2017年职称英语考试阅读判断典型考点分析

日期:03-01| http://www.59wj.com |卫生类|人气:458

2017年职称英语考试阅读判断典型考点分析

  阅读判断典型考点设置举例:

  考点1:考察代词(定冠词结构)的指代内容

  (节选自2007年卫生A考题/ When we were asleep)

  19. The Spanish(西班牙) Flu (流感)disappeared(消失) two years after(在...之后) it broke out(爆发).

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  A. 解析:问题句说“西班牙流感爆发后的两年后消失了”。 从句意上看,该题属于细节题。利用问题句中的特征词(the Spanish Flu(西班牙流感))和(two years)作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第2段)Popularly known as the Spanish Flu,this type of influenza was far worse than your common cold. Normally, influenza only kills those who are more vulnerable to disease, such as newborns, the old or the sick. However, the Spanish Flu was prone to killing the young and healthy. Often it would disable its victims in hours; within a day, they would be dead, typically from extreme cases of pneumonia(肺炎).

  (第3段)The Spanish Flu was quite nasty(令人厌恶的) --- fast-spreading(传播的) and deadly(致命的).It managed to (设法)spread(传播) across(跨越) the globe(地球), devastating(破坏) the world(世界).Then(然后) suddenly(突然地),after two years ravaging(蹂躏)the Earth, it disappeared(消失) as quickly as (与...一样地块)it had arisen(出现).

  两个答案线索词出现在第3段中,因此判断第3段很可能是答案相关段。 第3段中的第1个答案相关句(划线句)说“西班牙流感传播地很快, 而且这种疾病是致命的”, 显然仅仅凭借该句内容不能判断答案,因此关注第2个答案相关句(划线句), 该句说“然后在蹂躏地球的两年后, 它很快地消失了, 它的出现和消失都非常迅速”。这句话与问题句句意相关,现在需要确定句中代词it(它)的指代内容。 代词通常前指, 由此判断it指代前文中的名词结构the Spanish Flu(西班牙流感), 因此答案相关句(第2个划线句)提供的信息与问题句的信息一致, 因此问题句提供了正确的信息。

  考点:代词指代内容的确定。

  考点2:上下文之间的意义关系

  (节选自2007年卫生B/C考题/ Want to be 100? Listen to these 5 centenarians(包岁老人))

  20. Leaver feels(感到) sad about (对...感到悲哀)her old age(晚年).

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  B. 解析:问题句说“Leaver对自己年事已高而感到悲哀”。从句意来看, 该问题句涉及到文章中具体细节信息, 因此该题是细节题。利用问题句中的特征词(Leaver)作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第5段)“People tell me all the time,‘I don’t want to live to be 100,’”said Mildred Leaver,who turned(超过) 100 in June.

  (第6段)“I think that’s just(非常, 仅仅) sad. Aging(变老) is attitude(态度) and I don’t feel old,” said Leaver,a former (以前的)educator(教育者) who still(仍然) drives(驾驶) her Buick around town(城镇).

  答案相关句在第6段, 因为第6段中还直接出现了问题句中的修饰词sad。答案相关句(划线句)说“Leaver说‘我认为那是悲哀的事情’”,显然仅仅凭借该句话不能对问题句进行判断。现在需要判断句子中的代词that指代的内容。 根据代词通常前指的特性,再结合前句话的内容判断that 指代前句话的整个内容 --- “人们总是对我说‘我不想活到100岁’”,因而答案相关句(划线句)的内容为“我认为人们总是对我说‘我不想活到100岁’”是悲哀的事情。划线句接下来的一句说“衰老是一个态度的问题,而我不感到自己老了”, 从内容上看接下来的这一句是对答案相关句中所提出的观点进行解释(答案相关句(划线句)与接下来的一句之间的意义关系为“观点”与“解释”)。结合这个解释性的话语的内容,结合问题句的句意可知“Leave并不认为衰老是一件悲哀的事情, 因为她认为自己并不老, 她认为人是否衰老是一个态度的问题”。因此问题句提供了错误信息。

  考点:代词指代内容 + 上下文之间的意义关系。

  考点3:近义结构的识别

  (节选自2007年卫生B/C考题/ Want to be 100? Listen to these 5 centenarians(百岁老人))

  16.Currently(现在) about(大约) 70,000 people are aged(...岁的) 100 or above(以上, 超出) in America(美国).

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  A. 解析:问题句说“现在在美国有大约70,000人年龄达到了100岁或100岁以上”。从句意来看, 问题句与文章中的细节信息相关, 属于细节题。利用问题句中的特征词汇(70,000 people, aged 100, America)作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  (第一段)Five neighbors(邻居) at a central(中心的, 中央的) Missouri (密苏里州)retirement(退休) community(社团, 社区, 社会) who are all centenarians (百岁老人)get asked all the time:“How did you live to be 100?”

  (第二段)If you want to live to 100 or more,this rare group of five golden girls says the key to longevity(长寿)is working hard at a job you love and taking care of your body while you’re at it.

  (第三段)Even though(即使) an estimated 70,000 people in the country are currently(现在) at the century mark(达到100岁) or beyond(超过) in age,it is unusual(不寻常的) to find(找到, 发现) five 100-year-olds living(生活) in one place.

  首先关注第3段中的内容(因为有两个答案线索词均出现在该段)。 该句中的estimated(估计的)与问题句中的介词about词义相近, “at the century mark or beyond in aged(年龄上达到了百岁, 或超过百岁)”与问题句中的“aged 100 or above(年龄在100岁或100岁以上)”语义相近。 该答案相关句(划线句)说“即使目前整个国家里年龄在100岁或100岁以上的老人估计有70,000人,但是要想找到生活在同一个地方的5位百岁老人却不是一件容易的事情”。显然现在还需要判断定冠词结构the country是否就是问题句中提到的美国。 因此关注答案相关句周边甚至全文中出现的地名, 这样在第一段中发现了“Missouri(美国的密苏里州)”, 其所在的句子说“ Five neighbors at a central Missouri retirement community...(五位在密苏里州中心退休社区的邻居 ...), 接下来第2段是在介绍“长寿的秘诀”,由此可以判断出第3段中出现的定冠词结构the country就是指美国,因此问题句提供的信息与文章相关内容所提供的信息一致。

  考点:近义结构的识别 + 定冠词结构指代内容的确定

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  考点4: 细节信息的查找和确认(答案为“没提到”的常设考点)

  (节选自2007年卫生B/C考题/ Want to be 100? Listen to these 5 centenarians(包岁老人))

  18. None of (没有)the five centenarians(百岁老人) have any children.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  C. 解析:问题句说“这5位百岁老人都没有孩子”。 从句意来看,问题句内容涉及文章中细节信息。 利用问题句中的特征词(five centenarians)和细节信息词(children)及其词义相关词(son, daughter)作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  Five neighbors at a central Missouri retirement community who are all centenarians get asked all the time:“How did you live to be 100?”

  If you want to live to 100 or more,this rare group of five golden girls says the key to longevity(长寿)is working hard at a job you love and taking care of your body while you’re at it.

  Even though an estimated 70,000 people in the country are currently at the century mark or beyond in age,it is unusual to find five 100-year-olds living in one place.

  The average life-span(寿命)of Americans is about two or three years short of an 80th birthday party.And most people don’t want to cut out coffee,soda,alcohol,cigarettes,and eat healthy food.

  “People tell me all the time,‘I don’t want to live to be 100,’”said Mildred Leaver,who turned 100 in June.

  “I think that’s just sad.Aging is attitude and I don’t feel old,”said Leaver,a former educator who still drives her Buick around town.

  It doesn’t take long to see that Leaver and her neighbors Mildred Harris,Grace Wolfson,Gladys Stuart and Viola Semas,have a lot more in common than their longevity and lifelong healthy habits.All are 100 except Stuart,who is 101.

  Even though their sight and hearing aren’t what they used to be,they’ve all avoided illnesses that many elderly people are stricken with.It’s been 50 years since Leaver beat cancer for the first and only time.

  The common thread that connects these women is the decades of service to jobs each loved as a farmer,designer,school principal,bookkeeper and secretary.In the early years of their lives,gainfully employed women like them were just as rare as 100-year-olds are today.

  文章中只提到了5位百岁老人及他们的养生之道, 但根本没有提到他们的孩子(children, son, daughter这样的词根本没有在文章中出现), 因此判断问题句的信息在文章中没有提到。

  提示:

  如果问题句中的全部或部分信息在文章没有呼应内容,则应该判断该问题句的信息在文章中没有提及。

  阅读判断基本解题思路与答题技巧小结:

  1. 阅读文章标题, 确认文章主题;

  2. 直接解题:读问题句, 弄清楚问题句的基本内容, 根据其句意判断问题类型:是细节题还是主旨题?

  如果是主旨题, 则可借助文章标题内容(标题中的核心词),文章开头,文章结尾处的句子及文章中各个段落段首句的内容特点综合判断文章主题;

  如果是细节题,则首先找出句子中的特征词(专有名词, 数字)和描述细节信息的词语与结构(如:时间/地点/条件/原因状语,表示人及事物名称的词语), 也可参考问题中的核心谓语动词及问题句中出现修饰词, 利用这些词语与结构作为答案线索, 在文章中找到与之相呼应的语句(答案相关句),对比答案相关句与问题句的结构和句意, 判断答案。

  提示:虽然有时找到的答案相关句不能直接帮助答题,但是往往真正的答案相关句通常就在其周边的语句中。

  Some sleep drugs do more than make you sleep

  The United States Food and Drug Administration1 has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders. It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.

  Last Wednesday, the FDA announced that some of these drugs can have unexpected and dangerous effects. These include the risk of life-threatening allergic reactions. They also include rare incidents of strange behavior. These include people cooking food, eating and even driving while asleep. The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.

  Last year, a member of the United States Congress2 said he had a sleep-driving incident. Patrick Kennedy, a representative from Rhode Island,3 crashed his car into a security barrier near the building where lawmakers meet. The accident happened in the middle of the night and no one was hurt. Mr. Kennedy said he had earlier taken a sleep medicine. He said he was also being treated with a stomach sickness drug that can cause sleepiness.

  The Food and Drug Administration did not say in its announcement how many cases of sleep-driving it has documented. However, the New York Times4 reported last year about people who said they had strange sleep events after taking the drug Ambien. Some reported sleep-driving and sleep-walking. Others said they found evidence after waking in the morning that they had cooked food or eaten in their sleep. But they had no memory of carrying out the activities.

  A Food and Drug Administration official says that these serious side effects of sleep disorder drugs appear to be rare. But, he also said there are probably more cases than are reported.5 He said the agency believes the risk of such behaviors could be reduced if people take the drugs as directed and do not drink alcohol while taking the drugs. The Food and Drug Administration has advised drug companies to carry out studies to investigate the problem.

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  词汇:

  disorder n. 障碍;紊乱;疾病

  allergic adj. 变应性的,过敏性的

  incident n. 偶发事件,小事件

  representative n. 代表

  crash v. (使)碰撞

  lawmaker n. 立法者,制定法律者(尤指立法委员或议员)

  sickness n. 疾病;恶心,呕吐

  stomach n. 胃

  sleepiness n. 昏昏欲睡

  document vt. 根据…事实材料制作

  注释:

  1. United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA):美国食品及药品管理局

  2. United States Congress:美国国会

  3. Rhode Island:罗得岛(美国州名)

  4. New York Times:纽约时报

  5. But, he also said there are probably more cases than are reported. 不过,他也说道,可能实际病例要比报导的多。 请注意本句中than的用法。than后面连接了一个句子,可是却没有主语,学术界对此有两种说法:一种认为than是关系代词,它本身在从句中作一个句子成分;另一种则认为than仍为连接词,后面省略了句子的适当成分。请看类似的句子:

  You spent more money than was intended to be spent. 你花去的钱比预计的多。

  (请比较:You spent the money that was intended.)

  练习:

  1. There are altogether 13 drugs treating sleep disorders in the United States.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  2. FDA considers it the producers’ duty to warn the users of sleeping pills about the serious side effects and to tell them how to use safely.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  3. An allergic reaction to sleeping pills may sometimes cause a user to die.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  4. A stomach sickness drug alone caused Patrick Kennedy to crash his car into a security barrier.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  5. FDA based its order upon a wide investigation of sleep-driving.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  6. Sleep-walking is also one of the serious side effects induced by taking sleeping pills.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  7. The appearance of one or another side effect after taking some sleeping pill is unavoidable.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

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  答案与解析:

  1. 分析文章标题:Some sleep drugs(安眠药) do more than(比...多) make(使) you sleep(入睡)

  文章主题涉及对安眠药作用的讨论

  2.直接解题:

  1.There are (有)altogether(总共) 13 drugs treating(治疗) sleep disorders(紊乱,混乱) in the United States(在美国).

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  1.C. 细节题。利用特征结构the United States/美国和13 drugs(13种药)作为答案线索,在文章中查找答案相关句:

  The United States Food(食品) and Drug(药品) Administration(美国食品及药品管理局)has ordered(命令) companies(公司) to place(放置)strong (强烈的/强大的)new warnings(警告) on thirteen drugs that treat(治疗) sleep disorder(紊乱, 混乱). It also ordered(命令) the makers (制造商)of the sleeping pills(安眠药)to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.

  Last(最近的, 最后的) Wednesday(星期三), the FDA(美国食品及药品管理局)announced (宣布)that some of(一些) these drugs can have unexpected(意想不到的) and dangerous (危险的)effects(影响). These include (包括)the risk of life-threatening allergic reactions. They also include (他们也包括)rare incidents of strange behavior. These include (这些包括)people cooking food, eating and even driving while asleep. The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.

  通过以上分析可以看出文章中只提到FDA命令制药公司在13种安眠药上贴上语气坚定的新警告语,但是没有提到这13种是不是包括了美国的所有的安眠药。

  2. FDA considers (认为, 考虑)it the producers’(生产厂家的) duty(责任) to warn(警告某人...) the users(使用者) of sleeping pills about the serious(严重的,严肃的) side effects(副作用)and to tell(告诉) them how to use safely(安全地).

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  2.A细节题。利用问题句中的特征词FDA 和细节信息词producers, side effects共同作为答案线索,在文章中查找答案相关句:

  The United States Food and Drug Administration1 has ordered companies to place strong new warnings(warn的家族词汇) on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders. It also ordered the makers (producer的近义词)of the sleeping pills(安眠药) to provide (提供)information(信息) for patients (病人)explaining(解释) how to safely(安全地) use the drugs(药品).

  FDA命令制药商贴新警告语并指导病人如何安全用药,自然就认为这是制药商不可推卸的责任。

  3. An allergic (过敏的)reaction to (对...的反应)sleeping pills(安眠药丸) may sometimes(有时) cause(造成) a user to die(死去).

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  3.A. 细节题。 利用问题句中的细节信息词allergic reaction 作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  The United States Food and Drug Administration1 has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders. It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.

  (第2段) Last Wednesday, the FDA announced(宣布) that some of these drugs can have unexpected(意想之外的) and dangerous(危险的) effects. These include the risk of life-threatening(威协生命的) allergic reactions. They also include rare incidents of strange behavior. These include people cooking food, eating and even driving while asleep. The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.

  第二段第一、二句说到,其中有些药物具有意外的危险作用,包括威胁生命的过敏反应。既然威胁到生命,那有时就可能引起死亡。

  4. A stomach(胃) sickness(疾病) drug(药) alone(仅仅,独自地) caused(造成) Patrick Kennedy to crash(使碰撞) his car into a security(安全) barrier(栅栏).

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  4.B. 细节题。 利用问题句中的特征词(Patrick Kennedy), 和细节信息词(stomach sickness drug,security barrier )共同作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  The United States Food and Drug Administration1 has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders. It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.

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  Last Wednesday, the FDA announced that some of these drugs can have unexpected and dangerous effects. These include the risk of life-threatening allergic reactions. They also include rare incidents of strange behavior. These include people cooking food, eating and even driving while asleep. The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.

  Last year, a member of the United States Congress2 said he had a sleep-driving incident. Patrick Kennedy, a representative from Rhode Island,3 crashed his car into a security barrier near(在...附近) the building where lawmakers(立法人员) meet(见面). The accident happened in the middle of the night and no one was hurt. Mr. Kennedy said he had earlier (更早的时候)taken (曾经)a sleep medicine. He said he was also being treated with (被用...进行治疗)a stomach sickness drug that can cause(造成) sleepiness(想睡).

  第三段最后一句说明他服用安眠药的同时也服用治呕吐的药,故不是单纯后一种药引起他的车祸。

  5. FDA based(把...建立在...的基础之上)its order(命令) upon/on a wide(广泛的) investigation(调查) of sleep-driving(迷迷糊糊的开车).

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  5.C. 细节题。 利用问题句中的特征词(FDA), 和细节信息词(sleep-driving)共同作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  The United States Food and Drug Administration1 has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders. It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.

  Last Wednesday, the FDA announced that some of these drugs can have unexpected and dangerous effects. These include the risk of life-threatening allergic reactions. They also include rare incidents of strange behavior. These include people cooking food, eating and even driving while asleep. The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.

  Last year, a member of the United States Congress2 said he had a sleep-driving incident. Patrick Kennedy, a representative from Rhode Island,3 crashed his car into a security barrier near the building where lawmakers meet. The accident happened in the middle of the night and no one was hurt. Mr. Kennedy said he had earlier taken a sleep medicine. He said he was also being treated with a stomach sickness drug that can cause sleepiness.

  The Food and Drug Administration did not say (说)in its announcement(公告, 宣布) how many (多少)cases(例子) of sleep-driving it has documented(用文件证据证明). However, the New York Times4 reported last year about people who said they had strange sleep events after taking the drug Ambien. Some reported sleep-driving and sleep-walking. Others said they found evidence after waking in the morning that they had cooked food or eaten in their sleep. But they had no memory of carrying out the activities.

  第四段第一句说,FDA没有说它调查了多少迷迷糊糊开车的事例,因此它是否作过大量调查我们并不知道。

  6. Sleep-walking(梦游病) is also one of the serious(严重的) side effects (副作用)induced by (由...引起的)taking sleeping pills.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  6.A细节题。 利用问题句中的细节信息词(Sleep-walking)作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  The United States Food and Drug Administration1 has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders. It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.

  Last Wednesday, the FDA announced that some of these drugs can have unexpected and dangerous effects. These include the risk of life-threatening allergic reactions. They also include rare incidents of strange behavior. These include people cooking food, eating and even driving while asleep. The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.

  Last year, a member of the United States Congress2 said he had a sleep-driving incident. Patrick Kennedy, a representative from Rhode Island,3 crashed his car into a security barrier near the building where lawmakers meet. The accident happened in the middle of the night and no one was hurt. Mr. Kennedy said he had earlier taken a sleep medicine. He said he was also being treated with a stomach sickness drug that can cause sleepiness.

  The Food and Drug Administration did not say in its announcement how many cases of sleep-driving it has documented. However, the New York Times4 (纽约时报)reported (报告)last year (去年)about people who said they had strange(奇怪的) sleep events(事件)/ after(在...之后) taking(服用) the drug Ambien. Some reported sleep-driving迷迷糊糊的开车的 and sleep-walking. Others said they found evidence after waking in the morning that they had cooked food or eaten in their sleep. But they had no memory of carrying out the activities.

  第四段尤其是其中的第三句说到,服用安眠药以后有人昏昏迷迷开车,有人梦游,因此梦游属于的副作用之一。

  7. The appearance(出现, 外貌) of one or another (一个或另一个)side effect(副作用) after(在...之后) taking(服用) some sleeping pill(安眠药) is unavoidable(不可避免的).

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  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  7.B细节题。 利用问题句中的细节信息词(side effect)和修饰词unavoidable作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  The United States Food and Drug Administration1 has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders. It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.

  Last Wednesday, the FDA announced that some of these drugs can have unexpected and dangerous effects. These include the risk of life-threatening allergic reactions. They also include rare incidents of strange behavior. These include people cooking food, eating and even driving while asleep. The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.

  Last year, a member of the United States Congress2 said he had a sleep-driving incident. Patrick Kennedy, a representative from Rhode Island,3 crashed his car into a security barrier near the building where lawmakers meet. The accident happened in the middle of the night and no one was hurt. Mr. Kennedy said he had earlier taken a sleep medicine. He said he was also being treated with a stomach sickness drug that can cause sleepiness.

  The Food and Drug Administration did not say in its announcement how many cases of sleep-driving it has documented. However, the New York Times4 reported last year about people who said they had strange sleep events after taking the drug Ambien. Some reported sleep-driving and sleep-walking. Others said they found evidence after waking in the morning that they had cooked food or eaten in their sleep. But they had no memory of carrying out the activities.

  A Food and Drug Administration official (官员)says(说) that these serious side effects of sleep disorder drugs appear to(看起来) be rare(是unavoidable 的反义词). But, he also said there are probably more cases than are reported.5 He said the agency(机构 believes(相信, 认为) the risk(风险) of such behaviors (行为)could be reduced (能够被减少)if people take the drugs as directed(按照被指示的) and do not drink(饮) alcohol(酒) while(在...的期间) taking the drugs. The Food and Drug Administration has advised drug companies to carry out studies to investigate the problem.

  最后一段说到,只要服安眠药时按说明书服用而且不喝酒,危险行为就会减少,因此副作用并不是不可避免。

  Red meat links to higher risk of breast cancer

  Exercise and keeping a healthy weight are two things that doctors say might help women lower their risk of breast cancer.

  Mothers may reduce their risk if they breastfeed for at least four months. For older women, hormone replacement therapy2 can lower the risk of some other diseases. But it has been found to increase the risk of breast cancer. So women should consider their choices carefully. The same may be said for diet.

  New findings show that younger women who eat a lot of red meat have higher rates of breast cancers called hormone-receptor positive.3 The growth is fed by the levels of estrogen or another hormone, progesterone, in the body.

  Researchers at Brigham Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, reported the findings as part of a health study of nurses. The researchers followed the health of more than 90,000 women from 1991 to 2003. Those who ate the most red meat ate more than one and one-half servings a day. A serving was defined as roughly 84 grams. Those who ate the least red meat ate less than three servings a week. This is what the study found about breast cancers that were hormone receptor-positive: The women who ate the most red meat were almost two times as likely to get them as the women who ate the least of it.

  Eunyoung Cho, the lead author of the report, says more research is needed to know the reason for the link. But in the past, researchers have suggested that three things may play a part. One is the way meat is cooked or processed. Another is the use of growth hormones in cows. And the third is the kind of iron in red meat. The study appears in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

  And now we have more to tell you about our subject -- resveratrol. We discussed a study in the United States that found that large amounts of this plant compound helped fat mice live longer. The mice were fed much more resveratrol than people could get from red wine, one of the foods that contains it.

  Now, scientists in France say resveratrol also improves muscle performance -- again, at least in mice. They were able to run two times as far in laboratory treadmill tests4 as mice normally could. The study at the Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology5 appeared in the journal Cell.

  词汇:

  breast n 胸;****

  breastfeed v. 哺乳,喂奶

  hormone n. 激素,荷尔蒙

  therapy n. 疗法,治疗

  receptor n. 接受器,感受器;受体

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  estrogen n. 雌激素

  progesterone n. 黄体酮, 孕酮 (孕激素类药)

  serving n. 一份饭菜

  process vt. 处理;加工

  resveratrol n. 白藜芦醇(抗肿瘤药)

  compound n. 混合物;化合物;复合物

  treadmill n. (古时罚囚犯踩踏的)踏车;(喻)单调的工作

  genetics n. 遗传学

  molecular adj. 分子的

  cellular adj. 细胞的

  cell n. 细胞

  注释:

  1. breast cancer:乳腺癌

  2. replacement therapy:补充疗法,补偿疗法(应用机体天然产物或合成代用品补充机体的形成或缺陷)

  3. hormone-receptor positive:激素受体阳性

  4. treadmill test:单调乏味的实验

  5. Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology:遗传学、分子生物学细胞生物学研究所

  练习:

  1. Breastfeeding helps women prevent the development of breast cancer to a certain degree.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  2. Estrogen may contribute to the development of breast cancer as much as hormone replacement therapy.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  3. The amount of red meat a woman eats is directly proportional to the probability of breast cancer.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  4. The way red meat is prepared has much to do with the probability of breast cancer.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  5. Any kind of iron in the food is a contributor to the development of breast cancer.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  6. Resveratrol is the fourth factor recently found that causes a breast cancer to develop.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  7. Any kind of wine contains resveratrol.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  答案与解析:

  1. 分析文章标题:Red meat (红肉)links to (与...有联系/有关)higher(更高的) risk(风险) of breast cancer(乳腺癌)

  2.直接解题:

  1. Breastfeeding(母乳喂养)helps(帮助) women prevent(防止, 预防) the development(发展, 研制, 患(病)) of breast cancer (乳腺癌)to a certain degree(在一定的程度上).

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        www.59wj.com

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  1.A. 细节题。 利用问题句中细节信息Breastfeeding和breast cancer共同作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  Exercise(锻炼, 练习) and keeping(保持) a healthy(健康的) weight(体重) are two things(事情,东西) that doctors(医生) say might help(帮助) women lower(降低) their risk(风险) of breast cancer.

  Mothers(母亲, 妈妈) may reduce(减少) their risk(风险)if they breastfeed (母乳喂养)for at least(至少) four months. For older women, hormone replacement therapy2 can lower the risk of some other diseases. But it has been found to increase the risk of breast cancer. So women should consider their choices carefully. The same may be said for diet.

  第二段第一句中的their risk指“患乳腺癌的风险”,因此该句说“喂奶可以减少妇女患乳腺癌的危险性”, 因此问题句的内容与文章中答案相关句的内容一致。

  2. Estrogen(雌激素) may contribute to (有助于)the development(患(病)) of breast cancer (乳腺癌)as much as(与...一样地)hormone replacement therapy(激素替代疗法)

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  2.A. 细节题。利用问题句中的细节信息词Estrogen和hormone replacement therapy作为答案线索,在文章中查找答案相关句:

  Exercise and keeping a healthy weight are two things that doctors say might help women lower their risk of breast cancer.

  Mothers may reduce their risk if they breastfeed for at least four months. For older(年长的) women, hormone replacement therapy2 can lower(减少) the risk of some other(其他的) diseases(疾病). But it has been found(已经被发现) to increase(增加) the risk of breast cancer(乳腺癌). So women should consider their choices carefully. The same may be said for diet.

  New findings(研究发现) show(证明, 显示) that younger(较年轻的) women who eat a lot of red meat have higher rates(比率,速度) of breast cancers (乳腺癌)called hormone-receptor positive(激素受体阳性). The growth(生长, 种植)is fed(喂养, 饲养)(以下为第二十讲内容) by the levels(水平/浓度) of estrogen (雌激素)or (或者)another hormone(激素), progesterone(黄体酮) , in the body.

  文章第二段说激素补充疗法会增加患乳腺癌的危险性,文章第三段说雌激素浓度会对患乳腺癌产生影响,雌激素越高乳腺癌患病的可能性越大,由此可见问题句的内容与文章答案相关句的内容一致。

  3. The amount(数量) of red meat (红肉)a woman eats is directly(直接地) proportional to (与...成比例)the probability(可能性) of breast cancer(乳腺癌).

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  3. A。主题题。 该句与文章主题内容一致,因此该句说法正确。问题第四段最后一句是结论性的话,该句说“红肉吃的多,患乳腺癌的可能性就大,反之就小,故成正比”。

  Exercise and keeping a healthy weight are two things that doctors say might help women lower their risk of breast cancer.

  Mothers may reduce their risk if they breastfeed for at least four months. For older women, hormone replacement therapy2 can lower the risk of some other diseases. But it has been found to increase the risk of breast cancer. So women should consider their choices carefully. The same may be said for diet.

  New findings show that younger women who eat a lot of red meat have higher rates of breast cancers called hormone-receptor positive.3 The growth is fed by the levels of estrogen or another hormone, progesterone, in the body.

  Researchers at Brigham Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, reported the findings as part of a health study of nurses. The researchers followed the health of more than 90,000 women from 1991 to 2003. Those who ate the most red meat ate more than one and one-half servings a day. A serving was defined as roughly 84 grams. Those who ate the least red meat ate less than three servings a week. This is what the study(研究,学习) found(发现) about breast cancers(乳腺癌) that were hormone receptor-positive(激素受体阳性): The women who ate the most(最多的) red meat were almost(几乎) two times (倍,次数)as likely to get(患病) them as the women who ate(吃) the least (最少的)of it.

  4. The way red meat is prepared (红肉被烹调的)has much to do with (与...有很大的关系)the probability(可能性) of breast cancer(乳腺癌).

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  4.A. 细节题。利用问题句提到的细节信息The way red meat is prepared作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  Exercise and keeping a healthy weight are two things that doctors say might help women lower their risk of breast cancer.

  .
       
       
       
       
        www.59wj.com

  Mothers may reduce their risk if they breastfeed for at least four months. For older women, hormone replacement therapy2 can lower the risk of some other diseases. But it has been found to increase the risk of breast cancer. So women should consider their choices carefully. The same may be said for diet.

  New findings show that younger women who eat a lot of red meat have higher rates of breast cancers called hormone-receptor positive.3 The growth is fed by the levels of estrogen or another hormone, progesterone, in the body.

  Researchers at Brigham Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, reported the findings as part of a health study of nurses. The researchers followed the health of more than 90,000 women from 1991 to 2003. Those who ate the most red meat ate more than one and one-half servings a day. A serving was defined as roughly 84 grams. Those who ate the least red meat ate less than three servings a week. This is what the study found about breast cancers that were hormone receptor-positive: The women who ate the most red meat were almost two times as likely to get them as the women who ate the least of it.

  Eunyoung Cho, the lead(领导) author(作者) of the report(报告), says(说) more research is needed to (被需要)know the reason for (...的原因)the link. But in the past, researchers(研究者) have suggested(提出,建议) that three things (东西)may play a part(起作用). One is the way meat is cooked(烹调) or processed(加工, 处理)(“The way red meat is prepared”的近义结构). Another is the use of growth hormones in cows. And the third is the kind of iron in red meat. The study appears in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

  倒数第三段列出了研究人员过去认为可能吃红肉致乳腺癌的三个原因,其中第一个就是瘦肉的烹调方法。

  5. Any kind(种类, 善良的) of iron(铁) in the food is a contributor (捐助者,导致因素)to the development(患) of breast cancer(乳腺癌).

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  5.B. 细节题。 利用问题句中细节信息词iron作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  Exercise and keeping a healthy weight are two things that doctors say might help women lower their risk of breast cancer.

  Mothers may reduce their risk if they breastfeed for at least four months. For older women, hormone replacement therapy2 can lower the risk of some other diseases. But it has been found to increase the risk of breast cancer. So women should consider their choices carefully. The same may be said for diet.

  New findings show that younger women who eat a lot of red meat have higher rates of breast cancers called hormone-receptor positive.3 The growth is fed by the levels of estrogen or another hormone, progesterone, in the body.

  Researchers at Brigham Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, reported the findings as part of a health study of nurses. The researchers followed the health of more than 90,000 women from 1991 to 2003. Those who ate the most red meat ate more than one and one-half servings a day. A serving was defined as roughly 84 grams. Those who ate the least red meat ate less than three servings a week. This is what the study found about breast cancers that were hormone receptor-positive: The women who ate the most red meat were almost two times as likely to get them as the women who ate the least of it.

  Eunyoung Cho, the lead author of the report, says more research is needed to know the reason for the link. But in the past, researchers have suggested that three things may play a part. One is the way meat is cooked or processed. Another is the use of growth hormones in cows. And the third is the kind of iron in red meat. The study appears in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

  同样倒数第三段中列出的第三个因素就是瘦肉中所含的铁的种类,言下之意是有些类型的铁致癌,有的就不致癌,因此说所有食物中的铁都致癌显然是错的。

  6. Resveratrol (白藜芦醇/抗肿瘤药)is the fourth(第4) factor (因素)recently(最近) found that causes(造成) a breast cancer to develop(产生).

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  6.B.细节题。 利用问题句中细节信息词resveratrol作为答案线索, 在文章中查找答案相关句:

  Exercise and keeping a healthy weight are two things that doctors say might help women lower their risk of breast cancer.

  Mothers may reduce their risk if they breastfeed for at least four months. For older women, hormone replacement therapy2 can lower the risk of some other diseases. But it has been found to increase the risk of breast cancer. So women should consider their choices carefully. The same may be said for diet.

  New findings show that younger women who eat a lot of red meat have higher rates of breast cancers called hormone-receptor positive.3 The growth is fed by the levels of estrogen or another hormone, progesterone, in the body.

  Researchers at Brigham Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, reported the findings as part of a health study of nurses. The researchers followed the health of more than 90,000 women from 1991 to 2003. Those who ate the most red meat ate more than one and one-half servings a day. A serving was defined as roughly 84 grams. Those who ate the least red meat ate less than three servings a week. This is what the study found about breast cancers that were hormone receptor-positive: The women who ate the most red meat were almost two times as likely to get them as the women who ate the least of it.

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        www.59wj.com

  Eunyoung Cho, the lead author of the report, says more research is needed to know the reason for the link. But in the past, researchers have suggested that three things may play a part. One is the way meat is cooked or processed. Another is the use of growth hormones in cows. And the third is the kind of iron in red meat. The study appears in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

  (倒数第2段)And now(现在) we have more(更多) to tell(告诉) you about our subject (研究对象/主题/学科) -- resveratrol(白藜芦醇). We discussed a study in the United States that found that large amounts of this plant compound helped fat mice live longer. The mice were fed (被喂养)much more (更多)resveratrol (白藜芦醇)than(比) people could get from red wine(红葡萄酒) , one of the foods that contains(包含) it.

  Now, scientists (科学家)in France(法国) say resveratrol also improves (提高, 改善)muscle (肌肉)performance (性能, 表演, 成绩)-- again, at least(至少) in mice They were able to run two times as far in laboratory treadmill tests4 as mice normally could. The study at the Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology5 appeared in the journal Cell.

  文章最后一段又说到白藜芦醇能提高肌肉的功能,这些是正面的、积极的作用,并没有说它能致癌。

  7. Any kind of wine(葡萄酒) contains(包含) resveratrol(白藜芦醇).

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  7.C. 细节题。 利用问题句中细节信息词wine和resveratrol在文章中查找答案相关句:

  Exercise and keeping a healthy weight are two things that doctors say might help women lower their risk of breast cancer.

  Mothers may reduce their risk if they breastfeed for at least four months. For older women, hormone replacement therapy2 can lower the risk of some other diseases. But it has been found to increase the risk of breast cancer. So women should consider their choices carefully. The same may be said for diet.

  New findings show that younger women who eat a lot of red meat have higher rates of breast cancers called hormone-receptor positive.3 The growth is fed by the levels of estrogen or another hormone, progesterone, in the body.

  Researchers at Brigham Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, reported the findings as part of a health study of nurses. The researchers followed the health of more than 90,000 women from 1991 to 2003. Those who ate the most red meat ate more than one and one-half servings a day. A serving was defined as roughly 84 grams. Those who ate the least red meat ate less than three servings a week. This is what the study found about breast cancers that were hormone receptor-positive: The women who ate the most red meat were almost two times as likely to get them as the women who ate the least of it.

  Eunyoung Cho, the lead author of the report, says more research is needed to know the reason for the link. But in the past, researchers have suggested that three things may play a part. One is the way meat is cooked or processed. Another is the use of growth hormones in cows. And the third is the kind of iron in red meat. The study appears in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

  And now we have more to tell you about our subject -- resveratrol. We discussed a study in the United States that found that large amounts of this plant compound helped fat mice live longer. The mice were fed (被喂养)much more (更多)resveratrol (白藜芦醇)than(比) people could get from red wine(红葡萄酒) , one of the foods that contains(包含) it

  Now, scientists in France say resveratrol also improves muscle performance -- again, at least in mice. They were able to run two times as far in laboratory treadmill tests4 as mice normally could. The study at the Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology5 appeared in the journal Cell.

  倒数第二段只说红酒中含有白藜芦醇,并没有说其它酒类有还是没有。因此无法对问题句的内容进行判断,因此只能判断问题句的说法为“没提到”。

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