I.语法、词汇。从A、B,C、D四个选项中，选出一个正确答案，并将所选答案的字母填在 答题纸相应的位置上。错选、多选或未选均无分。(本大题共15小题，每小题1分，共 15分)
Complete each of the following sentences with the most likely answer. (15 points)
1. Einstein’s special theory of ______ , far from being obscure and difficult, can be understood in its basics with no more than first-year algebra.
A. relative B. relativeness C. relativity D. relatively
2. They are still not fully able to distinguish right ______ wrong.
A. between B. from C. for D. against
3. The moment when she knew that her boyfriend was going to break up with her, her eyes ______ a hurt look.
A. took out B. took over C. took to D. took on
4. At parties Jack doesn’t mind making a ______ of himself as long as it brings about joy and laughter.
A. fool B. hero C. coward D. man
5. She turned down the request because it was __ the limits of his power.
A. above B. over C. off D. beyond
6. They ______ in going in spite of the awful weather.
A. insisted B. existed C. persisted D. consisted
7. You will succeed in the end ______ you give up halfway.
A. even if B. as though C. as long as D. unless
8. It’s very ______ of you to water my garden while I was away.
A. considered B. considerate C. considering D. considerable
9. Helen probably ______ her rapid recovery to her husband’s devoted care.
A. obliged B. contributed C. belonged D. owned
10. ______ the plan carefully, he decided to take it.
A. To have judged B. To judge C. Having judged D. Judging
11. I would like to attend the dancing class, but I was ______ the chances at school.
A. lost B. denied C. missed D. dismissed
12. Widespread corruption ______ serious problems to the government.
A. poses B. has C. affects D. results
13. She seemed ______ all her passion after she failed the Entrance Exam for University.
A. to have lost B. having lost C. to lose D. losing
14. I consider his suggestion the most ______ that has so far been offered.
A. sensible B. sensitive C. sentimental D.strenuous
15. The prize will go to ______ of them writes the best article.
A. whoever B. whomever C. whichever D.whatever.
Fill in each blank in the passage with the most likely answer. (15 points)
Many students find the experience of attending university lectures to be a confusing and frustrating experience. The lecturer speaks for one or two hours, perhaps illustrating the talk with slides, writing up important information on the blackboard, 16 reading material and giving out
17 . The new student sees the other students continuously writing on notebooks and 18 what to write. Very often the student leaves the lecture with notes which do not catch the main points and 19 become hard even for the students to understand.
Most institutions provide courses which 20 new students to develop the skills they need to be 21 listeners and note-takers. 22 these are unavailable, there are many useful study-skills guides which 23 learners to practise these skills 24. In all cases it is important to 25 the problem 26 actually starting your studies.
It is important to 27 that most students have difficulty in acquiring the language skills 28 in college study. One way of 29 these difficulties is to attend the language and study-skills classes which most institutions provide throughout the academic year. Another basic strategy is to find a study partner 30 it is possible to identify difficulties, exchange ideas and provide support.
16. A.attributing B. contributing C. distributing D. explaining
17. A. assignments B. information C. content D. definition
18. A. suspects B. understands C. wonders . D. convinces
19. A. what B. those C. as D. which
20. A. prevent B. require C. assist D. forbid
21. A. effective B. passive C. relative D. expressive
22. A. Because B. Though C. Whether D. If
23. A. enable B. stimulate C. advocate D. prevent
24. A. independently B. repeatedly C. logically D. generally
25. A. evaluate B. acquaint C. tackle D. formulate
26. A. before B. after C. while D. for
27. A. predict B. acknowledge C. argue D. ignore
28. A. to require B. required C. requiring D. are required
29. A. preventing B. withstanding C. sustaining D. overcoming
30. A. in that B. for which C. with whom D. such as
Choose the closest paraphrased version for each of the sentences or italicized parts.(10 points)
31. Once the sands have run out of a person’s hourglass, they can’t be replaced.
A. The sands that a person has in his hourglass can never be replaced.
B. If a person’s watch goes wrong, it can never be repaired.
C. If a person has got no sense of time, he will never be successful.
D. Once a day in our life is gone, it will never come back again.
32. But overindulging children with material things does little to lessen parental guilt.
A. But overindulging children with material things can really help parents to lessen their guilt.
B. But overindulging children with material things can’t release parents from feeling guilty.
C. Parents really want to use the material things to content their children and get rid of their guilt.
D. If the parents overindulge children with few material things, parents can not lessen their guilt at all.
33. Our business is to show the world as we see it, not to make it better.
A. Our business is to paint the world and make it look better than the real world.
B. Our work is to reflect the real world, not to beautify it.
C. Our work is to show the world to others to make it better.
D. We should make the world a better place to live.
34. “A great army it was, and a great story for me. It will go down in history.”
A. The story will be included in the history book.
B. The story is so interesting that in history classes, the teacher will tell it to the students.
C. This army is worth being remembered.
D. This army is a glorious army. It is a story that can be put into history book.
35. It was in her mind to share their refuge.
A. She is really willing to share their shelter with neighbors.
B. She really wanted to allow her neighbors to share their shelter, and she has made up her mind to do so.
C. She didn’t want their neighbors to share their shelter.
D. She was thinking of sharing their shelter with their neighbors, but she didn’t make up her mind yet.
36. I attended the funeral with them and sat through it with a lump of cold lead in my chest.
A. Throughout the funeral, I was filled with sadness.
B. The sad atmosphere of the funeral almost choked me.
C. At the funeral I felt as cold as lead from beginning to end.
D. All the time I sat at the funeral with a heart as heavy as lead.
37. The subsequent conversation threw no light on the matter.
A. The following conversation didn’t make things clearer.
B. The following conversation made things clearer.
C. The following conversation made people understand this trick.
D. The following conversation was full of complain.
38. In time the visible wounds healed.
A. Sooner or later people could see the wounds clearly.
B. Sooner or later the wounds would disappear.
C. Sooner or later people wilt see the trace of wounds.
D. There were no wounds at all.
39. Besides they do not have access to the knowledge.
A. Besides the first problem, they don’t have the key to knowledge.
B. In addition, they can’t get the needed information.
C. In addition, they don’t need to know the information.
D. Besides, they don’t have confidence to get the needed information.
40. Americans view friendship more tentatively, subject to changes in intensity as people move, change their jobs, marry, or discover new interests.
A. Americans don’t think that friendship can and should remain unchanged.
B. Americans think that in this changing world no friendship can stay stable.
C. Americans prefer anything new and they are constantly looking for new things including friends.
D. Americans look upon friendship as temporary; they don’t believe there can be true friends..
Read the two passages and answer the questions. (20 points)
Researchers have established that when people are mentally engaged (投入的), biochemical (生物化学的) changes occur in the brain that allow it to act more effectively in cognitively(认知的)areas such as attention and memory. This is true regardless of age. People will be alert and receptive if they are faced with information that gets them to think about things they are interested in. And someone with a history of doing more rather than less will go into old age more cognitively sound than someone who has not had an active mind.
Many experts are so convinced of the benefits of challenging the brain that they are putting the theory to work in their own lives. “The idea is not necessarily to learn to memorize enormous amounts of information,” says James Fozard, associate director of the National Institute on Aging. “Most of us don’t need that kind of skill. Such specific training is of less interest than being able to maintain mental alertness. ”Fozard and others say they challenge their brains work.
Gene Cohen, acting director of the same institute, suggests that people in their old age should engage in mental and physical activities individually as well as in groups. Cohen says that we are frequently advised to keep physically active as we age, but older people need to keep mentally active as well. Those who do are more likely to maintain their intellectual abilities and to be generally happier and better adjusted.“The point is, you need to do both.” Cohen says, “Intellectual activity actually influences brain-cell’s health and size.”
41. People who are cognitively healthy are those ______.
A. who can remember large amounts of information
B. who are highly intelligent
C. whose minds are alert and receptive
D. who are good at recognizing different sounds
42. According to Fozard’s argument, people can make their brains work more efficiently by ____.
A. constantly doing memory work
B. taking part in various mental activities
C. going through specific training
D. making frequent adjustments
43. The findings of James and other scientists in their work ______.
A. remain a theory to be further proved
B. have been challenged by many other experts
C. have been generally accepted
D. are practiced by the researchers themselves
44. Older people are generally advised to ______.
A. keep fit by going in for physical activities
B. keep mentally active by challenging their brains
C. maintain mental alertness through specific training
D. maintain a balance between individual and group activities
45. What is the passage mainly about?
A. How biochemical changes occur in the human brain?
B. Why people should keep active not only physically but also mentally?
C. How intellectual activities influence brain-cell health ?
D. Why people should receive special mental training as they age ?
The food we eat seems to have profound effects on our health. Although science has made enormous steps in making food more fit to eat, it has, at the same time, made many foods unfit to eat. Some research has shown that perhaps eighty percent of all human illnesses are related to diet and forty percent of cancer is related to the diet as well, especially cancer of the colon. Different cultures are prone to contract certain illnesses because of the food that is characteristic in these cultures. That food is related to illness is not a new discovery. In 1945, government researchers realized that nitrates (硝酸钾) and nitrites(亚硝酸盐), commonly used to preserve color in meats, and other food additives, caused cancer. Yet, these carcinogenic additives remain in our food, and it becomes more difficult all the time to know which things on the packaging labels of processed food are helpful or harmful. The additives which we eat are not all so direct. Farmers often give penicillin to beef and poultry and because of this, penicillin has been found in the milk of treated cows. Sometimes similar drugs are administered(given) to animals not for medicinal purposes, but for financial reasons. The farmers are simply trying to fatten the animals in order to obtain a higher price on the market. Although the Food and Drug Administration has tried repeatedly to control these procedures, the practices continue.
46. How has science done a disservice (伤害) to mankind? ______.
A. Because of science, disease caused by contaminated food has been virtually done away with
B. It has caused a lack of information, concerning the value of food
C. As a result of scientific intervention, some potentially harmful substances have been added to our food
D. The scientists have preserved the color of meats, but not of vegetables
47. What are nitrates used for? ______.
A. They preserve flavor in packaged foods
B. They preserve the color of meats
C. They are the objects of research
D. They cause the animals to become fatter
48. What does FDA mean as an organization? ______.
A. Food Direct Additives
B. Final Difficult Analysis
C. Food and Drug Administration
D. Federal Dairy Additives
49. The word carcinogenic means most nearly the same as ______.
50. Which of the following statements is not true? ______.
A. Drugs are always given to animals for medical reasons.
B. Some of the additives in our food are added to the food itself and some are given to the living animals.
C. Researchers have known about the potential hazards of food additives for over thirty-five years.
D. Food may cause forty percent of cancer in the world..
Complete each of the following sentences with a (compound) word derived from the one(s) given in brackets. (10 points)
51. The history students hoped to compare the ______ of ancient China and Japan. (civil)
52. The animal moved with such ______ that we didn’t see where it went. (rapid)
53. It’s not ______ to expect a child to understand sarcasm. (reason)
54.Their ______ was announced in the local newspaper. (engage)
55. When a person comes to a new environment, he must have a stage of ______. (adjust)
56. The only bottle of water left made great difference to the ______ of all the sailors on the boat.(survive)
57. Doctors are highly ______ in that country. (appreciation)
58. The made no ______ of their joy. (conceal)
59. No news could be more ______ to me. (delight)
60. They ______ me by asking so many questions. (confusion)
Translate the following sentences into English.(15 points)
Write a short composition of about 150 words based on one of the texts you have learnt. (15 points)
66. “Americans believe no one stands still. If you are not moving ahead, you are falling behind.”
Translate the following sentences into English.(15 points).