1. The local authorities will take measures to deal with noise pollution in the area.
2.Hundreds of cyclists assembled in Central Park in Pudong this morning to take part in the event.
3.In case of emergency, please follow the orders of the ship crew.
4.They ate in the kitchen as they normally did.
5.He likes swimming, but I like going out for a walk.
6.There is less criminal now. it seems that there is a fall in the crime rate.
7.We were so greatly attracted by the beauty of the West Lake that we decided to visit Hangzhou again the next year.
8.During the construction of skyscrapers, cranes are used to lift building materials to the upper floors.
9.In the United States, it is customary for families to gather on Thanksgiving Day.
10.The town is famous for its magnificent church towers.
11.There are a limited number of books on this subject in the library.
12.Don’t hesitate to let me know if there is anything I can do for you.
13.Merge the following two short sentences into one new sentence.
14.Color changes in chameleons seem to be caused by environmental temperature as well as by other external stimulus.
15.Their sole fault was a failure to recognize all the factors involved.
Eruptions of Mount Saint Helens
On March 27, the US Government scientists made a decision after they predicted the eruption of Mount Saint Helens. They telephoned all states and local officials in the area and told them that a serious eruption was possible at any time. Roads were closed to every one except scientists and forest keepers struggled to keep curious visitors away from the mountain.
Shortly after noon on March 27, Mount Saint Helens erupted for the first time in 123 years. People living north of the mountain heard a loud boom that shock their windows, and airline pilots flying near the volcano soon afterwards described a thick black column of ash and steam shooting more than 2,100 meters into the sky.
Later, scientists found that the explosion had made a new crater in the top of the mountain, not far from the old crater. The north side of the peak now had a huge bulge where rock and ice had been pushed out by the eruption.
A second eruption shook the mountain on March 28. It, too, sent up a column of black ash high into the sky. By March 29, scientists flying over the mountain saw that a second crater formed about 9 meters from the first one. Strange blue flames flickered inside the crater and sometimes jumped from one crater to the other.
By April 1 the mountain had erupted several more times and the snow on the north slope of the peak was black with ash. Ash carried by the wind had fallen on towns as far as 240kilometers away from Mount Saint Helens.
During the first week of April, Mount Saint Helens gave scientists something new to worry about. Harmonic tremors recorded by scientists showed a big eruption would happen. All during April and into May Mount Saint Helens continued to shudder and shoot out ash. By April 8, the two craters had merged to form a vast hole nearly a half of a kilometer wide and 250 meters deep.
Scientists’ main worry during this time was the growing bulge of rock and ice on the north face of the mountain. By May 7 scientists feared the worst. Their warnings led Washington Governor to set up safety zones around the mountain. The inner “red” zone was open to scientists only. The outer “blue” zone was open only to people who got special permits. But in spite of these warnings, some people got past the road barriers and risked their lives trying to get close to the volcano.
16.American scientists predicted that Mount Saint Helens was to erupt soon.
17.Pilots flying at the height of more than 2,100 meters saw a thick black column of ash and steam shooting up into the air from the crater.
18.A new crater, which was to the south of the old one, was formed after the second eruption.
19.The quakes recorded during the first week of April in the area of Mount Saint Helens warned scientists of a new eruption.
20.Two scientists lost their lives during the second eruption of Mount Saint Helens.
21.Most of the dreadful eruptions of Mount Saint Helens took place in early May.
22.The eruption of Mount Saint Helens attracted a large number of foreign tourists.
1 White light seems to be a combination of all colors. The energy that comes from a source of light is not limited to the kind of energy you can see. Heat is given off by a flame or an electric light. On a cloudy day it is possible to get a sunburn even though you feel cool. Visible light and the kinds of energy that produce warmth and sunburn are examples of electromagnetic energy.
2 The sun is 93 million miles from the earth. Yet we can use energy from the sun because electromagnetic energy travels through space.
3 Many other kinds of energy are also types of electromagnetic energy. Radio, television and radar signals travel from transmitters to receivers as low-energy than waves of radio, television or radar. Ultraviolet rays and X-rays are electromagnetic waves with even greater amounts of energy. Infrared radiation is used in cooking food and heating buildings. Sunlight and electric lights are part of our requirements for normal living. Ultraviolet radiation is useful in killing certain disease organisms. X-rays and gamma rays have so much energy that they travel right through solid objects. They can be used to detect and treat cancer. X-rays are used in industry to find hidden cracks in metal and in medicine to reveal broken bones.
4 Usually we use electricity to generate electromagnetic energy. The source of most of our energy is the sun. Heat from the sun causes water to evaporate. When the water falls to the earth as rain, some of it is trapped behind dams and then used to operate electric generators. Other generators are powered by coal, but the energy stored in coal came from the sun, too.
5 Until recently, the source of the tremendous amount of energy given off by the sun was a puzzle. If the sun depended on chemical reactions, it would have used up all its energy long ago. Experiments with electromagnetic radiation led to the theory that mass can be converted into energy. About forty years after the theory was proposed, nuclear energy was harnessed by man. Chemical energy comes from electron rearrangement. Nuclear energy comes from a change in the nucleus of an atom. Compared with chemical reactions, nuclear reactions release millions of times more energy per pound of fuel. We now believe that the sun’s energy comes from the nuclear reactions in which hydrogen is changed in to helium.
6 Nuclear energy is beginning to compete with coal as an economical source of power to generate electricity. It is also being used to operate engines in large ships. Scientists continue to seek new and better methods of obtaining and using energy.
23.Paragraph 3 _________.
24.Paragraph 4 _________.
25.Paragraph 5 _________.
26.Paragraph 6 _________.
A.The most important source of energy.
B.Types of electromagnetic energy
C.The machines used for energy generation
D.Seeking new sources of energy
E.The use of ultraviolet radiation in medicine
F.Nuclear reactions as the lasting source of the sun’s energy.
27.One can get a sunburn even _____________.
28.Infrared radiation can produce heat ___________.
29.X-rays and gamma rays can be used to detect and treat cancer ___________.
30.Chemical energy is generated ___________.
A.when it is cloudy
B.because they can pass through solid objects
C.when the sun-rays are fierce
D.when a change in the nucleus of an atom takes place
E.when electron rearrangement takes place
F.when it is absorbed by matter
Once upon a time there was a great Greek hero, Hercules. He was taller and stronger than anyone you have ever seen. On his shoulder he carried a club and in his hand he held a bow(弓). He was known as the hero of a hundred adventures.
Hercules served a king. The king was afraid of him. So again and again he sent him of difficult tasks. One morning the king sent for him and told him to fetch three golden apples for him from the garden of the Singing Maidens(歌女). But no one knew where the garden was.
So Hercules went away. He walked the whole day and the next day and the next day and the next. He walked for months before he saw mountains far in the distance one fine morning. One of the mountains was in the shape of a man, with long, long legs and arms and huge shoulders and a huge head. He was holding up the sky. Hercules knew it was Atlas, the Mountain God. So she asked him for help.
Atlas answered, “My head and arms and shoulders all ache. Could you hold up the sky while I fetch the golden apples for you?”
Hercules climbed the mountain and shouldered the sky. Soon the sky grew very heavy. When finally Atlas came back with three golden apples, he said, “Well, you are going to carry the mountain for ever. I’m going to see the king with the apples.” Hercules knew that he couldn’t fight him because of the sky on his back. So he shouted: “Just one minute’s help. My shoulders are hurting. Hold the sky for a minute while I make a cushion(垫子) for my shoulders.”
Atlas believed him. He threw down the apples and held up the sky.
Hercules picked up the apples and ran back to see the king.
31.What do you know about Hercules according to the first paragraph?
A.He was a Greek hero
B.He was a king
C.He was the Mountain God
D.He was a man working in the king’s garden
32.Hercules was given many difficult tasks because
A.he was the strongest man
B.the king wanted to get rid of him
C.the king wanted to test his strength
D.those tasks had to be done anyway
33.Which of the following can best describe Atlas according to the text?
A.He looked like a mountain.
B.He was a man with huge shoulders and arms.
C.He was a man with long legs and a huge head.
D.He was the giant who held up the sky.
34.Atlas got the golden apples for Hercules because
A.he wanted to help Hercules.
B.he was afraid of Hercules.
C.he did not want to hold the sky any more.
D.he wanted to be the king himself.
35.Hercules finally managed to get the apples
A.by fooling Atlas.
B.by defeating Atlas.
C.because he ran faster than Atlas
D.because Atlas threw down the apples.
As a boy, Tim was much influenced by books about the sea, but in fact by the age of fifteen h had decided to become a doctor rather than a sailor. His father was a dentist and as a result Tim has the opportunity of meeting many doctors either at home or elsewhere. When he was fourteen he was already hanging around the dispensary (药房) of the local doctor where he was supposed to be helping to wrap up medicine bottles, but was actually trying to listen to the conversations taking place between the doctor and his patients in the next room.
During the war, Tim served in the Navy as a surgeon. “That was the happiest time of my life, doing major surgery. I was dealing with very real suffering and on the whole making a success of it”. In Rhodes (罗得岛) he taught the country people simple facts about medicine. He saw himself as a life-saver. He had proved his skill to himself and his ability to take decisions. With this proof came the firm belief that those who lived simply possessed qualities and a secret of living which he lacked. Thus, while he was able to tell them what to do, he could feel he was serving them.
After the war, he got married and chose a practice in the English countryside, working under an old doctor who was popular in the area, but who hated the sight of blood and believed that the secret of medicine was faith. This gave the younger man many opportunities to go on working as a life-saver.
36.Tim decided to become a doctor at 15 mainly because
A.his father wanted him to be so.
B.he had read many books about medicine.
C.his father was a surgeon himself.
D.he had met doctors through his father.
37.When Tim was in the dispensary of the local doctor, he
A.was expected to help the doctor.
B.read many books there.
C.participated in the conversations.
D.often went to the next room.
38.During the war, Tim
A.became a sailor.
B.worked as surgeon.
C.lost interest in work
D.didn’t achieve success.
39.When Tim was working in Rhodes, he
A.wanted to live like the country people.
B.wanted to prove his abilities and skills.
C.discovered the virtues of a simple life.
D.taught life-saving to his patients.
40.When the war was over, Tim
A.continued working as a surgeon
B.got married and lived in the city
C.chose a junior partner to work with.
D.decided to give up medicine for faith.
Earth's North and South Poles are famous for being cold and icy. Last year, however, the amount of ice in the Arctic Ocean fell to a record low.
Normally, ice builds in Arctic waters around the North Pole each winter and shrinks during the summer. But for many years, the amount of ice left by the end of summer has been declining.
Since 1979, each decade has seen an 11.4 percent drop in end-of-summer ice cover. Between 1981 and 2000, ice in the Arctic lost 22 percent of its thickness -- becoming 1.13 meters thinner.
Last summer, Arctic sea ice reached its skimpiest levels yet. By the end of summer 2007, the ice had shrunk to cover just 4.2 million square kilometers. That's 38 percent less area than the average cover at that time of year. And it's a very large 23 percent below the previous record low, which was set just 2 years ago. This continuing trend has scientists concerned.
There may be several reasons for the ice melt, says Jinlun Zhang, an oceanographer at the University of Washington in Seattle. Unusually strong winds blew through the Arctic last summer. The winds pushed much of the ice out of the central Arctic, leaving a large area of thin ice and open water.
Scientists also suspect that fewer clouds cover the Arctic now than in the past. Clearer skies allow more sunlight to reach the ocean. The extra heat warms both the water and the atmosphere. In parts of the Arctic Ocean last year, surface temperatures were 3.5℃Celsius warmer than average and 1.5℃ warmer than the previous record high.
With both air and water getting warmer, the ice is melting from both above and below. In some parts of the Beaufort Sea, north of Alaska and western Canada, ice that measured 3.3m thick at the beginning of the summer measured just 50 centimeters by season's end.
The new measurements suggest that melting is far more severe than scientists have seen by just looking at ice cover from above, says Donald K. Perovich, a geophysicist at the U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory in Hanover, N.H.
Some scientists fear that the Arctic is stuck in a warming trend from which it may never recover.
41.Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word "build" in the first sentence of the second paragraph?
42.What is the ice cover in the Arctic by the end of 2007 summer?
A.4.2 million square kilometers.
B.11.4 million square kilometers.
C.1.13 million square kilometers.
D.38 million square kilometers.
43.What are the reasons for the ice melt according to the scientists?
A.Strong winds and clear skies.
B.Long summer and short winter.
C.Open water and thin ice.
D.Light clouds and light winds.
44.Why is the ice melting from both above and below?
A.Because extra heat warms the air.
B.Because extra heat warms the water.
C.Because the temperature above the water is higher.
D.Both A and B.
45.What can be a possible title for the passage?
A.What are scientists looking for in the Arctic Ocean?
B.What are scientists doing in the Arctic Ocean?
C.Why are scientists worrying about the Arctic Ocean?
D.Why are scientists interested in the Arctic Ocean?
The Invader of AIDS
The invader is small, even in the microscopic world of bacteria and viruses. It is alive only in the strictest sense of the world. It had no intelligence, no means of mobility, no methods of defense in the outside world. It is fragile, easily killed by common household bleach (漂白剂) and even short periods outside the body. ________(46). It is the AIDS virus and it is a killer.
AIDS is a disease caused by a virus that breaks down part of the body’s immune system, leaving a person defenseless against a variety of unusual life-threatening illnesses.
The body’s immune system normally provides us the weapons we need to win constant battles with invading viruses, bacteria and other invading organisms. His defense system is powerful but not perfect. ________(48). We do not even know that anything is happening.
But the AIDS virus acts differently from other invaders. It attacks the very cells that normally protect us. ________(49). It turns our own white blood cells into mini-factories or making more viruses. Each time a cell is taken over, it fills up with thousands of new viruses, dies and releases those viruses which attack more white blood cells. After enough attacks, our defense system is weakened and certain infections and conditions that we normally fight off with no problem take advantage of his weakness.
________(50). The person dies. There are no cure for AIDS, so learning about the disease and how to avoid it are our only weapons.
A.Yet it may be the most dangerous enemy in human history.
B.Whatever condition develops because of AIDS, the outcome is always the same.
C.It gets inside these cells into mini-factors or making more virus.
D.Each of the letter in AIDS stands for a work: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
E.The patients who suffer from AIDS have characteristic features.
F.Most attacks are detected and beaten off with ease.
Seeing Red Means Danger Ahead
The color red often means danger - and by paying attention, 51 can be prevented. At railroad crossings, flashing red fights warn cars to stay back. A red light at a traffic intersection tells cars to stop, so 52 don't run into other cars.
In the future, the color red also may help prevent danger 53 construction sites. Thanks to new work by engineers, bridge supports - or other kinds of materials - could one day contain a color-changing material. It will turn red 54 a structure collapses or falls 55 . A tiny molecule may make a big difference in future warning systems.
A polymer 56 a color-changing molecule called a mechanophore turns red seconds before it snaps. The technology may one day allow damage to materials or structures to be easily 57 .
The secret behind the color-changing material is a particular type of molecule. A molecule is a group of atoms held together by 58 bonds. Molecules come in all shapes and sizes, and make up 59 you can see, touch or feel. How a molecule behaves depends on what kinds of atoms it contains, and how they're held together.
When a polymer containing a color-changing molecule called a mechanophore is about to breaks, it produces a color. When a polymer with mechanophore molecules becomes "injured" or 60 , one of the mechanophore bonds breaks and the material turns red. "It's a really simple detection method," says Nancy Sottos, one of the scientists who worked on the project. "We're 61 up this one bond, and it changes color." Sottos and her team tested the color-changing polymers in their lab. The test 62 proved encouraging.
There is a way to get rid of~ the red color: 63 . When a bright light is shone on the mechanophore, the broken bond is fixed——and the red color disappears. This "self-healing" may be a problem for engineers. They need to use the color-changer in big construction projects that will be 64 , in sunlight. And sunlight will make the mechanophore's warning system useless.
Sottos and her fellow scientists still have 65 work to do before the color-changing molecules can be used outside the lab.
51. A.measures B.accidents C.actions D.collapses
52. A.they B.it C.some D.most
53. A.with B.over C.at D.in
54. A.before B.after C.once D.while
55. A.together B.behind C.down D.apart
56. A.contacting B.conducting C.containing D.considering
57. A.controlled B.spotted C.repaired D.changed
58. A.technical B.electronic C.physical D.chemical
59. A.everything B.something C.nothing D.anything
60. A.weak B.strong C.tough D.soft
61. A.using B.opening C.turning D.finishing
62. A.laws B.theories C.tools D.results
63. A.air B.electricity C.light D.sound
64. A.aside B.beside C.inside D.outside
65. A.a part of B.a pair of C.a piece of D.a lot of.