D article of trade
3 Pure feldspar is a colorless, transparent mineral, but impurities commonly make it opaque and colorful.
A truly B rapidly C periodically D frequently
4 In l925 Clarence Darrow competently opposed William Jennings Bryan at the renowned Scopes… “Monkey Trial”.
A adeptly B maliciously C privately D rashly
5 The Olympic Games attempt to transcend national interests and bring together the best international athletes in a spirit of friendly competition and peace.
A debate B celebration C instruction D rivalry
6 He is going to compile the data requested by the tax collector.
A sprout B evade C redeem D gather
7 After l850, various states in the United States began to pass compulsory school attendance Laws.
A harsh B diversified C mandatory D complicated
8 In statistics the most frequently used computations are the mean, the median, and the mode because all are indicators of central tendency.
A graphs B variables C calculations D words
9 The Empire State Building was conceived on a grander scale than previous skyscrapers.
A executed B designed C financed D applauded
10 Theodere Dreiser was one of the first American novelists to portray immoral characters without condemnation.
A hostility B sadness C blame D pity
11 Most religions are concerned with the worship of one or several deities as well as with ethical rules of conduct.
A faith B speech C thought D behavior
12 The Passamaquoddy and Penobscot people were confederates of the colonists in Maine at the time of the Revolutionary War.
A guardians B teachers C allies D observers
13 By the l880s’, living conditions in the congested Eastern Seaboard cities of the United States had become local scandals.
A developing B diverse C crowded D wealthy
14 The population of Seattle is a conglomerate of people from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds.
A a company B a fluctuation C an assortment D a matching
15 Although dolphins, sometimes swim singly or in pairs, they usually congregate in large herds, often numbering in the hundreds.
A procreate B eat C live D assemble
Step Back in Time
Do you know that we live a lot longer now than the people who were born before us? One hundred years ago the average woman lived to be 45. But now, she can live until at least 80.
One of the main reasons for people living longer is that we know how to look after our-selves better. We know which foods are good for us and what we have to eat to make sure our
bodies get all the healthy things they need. We know why we sometimes get ill and what to do to get better again. And we know how important it is to do lots of exercise to keep our hearts beating healthily.
But in order that we don't slip back into bad habits. let's have a look at what life was like 100 years ago.
Families had between l5 and 20 children, although many babies didn't live long. Children suffered from lots of diseases, especially rickets((佝偻病) and scurvy(坏血病) , which are both caused by bad diets. This is because many families were very poor and not able to: feed their children well.
Really poor families who lived in crowded cities like London and Manchester often slept standing up, bending over a piece of string, because there was no room for them to lie down.
People didn't have fridges until the l920s. They kept fresh food cold by storing it on windowsills(窗台板), blocks of ice, or even burying it in the garden.
Some children had to start work at the age of seven or eight to earn money for their parents. If you had lived l00 years ago, you might well be selling matchsticks(火柴杆)(a job done by many children)or working with your dad by now..
16 on average women lived longer than men l00 years ago.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
17 People now enjoy longer lives for unknown reasons.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
18 A hundred years ago many kids died at an early age.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
19 Poor diets can lead to such diseases as rickets and scurvy.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
20 People in the past preferred standing up to lying down when sleeping.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
21 An Englishman invented the fridge in the l920s.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
22 Life was not easy for many children living 100 years ago.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
Transport and Trade
1 Transport is one of the aids to trade. By moving goods from places where they are plentiful to places where-they are scarce, transport adds to their value. The more easily goods can be brought over the distance that separates producer and consumer, the better for trade. When there were no railways, no good roads, no canals, and only small sailing ships, trade was on a small scale.
2 The great advances made in transport during the last two hundred years were accompanied by a big increase in trade. Bigger and faster ships enabled a trade in meat to develop between. Britain and New Zealand, for instance. Quicker transport makes possible mass-production and big business, drawing supplies from, and selling goods to, all parts of the globe. Big factories could not exist without transport to carry the large number of workers they need to and from their homes. Big city stores could not have developed unless customers could travel easily from the suburbs and goods delivered to their homes. Big cities could not survive unless food could be brought from a distance.
3 Transport also prevents waste. Much of the fish landed at the ports would be wasted if it could not be taken quickly to inland towns. Transport has given US a much greater, variety of foods and goods since we no longer have to live on what is produced locally. Foods which at one time could be obtained only during a part of the year can now be obtained all through the year. Transport has raised the standard of living.
4 By moving fuel, raw materials, and even power, as, for example, through electric cables, transport has led to the establishment of industries and trade in areas where they would have been impossible before. Districts and countries can concentrate on making things which they can do better and more cheaply than others and can then exchange them with one another. The cheaper and quicker transport becomes, the longer the distance over which goods can profitably be carried. Countries with poor transport have a lower standard of living.
5 Commerce requires not only the moving of goods and people but also the carrying of messages and information. Means of communication, like telephones, cables and radio, send information about prices, supplies, and changing conditions in different parts of the world. In this way, advanced communication systems also help to develop trade.
23 Paragraph 2 ________
24 Paragraph 3 ________
25 Paragraph 4 ________
26 Paragraph 5 ________
A Higher living standard
B Importance of transport in trade
C Various means of transport
D Birth of transport—related industries and trade
E Role of information in trade
F Public transportation
27 The development of modern means of transport ________
28 only when goods can be carried to all parts of the world quickly ________
29 Transport has made it possible for people to eat whatever food they want ________
30 In the trade of modern society the transmission of information plays as important a role as ________
A to send goods to various parts of the world
B at any time during the year
C has greatly promoted trade
D is it possible to produce on a large scale
E the transport of goods
F it is possible to produce on a large scale.
第一篇 Harmless Revenge
Revenge is one of those things that everyone enjoys. People don’t like to talk about it, though. Just the same, there is nothing more satisfying or more rewarding than revenge. The purpose is not to harm your victims but to let them know that you are upset about something that they are doing to you. Careful plotting can provide you with relief from bothersome co-workers, gossiping friends, or nagging family members.
Coworkers who make comments about the fact that you are always fifteen minutes late for
work can be taken care of very simply. All you have to do is get up extra early one day. Before the sun comes up, drive to each coworker's house. Reach under the hood of your coworker's car and disconnect the center wire that leads to the distributor cap, the car will be unharmed, but it will not start, and your friends at work will all be late for work on the same day. If you're lucky, your boss might notice that you are the only one there and will give you a raise.
Gossiping friends at school are also perfect targets for a simple act of revenge. A way to trap either male or female friends is to leave phony messages on their lockers. If the friend that you want to get is male, leave a message that a certain girl would like him to stop by her house later that day. With any luck, her boyfriend will be there. The girl won’t know what's going on, and the victim will be so embarrassed that he probably won't leave his home for a month.
When Morn and Dad and your sisters and brothers really begin to annoy you, harmless revenge may be just the way to make them quiet down for a while. The dinner table is a likely place. Just before the meal begins, throw a handful of raisins into the food. Wait about five minutes and, after everyone has begun to eat, cover your mouth with your hand and begin to make odd noises. When they ask you what the matter is, point to a raisin and yell, "Bugs!" They dump their food in the disposal, jump into the car，and head for McDonald's. That night, you'll have your first quiet, peaceful meal in a long time.
A well-planned revenge does not have to hurt anyone. The object is simply to let other people know that they are beginning to bother you.
31 According to the passage, a harmless revenge is ________.
A to amuse the victim
B to react to those who bother you
C to prevent one from disturbing others
D to hurt nobody emotionally
32 As a harmless revenge, you might come first and get a raise by ________.
A making your colleagues come late
B getting up earlier than your colleagues
C destroying your colleagues' cars
D pleasing your boss
33 Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the second example? ________.
A The girl received a phony message.
B The victim was invited by the girl.
C The girl managed to revenge the victim harmlessly.
D The girl wasn't expecting the victim.
34 The family members dumped their food in the disposal because ________.
A they thought their food had been spoiled
B they wanted to eat out
C they wanted to have a peaceful meal
D they didn't like the food with raisins
35 The main topic of the passage is how to ________.
A avoid nagging family members
B silence gossiping friends
C make a harmless revenge
D deal with bothersome coworkers
第二篇 The Only Way Is Up
Think of a modem city and the first image that come to mind is the skyline. It is full of great buildings, pointing like fingers to heaven. It is true that some cities don't permit buildings to go above a certain height. But these are cities concerned with the past. The first thing any city does when it wants to tell the world that it has arrived is to build skyscrapers.
When people gather together in cities, they create a demand for land. Since cities are places where money is made, that demand can be met. And the best way to make money out of city land is to put as many people as possible in a space that covers the smallest amount of ground. That means building upwards.
The technology existed to do this as early as the 19th century. But the height of buildings was limited by one important factor. They had to be small enough for people on the top floors to climb stairs. People could not be expected to climb a mountain at the end of their journey to work, or home.
Elisha Otis, a US inventor, was the man who brought us the lift-or elevator, as he preferred to call it. However, most of the technology is very old. Lifts work using the same pulley system the Egyptians used to create the Pyramids. What Otis did was attach the system to a steam engine and develop the elevator brake, which stops the lift falling if the cords that hold it up are broken. It was this that did the most to gain public confidence in the new invention. In fact, he spent a number of years exhibiting lifts at fairgrounds, giving people the chance to try them out before selling the idea to architects and builders..
A lift would not be a very good theme park attraction now. Going in a lift is such an everyday thing that it would just be boring. Yet psychologists and others who study human behavior find lifts fascinating. The reason is simple. Scientists have always studied animals in zoos. The nearest they can get to that with humans is in observing them in lifts.
"It breaks all the usual conventions about the bubble of personal space we carry around with us -- and you just can't choose to move away," says workplace psychologist, Gary Fitzgibbon. Being trapped in this setting can create different types of tensions, he says. Some people are scared of them. Others use them as an opportunity to get close to the boss. Some stand close to the door. Others hide in the comers. Most people try and shrink into the background. But some behave in a way that makes others notice them. There are a few people who just stand in a comer taking notes.
Don't worry about them. They are probably from a university.
36. "...these are cities concerned with the past" in the first paragraph refer to cities that
A) are worried about their past.
B) have a glorious past to be proud of.
C) want to maintain their traditional image.
D) are very interested in their own history.
37. The difficulty in constructing tall buildings in the 19th century lies in
A) the shortage of money.
B) the lack of a device to carry people upward.
C) backward technology.
D) mountains taking up land space.
38. When Otis came up with the idea of a lift,
A) he sold it to the architects and builders immediately
B) the Egyptians used it to build the Pyramids.
C) it was accepted favorably by the public.
D) most people had doubt about its safety.
39. Which of the following best describes the experience of going in a lift now?
40. Psychologists find the lift a good place where they can study human behaviour because
A) here humans behave the way animals do.
B) people in a lift are all scared.
C) here some people take notes.
D) in a lift the bubble of personal space breaks.
第三篇 Sino—Japan Animosity Lessens
Chinese and Japanese people view each other slightly more positively than last year, according to a survey released on Wednesday at a press conference in Beijing.
The survey is jointly sponsored by China Daily and Genron NPO, a Japanese think tank similar to the American Council on Foreign Relations. It also found overwhelming agreement in both countries that Sino-Japanese relations were important.
The survey is a part of the Beijing-Tokyo Forum, an annual gathering of senior government officials and representatives from Chinese and Japanese NGOs designed to improve communication and understanding between the two countries.
Conducted every year for five years now, the survey focused on two different groups of people: ordinary citizens, and intellectuals. In China, the intellectual group was comprised mainly of university students from well-known schools like Peking University. In Japan, the “intellectual” group was mainly made up of previous members of Genron NPO.
Among ordinary Chinese polled, 35.7 percent said they have “very good” or “relatively good” impressions of Japan, a 5.5-percentage-point increase compared with last year. 45.2 percent of Chinese students had a positive impression of Japan, two percentage points more than last year. Only 26.6 percent of Japanese have a positive impression of China, however..
Still, an overwhelming majority of the respondents from each country said Sino-Japanese relations were “important” and wanted their leaders to deepen talks and cooperation with each other.
But 51.9 percent of ordinary people and 42.4 percent of students in China said they saw no change in relations between the two countries over the last year. In Japan, 64.8 percent of those ordinary people and 53.4 percent of intellectuals surveyed shared the view that there was no improvement in bilateral ties this year.
Historical issues and territorial disputes remain two major obstacles to improving bilateral relations, the survey found. What concerns the Chinese most are historical issues, visits by Japanese officials to Yasukuni Shrine, and the Nanjing Massacre.
Perceptions on economic and trade relations, have improved, though. About 47 percent of ordinary Japanese said China had been “helpful” this year in fighting the global economic crisis compared with just 30 percent last year.The percent of Japanese intellectuals who said Chinese economic growth was good for Japan increased from 65.8 percent to 8 1.4 percent this year.
Cooperation in East Asian issues，trade and investment，energy, and the environment and climate change top the list of common concerns that people in China and Japan want their leaders to talk about in bilateral meetings，the survey found.
Civil exchanges were regarded by the most people from the both countries as an important way to improve relations.90.7 percent of the students and 85.7 percent of the ordinary people in China and 95.8%of intellectuals and 74.8%of the ordinary people in Japan viewed civil exchanges as “important” or “relatively important”.
Chinese and Japanese both learn about each other’s countries mostly through television news and newspapers，the survey found.
41.Which of the following statements about the survey is true?
A)The survey was conducted on Wednesday at a press conference in Beijing.
B)The survey is jointly sponsored by China Daily, Genron NPO and the American Council on Foreign Relations.
C)The survey found that people in both China and Japan generally agree that the relationship between the two countries is important.
D)The survey mainly focused on two different groups of people：ordinary citizens，and the university students.
42.According to the passage，the Beijing—Tokyo Forum
A)is held every year in Beijing.
B)aims at promoting communication between the two countries.
C)mainly attracts representatives from the governments of the two countries.
D)releases a survey on Sino—Japanese relation every five years.
43.In the last year, %of ordinary Chinese and %of Chinese students have a
positive impression of Japan.
44.Which of the following is NOT mentioned as the major obstacles to improving bilateral ties?
B) trade frictions
C) visits by Japanese officials to Yasukuni Shrine
D) the Nanjing Massacre
45. The survey found that
A) most Japanese had good or relatively good impressions of China.
B) the bilateral relationship was perceived as being improved over last year by the majority of respondents from the both countries.
C) an overwhelming majority of the respondents from each country believed that the Civil exchanges were an important way to improve relations.
D) The territorial issue ranked among the top list of common concerns that people in both countries want their leaders to talk about in bilateral meetings.
False Fear of Big Fish
Many people believe sharks(鲨鱼)are dangerous and will always try to hurt or even kill humans. ____46____
A shark exhibition at the National Aquarium(水族馆)in Baltimore，US，proves this. Visitors can touch young sharks, see their eggs develop and watch a dozen different species swim smoothly around a huge tank..
Most people fail to realize that shark attacks don't happen very often. Humans are more likely to be killed by lightning than by a shark.. ____47____ There, kids can learn, from an early age, not to fear sharks.
"People fear what they don't know. " said Nancy Hotchkiss, an organizer of the exhibition. "Sharks have been around for 400 million years and play an important role in the ocean's food chain. We want people to discover that sharks are amazing animals that need our respect and protection."
____48____ A study, published in January in the US magazine, Science, found that almost all recorded shark species have fallen by half in the past 8 to 15 years.
Thousands of sharks are hunted in Asia for special foods, such as shark fin(鱼翅)soup. And many others get caught in nets, while fishermen are hunting other fish. ____49____
"Some fishing methods are actually cleaning out the ocean for sharks." said Dave Schofield, the manager of the aquarium's ocean health programme. ____50____
A They can watch them develop inside their eggs and feel the skin of the older swimmers.
B A shocking 100 million sharks are killed every year around the world by humans.
C In fact, 94 percent of the world's 400 species are harmless to humans.
D It is a worrying Situation and some areas have put measures in place to protect these special fish.
E And to make this point clear, the museum has set up a special touching pool for children.
F More than half of the sharks caught are smaller than I metre long.
On the Net Friends Come and Go, Talking of...
The young woman was visibly 51 and clearly wanted to get something off her chest.
"What's up?" I 52___.
"I've just been defriended," she said.
Now "defriended" is a word _53 I am not familiar. I have been befriended 54 and befriended- many people since arriving in Beijing. But defriended ?
It turns 55 this is a new word created by the Internet-savvy younger generation specifically in relation to the worldwide social networking phenomenon, Facebook.
Those who join can invite friends to become members of the site,56. They can then share photographs, "chat", swap messages and observations and perform a host of other mutually accessible applications.
I've seen some people's sites _57.__ hundreds of friends, all moments away down a fiber optic Cable, providing they are logged on to their computers or hooked up to a high-spec cell phone.
It creates the possibility of "befriending" anyone in the world who has online access. Currently, Facebook has 150 million users. That means there's a lot of "friends" out there.
The 58 is that you can be "defriended" - you can be denied access to the Facebook site someone who had previously invited to be his or her friend. And you can do it without the potential for instant recrimination.
Where once, in the school playground, one child might have petulantly shouted 59 another, "I'm not going to be your friend any more", now the same hurt and loss of face can be performed remotely with the click of a button.
A 60 aspect of " defriending" is that, unlike with other applications such as the "what are you thinking about?" posting a digital depository of the often dire, 61 , dull and desperate, no message is sent out alerting you or your contacts about the change in status. You only find out you have 62 when you try to visit a "friend's" site, and you find you can no longer get in. the delay of the discovery is all too often doubly hurtful.
Just as bombs are dispatched impersonally __63 an unseen enemy in modem warfare, 64 relationships are blown out of the window with the same callous disregard, without the risk of any face-to-face comeback. One second you are there, 65 you are deleted..
51. A) satisfied B) friendly C) moved D) upset
52. A) complained B) explained C) inquired D) argued
53. A)with which B) in which C) which D) that ,
54. A) on B) by C) with D) in
55. A) about B) out C) around D) in
56. A) too B) either C) yet D) neither
57. A) exaggerating B) overstating C) boasting D) showing off
58. A) benefit B) advantage C) downside D) merit
59. A) at B) in C) on D) farward
60. A) neutral B) controversial C) astonishing D) remarkable
61. A) exciting B) dreary C) cheerful D) bright
62. A) been dumped B) dumped C) being dumped D) dumping
63. A) forward B) for C) into D) against
64. A) and B) since C) so D) but
65. A) the next B) the last C) the first D) a next