Endangered species are plants and animals that are in immediate danger of extinction. Extinction is actually a normal process in the course of evolution. Since the formation of the earth, many more species have become extinct than those exist today. These species slowly disappeared because of change of climate and their failure to adapt to such conditions as competition and predation. Since the 1600s, however, the process of extinction has greatly accelerated as a result of both human population growth and technological encroachment on natural ecology systems. Today the majority of the world’s environments are changing faster than the ability of most species to adapt to such changes through natural selection.
Species become extinct or endangered for number of reasons, but the primary cause is the destruction of natural habitats. Drainage of wetlands, cutting and clearing of forests, growth of cities, and highway and dam construction have seriously reduced available natural habitats. As the various surroundings become fragments, the remaining animal population crowd into smaller areas, causing further destruction of natural surroundings. Species in these small “islands” lose contact with other populations of their extinction.
Some private and government efforts have been organized to save declining species. Laws were made in some countries in the early 1900s to protect wild animals from commercial trade and killing. International endeavors are shown in the convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, approved by 51 nations. Its purpose is to restrict exploitation of wild animals and plants by regulating and restricting trade in certain species. How effective such laws will be in various countries, however, depends on enforcement and support by the people and the courts. Because of lack of law enforcement, the willingness of some segments of society to trade in endangered species, the activities of people who catch and kill animals illegally and dealers who supply the trade, the future of many species is in doubt in spite of legal protection.
31.According to the passage, which of the following is the most important factor causing the rapid extinction of many species since the 17th century?
A.Human beings are not aware of the importance of preserving endangered species.
B.Some endangered species have already reached the end of their life span in evolution.
C.The development of human society has greatly affected natural ecology systems.
D.The world’s climate has changed greatly that most species cannot survive.
32.In the last sentence of the second paragraph, the word “islands” refers to
A.the lands that are completely surrounded by water.
B.the wild animals’ breeding grounds protected by law.
C.the pieces of land separated by modern buildings and roads.
D.the small and isolated areas inhabited by certain species.
33.This passage mentions all of the following causes for the extinction of many species EXCEPT
A.natural selection of species.
B.various natural disasters.
C.commercial trade and killing
D.destruction of natural surroundings.
34.According to the passage, which of the following is most important in saving declining species?
A.governments should make some laws to protect endangered species.
B.People should pay more attention to the protection of natural surroundings.
C.Relevant law must be made and enforced with the support of the people.
D.Some organizations should warn people not to trade in endangered animals.
35.How does the author feel about the prospect of protecting endangered species from being extinct?
Americans Get Touchy
The New York Times recently reported that American teens are hugging practically everyone they see. Say goodbye to the greetings of the past, from the hands-off "Whats up!" to the handshake or high-five2. For young people across the country, hugging is the new "Hello".
Girls are hugging girls. Boys are hugging boys. Girls and boys are hugging each other. And, like every major trend, there are lots of variations on the form. Theres the classic, full-body, arms-around-the-person bear hug, the casual one-armed side hug, the group hug and the hug from behind. Theres the handshake that turns into a hug and the hug that turns into a pat on the back.
As trends go, this one seems pretty innocent. But some parents, teachers and school administrators are worried nonetheless. Will young people who arent as comfortable with physical contact feel peer pressured into hugging? Will kids who dont receive hugs feel left Out3? Could an extra-long hug slide into the more ominous territory of sexual harassment?
In response to some of these concerns, some schools have set up new rules to limit or eliminate hugging. One school head has created a three-second limitation4 for hugs at her school. A few schools have taken even more drastic measures, placing a ban on all forms of touching between students.
A few important points are being left out of the discussion. While the US has traditionally been reserved about touching - saving hugs and kisses for relatives, romantic partners and very close friends - people in many other parts of the world have been greeting each other this way for ages.
In Latin America or Western Europe, in countries like Spain, France, and Italy, a kiss on the cheek is common among women, as well as among women and men who are not romantically involved. The cheek-kiss varies by region. Sometimes it is just an air kiss blown past the face. In other places, the proper way of greeting is to deliver a kiss upon both cheeks, or sometimes even a triplet of kisses performed by kissing one cheek, then the other, then back to the first.
Latin American men are more likely to shake hands when greeting other men, but in some countries like Turkey, its not unusual for men who know each other well to exchange kisses on the cheek. Meanwhile, for the Maori people of New Zealand, a traditional greeting called the "hongi" involves pressing noses together.
So, from a global perspective, the new trend of teen hugging in America is not so "new" after all. People all around the world move in close to say hello, and Americans are just now joining in.
36.The word "practically" in the first paragraph could be best replaced by
37.Which of the following is NOT among the typical ways of greetings in the past?
A.hands off "Whats up"
38.Some parents, teachers and school administrators concern the new trend of hugging for the following reasons EXCEPT:
A.Some young people get involved into the trend due to peer pressure.
B.Those who dont receive hugs feel left out.
C.Theres the danger that hugging slide into the more ominous territory of sexual harassment.
D.Diseases could be transmitted more easily through the extra-long body contact.
39.Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
A.Teenagers across the US hug everyone they see in nearly the same way.
B.Although some adults worry about the trend, few measures have been taken to ban on it.
C.Traditionally, the US people have been reserved about hugging between anybody.
D.In some countries, its usual for men to kiss each other on the cheek.
40.We can infer that the author holds a attitude toward the new trend of hugging.
Right and Wrong
Suppose you work in a library, checking people’s books as they leave, and a friend asks you to let him steel a hard-to-find reference book that he wants to own
You might hesitate to agree for various reasons. You might be afraid that he’ll be caught, and that both you and he will then get into trouble. You might want the book to stay in the library so that you can read it yourself.
But you may also think that what he proposes is wrong—that he shouldn’t do it and you shouldn’t help him. If you think that, what does it mean and what, if anything, makes it true?
To say it’s wrong is not just to say it’s against the rules. There can be bad rules which stop what isn’t wrong—like a company rule against criticizing the boss. A rule can also be bad because it requires something that is wrong --- like a law that looks down upon black people in hotels and restaurants. The ideas of wrong and right are different from the ideas of what is and is not against the rules.
If you think it would be wrong to help your friend steal the book, then you will feel uncomfortable about doing it: in some way you won’t want to do it, even if you are also unwilling to refuse to help a friend. Where does the desire not to do it come from? What is its motive behind it?
There are various ways in which something can be wrong, but in this case, if you had to explain it, you’d probably say that it would be unfair to other users of the library. They may be just as interested in the book as your friend is, but read it in the reference room, where anyone who needs it can find it.
These thoughts have to deal with effects on others – not necessarily effects on their feelings, since they may never find out about it, but some kind of damage. In general, the thought that something is wrong depends on its impact not just on the person who does it but on other people.
41.The following may be the reasons why the librarian does not want to help his friend EXCEPT that
A.he is afraid that his friend might get into trouble.
B.he himself might get into trouble.
C.he believes it is wrong to help one’s poor friend.
D.he wants to read the book himself.
42.Which of the following statements does the author seem most likely to agree with?
A.To be or not to be against the rules has little to do with being wrong or right.
B.To say something is wrong almost suggests that it is against the rules.
C.A rule is always something that stops what is wrong.
D.A rule is always something that encourages what is right.
43.Why does the author give some examples of bad rules?
A.Because those rules are said to be strongly negative.
B.Because he wants to show that rules are not the criteria for judging right or wrong.
C.Because those rules are made in order to stop what is wrong.
D.Because he wants to support the argument that stealing a book is not a crime.
44.In the sentence “What is its motive behind it?” ( Paragraph 5), “it” refers to
A.the “it” in the phrase “the desire not to do it”.
B.“the desire” in the phrase “the desire not to do it”.
C.the idea of Paragraph 5.
D.the idea of helping the friend.
45.According to the passage, the author would judge what is wrong
A.by what is or is not against the rules.
B.by its impact on other people.
C.by one’s thoughts and feelings towards it.
D.by the kind of damage it does to others..