1. We tried to restrict our conversation to arguments relevant to the topic.
2.There is a tendency to consider childless women as being hard and career-orientated.
3.The water in this part of the river has been contaminated by sewage.
4.Don’t be so innocent as to believe everything the advertisements say.
5.He comprehends the theory of relativity.
6.He donated 1,000 RMB to those flood victims last year.
7.I was so excited to see snow that I was indifferent to the cold.
8.We have met with some unexpected difficulties.
9.John has always remained loyal to his family and friends.
10.He maintained that the opinion was wrong.
11.The dagger has penetrated his stomach through his coat.
12.In the darkness, the hunter perceived that something was moving in the bushes.
13.Is the clock in the tower accurate?
14.He is accustomed to working hard.
15.The mail was delayed for a week because of the flood.
Doctors, sixty years ago, could do little to help victims of polio. Serious cases usually ended in death. In 1955, a vaccine was developed that prevented the disease. Today, polio is no longer a major health problem.
Many of the most important drugs that doctors prescribe today have been developed in the last 30 years. Modern drugs are complex, specific and powerful. People need to know more about drugs in order to use them safely.
Early people discovered by accident that some of the plants growing around them seemed useful to heal sores, relieve pain or even cure diseases. These plants were the first drugs. Now plants are still the source of some drugs. Quinine, for example, is a bitter-tasting drug used to treat the chills and fever of malaria and to reduce attacks of the disease. It is made from the bark of the cinchona tree, which grows in the Andes Mountains. The Indians of that region were the first to use the bark as a medicine. The Spanish people probably brought it to Europe in the early 1600s. Chemists learned how to get the pure drug from the bark. And in 1944, it was made artificially in the laboratory.
Other important drugs, such as hormones and vaccines, are obtained from animals. But most of the modern drugs come from chemical combinations worked out by research scientists. Most people never see drugs in their simple form as chemicals. Instead, they are seen as tablets, capsules or liquids that contain the drug and other ingredients.
People use drugs to get different results. Some drugs attack the organism that causes a disease. They cure by killing the organism. Other drugs relieve what we call the symptoms of the disease: the headache, pain, fever, or chills, and make the patient more comfortable. These constitute most over-the-counter drugs. People can get them in drug stores.
16.The main idea of this passage is the development of drugs.
17.Today polio disappears in that polio is no longer a health problem.
18.It seems to the author that the medicine used by early people was probably effective.
19.The Spanish first learned how to used quinine as a medicine.
20.Hormones are obtained from animals.
21.People can use drugs in two aspects, such as curing cancer and relieving headache.
22.The “over-the-counter drugs” are those that patients can get without doctors’ prescriptions.
The Processes of Immunity
1 Immunity can be defined as the power of an individual to resist or overcome the effects of a particular disease or some other harmful agent. Sometimes the words “immunity” and “resistance” are used interchangeably; but it is more accurate to think of immunity as a process which causes the effect of the invading bacteria to be unable to work before they have had a chance to set up an infection.
2 The chemical processes that produce immunity can be described briefly as follows. Every disease-producing bacterium that enters the body carries within itself a substance.
3 These antibodies destroy the poisonous substance of the disease-producing bacteria, or else act on them in a way that will make the bacteria more sensitive to the action of the white blood cells or other phagocytes. Antigens vary in their chemical structure and specific antigen will stimulate the body to produce only a specific antibody in response to it.
4 The antibody, then, will react only with the kind of antigen that caused its production and no other. This is the reason for the selective nature of immunity so that immunity to one disease does not necessarily cause a person to be immune to another. Indeed, it is possible to have immunity to one disease and sensitivity, its opposite, to a different disease. So it is useful to consider immunity as a selective process. This selective characteristic has a name; specificity.
5 There are two main groups of immunity: inherited immunity and acquired immunity. This second type may be acquired by natural or artificial means. In addition, an acquired immunity may be either active or passive.
23.Paragraph 2 ________.
24.Paragraph 3 ________.
25.Paragraph 4 ________.
26.Paragraph 5 ________.
A.The Definition of Immunity
B.The Process of Antibodies
C.The Functions of Antibodies
D.The Specific Character of Immunity
E.Two Types of Immunity
F.The Functions of Immunity
27.Antibodies were produced when _____.
28.The antibody will react only with _____.
29.Two main groups of immunity are _____.
30.Natural or artificial means acquire _____.
A.inherited immunity and acquired immunity
B.the antigen is introduced into the body
E.antigens vary in their chemical structure.
F.The kind of antigen that caused its production and no other
Blood Test May Detect Cancer Early
A new blood test may someday make it possible for doctors to diagnose cancer even before a patient develops symptoms.
The new test, developed by Dr Jonathan W. Uhr of the University of Texas and his colleagues, is so sensitive that it can detect one cancer cell in a milliliter of blood.
“Cancer cells are shed from a primary tumor early in the life history of the tumor,” Uhr explained. “The shedding of these cells can be used as a screening test, potentially, for early tumors.”
To identify epithelial cells ---- cells associated with 80% of cancers ---- among other cells in the blood, Uhr’s team mixed iron particles into blood samples. The particles were coated with substances that react with epithelial cells and caused them to separate from red and white blood cells. Then, under a laser beam, epithelial cells appeared to be a different color from other blood cells, and the researchers could count them using a microscope.
Uhr and his colleagues used this method to test blood from 30 patients with breast cancer, 3 patients with prostate cancer, and 13 healthy subjects. Samples from cancer patients showed significantly more epithelial cells than samples from healthy subjects. The research team found epithelial cells even in most cases of early disease, including samples from 12 of the 14 patients whose breast cancer had not spread beyond the breast.
In a separate study, the investigators tested blood samples from eight patients with breast cancer, at various intervals over 1 to 10 months. It showed that the number of cancer cells is the blood fell or disappeared during chemotherapy and rose again if tumors grew again.
“At this time, we believe the most important test of the usefulness of our method is to screen for early detection of cancers in the general population,” Uhr’s group concluded.
“Another objective would be to be able to predict,” said Uhr. “We want to be able to determine when these tumor cells in the blood are aggressive, and treatment is needed, versus when this is a shedding that is harmless. But it will take many, many years and many patients to determine that.”
31.Dr. Uhr’s new test can be used to find the number of
A.iron particles in a blood sample.
B.epithelial cells in a blood sample.
C.blood cells in a blood sample.
D.tumors in a human body.
32.Uhr’s team mixed iron particles into blood samples
A.to identify red blood cells.
B.to separate epithelial cells from red and white blood cells.
C.to identify white blood cells.
D.to identify the color of cancers.
33.In another study, Dr. Uhr and his colleagues found that the patients’ epithelial cells
A.would increase if these patients’ condition turned better.
B.would decrease if these patients’ condition turned better.
C.didn’t change in number.
D.had nothing to do with chemotherapy.
34.For Dr. Uhr and his colleagues, at present, it is most important to
A.detect breast cancer among women.
B.detect prostate cancer among men.
C.detect cancers in their early stage among people in general.
D.find out how many people have been screened for possible cancers.
35.What Dr. Uhr said indicates that he and his colleagues are not sure yet
A.how to kill aggressive tumor cells.
B.how to tell an aggressive tumor cell from a harmless shedding.
C.if aggressive tumor cells exist.
D.if their method is useful.
Do Patients Trust Doctors Too Much?
Earlier this year, the American College of Surgeons, the national scientific and educational organization of surgeons, conducted a nationwide survey that found that the average patient devotes an hour or less to researching his or her surgery or less to researching his surgery or surgeon. While prospective patients worry about the costs or complications of an operation, they don't necessarily look for information that would address their concerns.
In fact, more than a third of patients who had an operation in the last five years never reviewed the credentials of the surgeon who operated. Patients are more likely to spend time researching a job change (on average, about 10 hours) or a new car (8 hours) than the operation they are about to submit to or the surgeon who wields the knife. And many patients are satisfied with the answers they receive from their surgeon or primary care doctor, whoever those individuals happen to me.
I felt curious about the survey, so I called Dr. Thomas Russell, executive director of the American College of Surgeons. "There is a tendency for patients not to get particularly involved and not to feel compelled to look into their surgery or surgeons," he told me.
There are consequences to that kind of blind trust. "Today, medicine and surgery are really team sports, Dr. Russell continued, and the patient, as the ultimate decision maker, is the most important member of the team. Mistakes can happiness and parents have to be educated and must understand what is going on.
In other words, a healthy doctor - patient relation dose not simply entail good bedside manners and responsible office management on the doctor. It also requires that patients come to the relationship educated about their doctors， their illness and their treatment.
"If we are truly going to reform the health care system in the U.S.," Dr. Russell said, "everybody has to participate actively and must educate themselves. That means doctors, nurses, other health care professional, lawyers, pharmaceutical companies, and insurance companies. But most of all, it means the patient."
Trust is important. But as Sir Francis Bacon, who was among the first to understand the importance of gathering data in science, once observed, knowledge is power.
36.Patients do not seem to spend enough time
A.researching job changes.
B.researching new cars.
C.researching their surgery or surgeons.
D.researching the American College of Surgeons.
37.It appears that patients nowadays have
A.little trust in their doctors
B.too much trust in their doctors
C.too much information about their doctors.
D.a healthy relationship with their doctors.
38.The most important role in medicine and surgery should be played
A.by pharmaceutical and insurance companies.
B.by doctors and nurses.
39.It's a mistaken idea that a healthy doctor-patient relationship
A.is a goal that can be achieved.
B.is what the patient desires.
C.is dependent just on the doctor.
D.also entails efforts made by the patient
40.The author does NOT believe in
D.the power of knowledge.
Where the Jobs Are
Over the past twenty years, many kinds of American small businesses have been growing very fast. They have gradually replaced the millions of jobs which many large companies lost at their hard times. Today small companies employ more than 45 million people in the U.S. This creates more than 66 percent of all the new jobs and accounts for 39 percent of the total national product.
In the past few years, small businesses have become a major force in manufacturing and international trade. Today, many of the companies employing between 50 and 100 people export more than those companies which provide almost all new jobs while firms that produce goods will create far fewer jobs than they do today. The government office in charge of the labor force predicts that many American workers in goods-producing industries including finance, insurance, health and transportation will provide 20 million by the year 2000. Wages in service industries will rise a bit, but no great increases are expected.
In the future, fewer families will be able to afford to send their children to college. In 1988, the average yearly cost of college education, including books and room and board, ranged from $6,000 at two-year public colleges to $15,400 at private universities. Without financial help, families today need an average income of $50,000 to cover a child’s yearly costs at two-year public college and about $95,800 for private university. With service industry jobs on the rise, but no great financial help expected, meeting this goal will become increasingly difficult in the future.
41.In the past 20 years, many American workers have lost their jobs in
42.According to the second paragraph, because of the rapid development of small businesses, many large companies, if not closed, have had to
A.go into production in foreign countries.
B.be replaced by small businesses from abroad.
C.cut down the wages of their workers.
D.employ fewer workers than small businesses.
43.According to third paragraph, one of the reasons why many Americans working in large companies will lose their jobs in the next century is that
A.they are not well-educated.
B.small businesses provide high wages.
C.the goods they produce are not needed.
D.many foreign workers will take their places.
44.According to the passage, the development of U.S. service industries will drop in the future most probably because
A.over 21 million people from large companies will work in service industries.
B.there will be less financial help from the government.
C.jobs from service industries will be under-paid.
D.more parents will be unable to pay for their children’s education.
45.According to the passage, the development of U.S. service industries will
A.help big companies to survive their hard times.
B.do not good to the U.S. international trade.
C.create more new jobs but fewer education and opportunities.
D.contribute less to the growth of the U.S. export industry.
The Growth of Cities
More and more of the world’s population are living in towns or cities, and _____ (46). Between 1920 and 1960 big cities in developed countries increased two and half times in size, but in other parts of the world the growth has been eight times their size.
The sheer size of growth is bad enough, but there are also very disturbing sighs of trouble in the comparison of percentages of people living in town and percentages of people working in industry. During the nineteenth century cities grew as a result of the growth of industry. In Europe the proportion of people living in cities was always smaller than the proportion of the workforce working in factories. Now, however, in the newly industrialized world, _____ (47): the percentage of people living in cities is much higher than the percentage working in industry.
Without a base of people working in industry, _____ (48), because there is not enough money to be build adequate houses for the people that live there, let alone the new arrivals. People arrive in Sao Paulo, for example, at a rate of 150 an hour. There has been little opportunity to build main drainage or water supplies, or to _____ (49).
So the figures for the growth of towns and cities represent proportional growth of slums, of unemployment and under-employment, _____ (50) and yet the cities continue to grow and millions flood into the cities every year.
A. the speed at which cities are growing in the less developed countries is alarming.
B. these cities cannot pay for their growth.
C. the reverse is almost always true.
D. a growth in the number of hopeless and despairing parents and starving children.
E. the reverse is almost always wrong.
Skin Cancer Now Top Cancer among Young Women in UK
Melanoma, the deadliest kind of skin cancer, is now the most common cancer in young 51 women, the country's leading cancer organization said Wednesday. Skin cancer has 52 cervical cancer as the top cancer striking women in their 20s, according to the latest data from Cancer Research United Kingdom.
The trend is particularly 53 since younger people are not generally those most susceptible to melanoma. Rates of skin cancer are 54 highest in people over age 75.
But experts worry that increasing numbers of younger people being diagnosed with skin cancer could be the 55 of a dangerous trend. Women 56 their 20s make up a small percentage of all patients diagnosed with melanoma in Britain, but nearly a third of all eases occur in people younger than 50.
Based on current numbers, Cancer Research UK predicts that melanoma will become the fourth most common cancer for men and women of all 57 by 2024, and that eases will jump from about 9,000 cases a year to more than 15,500.
Cancer experts 58 the rising number of skin cancer cases largely to the surge in people using tanning salons. "Spending time on sunbeds1 is just 59 dangerous as staying out too long in the sun," said Caroline Cerny of Cancer Research UK. The organization is starting a SunSmart campaign to warn Britons of the 60 of being too bronzed.
"The intensity of UV rays2 in some sunbeds can be more than 10 times 61 than the midday sun," Cerny said.
In the United States, several states require parental approval 62 minors can use tanning salons. Wisconsin bans people 16 and 63 from using tanning beds, and others ban children under 14. At least 29 states have regulations governing minors' use of tanning salons.
In the U.K., Scottish politicians passed legislation banning those under 18 from using tanning beds, though it hasn't yet been implemented. There are no plans for 64 in the rest of the U.K.
The World Health Organization has previously recommended that tanning beds be regulated because of their potential to damage DNA3 in the skin.
Experts said most deadly skin cancers could be 65 if people took the proper precautions when in the sun and avoided tanning beds.
51. A.American B.British C.world D.black
52. A.overtaken B.overlooked C.oversee D.overwhelmed
53. A.satisfying B.encouraging C.relaxing D.worrying
54. A.typically B.strangely C.occasionally D.hopefully
55. A.end B.start C.turn D.line
56. A.at B.on C.of D.in
57. A.kinds B.ages C.colors D.sizes
58. A.assign B.attribute C.contribute D.allocate
59. A.more B.so C.as D.like
60. A.points B.benefits C.steps D.dangers
61. A.stronger B.nicer C.darker D.deeper
62. A.before B.after C.until D.while
63. A.below B.low C.under D.beneath
64. A.warning B.legislation C.approval D.debate
65. A.predicted B.treated C.avoided D.diagnosed.