1. Winston Churchill gave a moving speed.
2.As a writer, he turned out three novels that year.
3.She has been the subject of massive media coverage.
4.Her death was a great grief to him and I doubt if he ever recovered afterwards.
5.UFO represents unidentified flying object.
6.She couldn’t judge distances.
7.One is supposed to eat a light meal before going to bed.
8.Being colleagues for ten years, they have become intimate friends.
9.Many problems that bothered people then continue to exit today.
10.Alex knew that he must breathe nothing of this to Nancy.
11.The kinds of the oil use affect your health.
12.Tom cannot afford to a new car.
13.Fourteen people were charged with offences including obstruction and resisting arrest.
14.We are optimistic that the company will succeed.
15.At first Mr. Harrison lost money on his investments, but finally he paid off.
The Speed Sound
Solids transmit (传递) sound very well. Try holding a wooden stick against part of a machine, and place your ears against the stick. The movement of the ball-bearing (滚珠轴承) can be clearly heard. This is a good way of finding the exact source of trouble in a motor-car engine which sounds as if it is wrong and yet gives no information of where the trouble is.
It is probably a good thing that sound cannot travel through a vacuum, for we are thus limited to earth-made sounds. The violent disturbances which are seen occasionally in the sun, for example, may affect our magnetism and our radio; they do not affect our ears, which is a very good thing for our peace of mind.
If we have used our eyes and ears, we may have realized that sound takes time to travel through the air. The sound of thunder nearly always follow the lightning flash although they happen at exactly the same time. And the appearance of white cloud above a distant ship or train tells us, before anything is heard, that its whistle has sounded. Just how fast does sound travel through the air?
The speed of sound in the air at ordinary temperature is about 1,100 feet per second, which is about one mile in five seconds or about 700 miles per hour. The speed of sound increases slightly with a rise in temperature and falls with a decrease in temperature. It is not affected by the pressure of the air.
16.“How Fast Sound Travels” can replace the original title of the passage.
17.We never hear anything that happens on the sun because of the distance between the earth and the sun.
18.The sound of thunder always follows the lightning flash because the sound of thunder travels more slowly through the air.
19.The research of sound is important to us.
20.The speed at which sound travel through the air at ordinary temperature is about 1,100 feet per minute.
21.Our eyes are keener than our ears.
22.The speed of sound increases with a rise in temperature.
1 All insurance is a form of risk management. To deal with the unexpected risks to health through accident or illness, various types of health insurance programs have been devised. Health insurance is offered to individuals in two forms: individual plans and group plans. The insurers may be private companies or governments. Since the early 1970s another type of health-care coverage has become prominent: the health maintenance organization.
2 In some countries no insurance companies offer health care because governments have taken over the entire responsibility. The United States has a combination of private and government-sponsored insurance. Some government programs are limited to specific groups within the population.
3 The purpose of health insurance is to provide protection against loss of income and to cover the expenses of hospitalization and some of its associated costs. Some policies also help the people of disability and this will pay insured individuals should they be unable to work because of extended illnesses or permanent physical disability. Accident insurance covers sudden and unexpected injuries, while sickness insurance applies to illness or disease. There are policies that cover accidents only, while normal health insurance covers accidents as well as illness. Some policies are designed only to provide extra income during hospitalization. Many of these are known as mail-order policies, because they are sold to individuals who answer mailed requirement or reply to ads in newspapers and magazines or on television.
4 Health insurance covers a lot of costs. Some policies cover a stay in the hospital and services offered by the hospital. Surgical expense coverage provides benefits for surgery resulting from illness or accident. Beyond this, a policy may cover what are called regular medical expenses, including doctor’s fees, home nursing, diagnostic tests and ambulance service.
23.Paragraph 1 _______________
24.Paragraph 2 _______________
25.Paragraph 3 _______________
26.Paragraph 4 _______________
A.The importance of health insurance.
B.The definition of health insurance
C.The purpose of each kind of health insurance
D.In some countries there are no health care
E.Health insurance covers a lot of costs
F.The advantages of health insurance
27.The insurers of health insurance may be ________________.
28.Accident insurance covers ________________.
29.Sickness insurance applies to ________________.
30.Doctor’s fees is a kind of ________________.
A.private companies or governments
B.sudden and unexpected injuries
C.illness of disease
D.regular medical expenses
F.the expenses of hospitalization
Insomnia is the inability to sleep restfully. It is a problem to nearly everyone at some time. A person may be awake for an hour in the middle of the night and then, next morning, feel that he hardly slept all night. Normally, worry about not getting enough sleep is the worst aspect of most insomnia. If insomnia occurs repeatedly, it is important to find its possible causes and try to correct them.
Any of large number of simple factors may make it difficult for someone to fall asleep. His mattress may be too soft or too hard. If there are too many blankets on a hot night, he may be too warm; if the mattress is too light he may feel cold during the night. The bedroom itself may be overheated or too cold. If it is not dark enough, or too noisy, this may cause difficulty in sleeping. Eating shortly before going to bed may also be responsible for insomnia. Drinks, such as tea or coffee, can also deep people awake.
Inability to fall asleep is sometimes a symptom of emotional or mental disorder.
The cause of insomnia may be easy to correct. The sufferer should check the mattress, and bedroom temperature, and make any necessary changes. He should relax for an hour or two before bedtime, perhaps by reading a book, watching television or taking a warm bath. If he wakes during the night he should try turning on the light and reading for a while. Take warm milk and a biscuit or two may be helpful. Above all, he should try not worry about sleeplessness --- when someone is tired enough he nearly always falls asleep.
31.According to the passage, insomnia is
A.a serious disease
B.a common complaint
C.a sign of illness
D.an usual problem
32.According to the passage, people who has difficulty in sleeping should sleep in
A.a dark and quiet room
B.a light and warm room
C.a cold and quiet room
D.a dark and warm room
33.According to the passage, if a person wants to fall asleep fast he shouldn’t
A.eat anything during supper time
B.read any books before he goes to bed
C.watch television shortly before going to bed
D.drink anything that will keep him awake.
34.According to the passage, what is the worst aspect of insomnia?
A.Watching too much television
B.Eating too much before going to bed
C.Worrying about sleeplessness
D.Reading too much at night
35.According to the author, insomnia shouldn’t be a serious problem because
A.its cause can be corrected by making oneself feel tired enough.
B.doctors can cure it easily
C.some people can catch up on their sleep during the day
D.some people don’t need so much sleep.
Human Heart Can Make New Cells
Solving a longstanding mystery, scientists have found that the human heart continues to generate new cardiac cells throughout the life span, although the rate of new cell production slows with age.
The finding, published in the April 3 issue of Science, could open a new path for the treatment of heart diseases such as heart failure and heart attack, experts say.
"We find that the beating cells in the heart, cardiomyocytes, are renewed," said lead researcher Dr. Jonas Frisen, a professor of stem cell research at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. "It has previously not been known whether we were limited to the cardiomyocytes we are born with or if they could be renewed," he said.
The process of renewing these ceils changes over time, Frisen added. In a 20-year-old, about 1 percent of cardiomyocytes are exchanged each year, but the turnover rate decreases with age to only 0.45 percent by age 75.
"If we can understand how the generation of new cardiomyocytes is regulated, it may be potentially possible to develop pharmaceuticals that promote this process to stimulate regeneration after, for example, a heart attack," Frisen said.
That could lead to treatment that helps restore damaged hearts.
"A lot of people suffer from chronic heart failure," noted co-author Dr. Ratan Bhardwaj, also from the Karolinska Institute. "Chronic heart failure arises from heart cells dying," he said.
With this finding, scientists are "opening the door to potential therapies to having ourselves," heal ourselves Bhardwaj said. "Maybe one could devise a pharmaceutical agent that would make heart cells make new and more cells to overcome the problem they are facing."
But barriers remain. According to Bhardwaj, scientists do not yet know how to increase heart cell production to a rate that would replace cells faster than they are dying off, especially in older patients with heart failure. In addition, the number of new cells the heart produces was estimated using healthy hearts--whether the rate of cell turnover in diseased hearts is the same remains unknown.
36.The human heart stops producing cardiac cells
A.when a person is born.
B.when a person becomes old.
C.when a person gets sick.
D.when a person dies.
37.The finding could prove to be helpful to
A.the study of longstanding mysteries.
B.the analysis of cardiac cells.
C.the prevention of chronic diseases.
D.the treatment of heart disease.
38.The people who're in their mid-70s, only 0.45 percent of cardiomyocytes
A.are still functional
B.are replaced each year.
C.are lost each year.
D.are damaged each year.
39.Chronic heart failure is associated with
A.the death of heart cells.
B.the life span of a person.
C.the effects of pharmaceuticals.
D.the weight of the patient.
40.It remains unknown whether the rate of cell turnover in diseased hearts
A.changes over time.
B.can be monitored.
C.is the same as that in healthy hearts.
D.is high enough to replace cells faster than they're dying off.
Problems of Old Age
Mrs. White was 67 when she was moved out of the house where she had lived most of her life. The house was pulled down and a new block of fats was built there instead. At about the same time her only son was offered a job in Canada. Since the shopping and the housework had become too much for her, and her son and his wife were not able to look after her any more, Mrs. White had to be taken to Homefield Old People’s Home. She still had some friends near her old home, but now she was separated from them. During the first few months she was visited by friends and former neighbors, but Homefield was a long way from where they lived, too far away for old people.
At Homefield Mrs. White was given a small room of her own, and she was well looked after. But she knew no one when she arrived, and she was not able to make friends there. She was well liked by the people who worked there, but she kept apart from the other old people and spent most of her time in her room. After a time she was hardly ever seen at meetings and social evenings.
Although she was in poor health and had to be treated for a weak heart, she did not complain. “After all”, she said, “lots of people are worse off than I am.”
What she disliked most was the “quietness” in the home, and what even worse was that her son was not able to see her, not even at Christmas.
41.Mr. White was moved out of her old house mainly because
A.her son was going to work in Canada.
B.she didn’t want to do housework any more.
C.her house was to be replaced by a new building
D.her friends had all moved away from the area.
42.Why did her friends and neighbors stop seeing her after a few months?
A.Because they had to travel a long way to see her.
B.Because they had found some new friends.
C.Because they had fallen sick.
D.Because they had lost interest in the new place.
43.She was _____ the people who worked there.
D.kept away from
44.Which of the following words can best describe her life in the old people’s home?
45.Which of the following is INCORRECT?
A.She suffered from a heart trouble.
B.Her son didn’t wish to see her at Christmas.
C.She didn’t like the atmosphere in the home.
D.She was quite satisfied with her conditions.
Forms of Environmental Disease
____(46). How the diseases are expressed depends on how the particular environmental agent enters the body, how it is metabolized and by what route it is excreted. The skin, lungs, liver, kidneys and ____(47). Of particular concern of the capacity of many environmental agents to cause various cancers, birth defects or spontaneous affection ( through fetal exposure) and mutations in germ cell, ____(48).
Environmental illnesses can be mild or severe and ranged from transient to chronic, depending on the doses of toxin received. Some diseases occur abruptly at a toxic exposure, whereas the time of onset of other diseases varies after exposure. ____(49). Those illnesses that occur directly after a distinct toxic exposure are usually easily identified as being environmentally or occupationally caused. If the exposure is not clear-cut or illness is delayed, however, the cause is difficult to identify as clinical features alone are usually nonspecific. ____(50). In such instances, epidemiological studies of exposed populations can help relate exposures to the illnesses they cause.
A.Environmentally induced cancers, for example, commonly involve latency periods of 15 to 30 years or more.
B.In addition, many different causes, environmental or otherwise, may produce identical illnesses.
C.However, the reverse is true.
D.nervous systems are commonly affected by different agents in different settings.
E.the last-named raising possibilities of environmentally caused genetic diseases in later generations.
F.Environmental diseases can affect any organ system of the body.
Nurse! I Want My Mummy
When a child: is ill in hospital, a parent's first reaction is to be 5l them.
Most hospitals now, allow parents to sleep 52 with child, providing a bed or sofa on the ward.
But until the 1970s this 53 was not only frowned upon ---- it was actively discouraged.
Staff worried that the children were upset when their parents 54 , and so there was a blanket ban.
A concerned nurse, Pamela Hawthorn, disagreed and her study "Nurse! want my mummy", published in 1974, 55 the face of paediatric nursing.
Professor Martin Johnson, professor of nursing at the University of Salford, said that the work of 56 like Pamela had changed the face of patient care. "Pamela's study was done against the 57 of a lively debate in paediatrics and psychology as to the degree women should spend with children in the outside world and the degree to which they should be allowed to visit children in 58 .
"The idea was that if mum came to 59 a small in hospital the child would be upset and inconsolable for hours.
"Yet the nurse noticed that if mum did not come at 60 the child stayed in a relatively stable state but they might be depressed.
"Of course we know now that they had most given 61 hope that mum was ever coming back.
"To avoid a little bit of pain they said that no one should visit
"But children were alone and 62 , so Hawthorn said parents should be allowed to visit."
Dr Peter Carter, chief executive and general secretary of the Royal College of Nursing, said her 63 had been seminal.
"Her research put an end to the 64 when parents handed their children over to strangers at the door of the hospital ward.
"As a result of her work, parents and carets are now recognized as partners in care and are 65 the opportunity to stay with, their children while they are in hospital, which has dramatically improved both parents' and children's experience of care."
51. A.for B.with C.upon D.against
52. A.occasionally B.soundly C.overnight D.overtime
53. A.practice B.exercise C.thought D.request
54. A.stayed B.cried C.appeared D.left
55. A.lost B.changed C.studied D.made
56. A.professors B.doctors C.nurses D.parents
57. A.background B.history C.fact D.reality
58. A.school B.hospital C.family D.world
59. A.take B.control C.persuade D.visit
60. A.once B.will C.all D.large
61. A.up B.off C.down D.away
62. A.relaxed B.pleased C.depressed D.stable
63. A.work B.dream C.issue D.doubt
64. A.hours B.days C.weeks D.months
65. A.refused B.created C.lent D.afforded.