I. Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that best completes the statement and put the letter in the bracket. (30%)
1. Words may fall into native words and borrowed words by ______.( )
A. use frequency B. notion
C. origin D. sound
2. Which of the following words does NOT belong to jargon? ( )
A. Orchestra. B. Bottom line.
C. Ballpark figures. D. Bargaining chips.
3. In the sentence “It is fun to play with children.”, there are ______ content words. ( )
A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5
4. Rapid growth of science and technology breeds such new words as the following EXCEPT ______.( )
A. open heart surgery B. fast food
C. moon walk D. space shuttle
5. Reviving archaic words also contributes to the growth of English vocabulary. For instance, the Americans use “sick” for ______ in British English. ( )
A. six B. ailment C. throwing up D. ill
6. If we say that Old English was a language of full endings, Middle English was one of ______ endings. ( )
A. leveled B. short C. long D. paralleled
7. The plural morpheme “-s” is pronounced as/s/in the following words EXCEPT ______. ( )
A. packs B. bags C. cheats D. ships
8. There are ______ free morphemic words in the following words: bird, man, red, turn.( )
A. 1 B.2 C. 3 D. 4
9. The following words have derivational affixes EXCEPT ______. ( )
A. subsea B. prewar C. postwar D. desks
10. The suffix “-tion” is a ______ suffix. ( )
A. adjective B. verb C. adverb D. noun
11. From the sentences “Hand in your papers.” and “She papered the room green.”, we can see such a means of word formation as ______. ( )
A. affixation B. compounding
C. conversion D. acronymy
12. The word “beg” comes from the word “beggar”. Such a way of creating a new word is called ______. ( )
A. suffixation B. clipping
C. blending D. back-formation
13. “Pen” and “sword” in the sentence “The pen is mightier than the sword.” are ______ motivated words. ( )
A. semantically B. etymologically
C. morphologically D. onomatopoeically
14. “Tables, men, potatoes” have the same ______ meaning, for they have the same plural meaning. ( )
A. lexical B. grammatical
C. conceptual D. associative
15. Stylistic features of words include the following EXCEPT ______. ( )
A. formal B. literary
C. argumentative D. slang
16. The word ______ is an illustrative example of concatenation. ( )
A. neck B. board
C. candidate D. harvest
17. Based on the degree of ______, homonyms fall into three classes: perfect homonyms, homographs and homophones. ( )
A. intensity B. property
C. similarity D. variety.
18. Complete synonyms are identical both in grammatical meaning and lexical meaning, including ______ and associative meanings. ( )
A. conceptual B. perceptual
C. eventual D. actual
19. Narrowing of meaning, also called ______, is the opposite of widening meaning. ( )
A. specialization B. realization
C. evolution D. creation
20. As far as transfer is concerned, the phrase “loud colours” falls into the category of transfer ______.( )
A. from concrete to abstract meanings
B. from abstract to concrete meanings
C. through association
D. of sensations
21. In the sentence “She said with an embarrassed laugh.”, the word “embarrassed” can be classified into ______ sense of transfer. ( )
A. subjective B. objective
C. sensational D. physical
22. Based on ______ context, we can determine the meaning of “do the flowers”. ( )
A. cultural B. grammatical
C. lexical D. situational
23. Physical situation or environment relating to the use of words is called ______ or non-linguistic context. ( )
A. extra-linguistic B. lexical
C. grammatical D. syntactical
24. In the sentence “Many United Nations employees are polyglots. Mr. Mary, for example, speaks five languages.”, the word “polyglot” is explained by ______ clue. ( )
A. definition B. example
C. synonymy D. hyponymy
25. Which of the following is NOT one of the stylistic features of idioms? ( )
A. Frozen style. B. Slang.
C. Literary style. D. Colloquialisms.
26. “Chop and change” is an idiom ______ in nature. ( )
A. verbal B. nominal
C. adjectival D. adverbial
27. The change of idiom “the last straw” from the original form is ______.( )
A. replacement B. dismembering
C. addition D. shortening
28. Encyclopedic dictionaries can be further divided into ______ and encyclopedic dictionaries. ( )
A. linguistic B. encyclopedia
C. specialized D. unabridged
29. Oxford Dictionary of Current Idiomatic English is a(n) ______ dictionary. ( )
A. specialized B. desk
C. pocket D. encyclopedic
30. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDCE) was noted for the following aspects EXCEPT ______. ( )
A. its wide coverage of new words, new meanings and new usages
B. its simple and clear definitions
C. its use of extra column
D. its meticulous and complete grammatical information.
Ⅱ. Match the words in Column A with the words in Column B according to 1) types of vocabulary by notion; 2) types of morphemes; 3) sense relations and 4) types of idioms. (10% )
( ) 31. rich/well-to-do/poor A. contradictory term of antonym
( ) 32. call it a day B. superordinate/subordinate
( ) 33. sow v. to scatter seeds/sow n. female adult pig C. homograph
( ) 34. recollection/idealistic D. idiom nominal in nature
( ) 35. employer/employee E. notional words
( ) 36. without/behind F. relative term of antonym
( ) 37. fish/herring G. bound morphemes
( ) 38. cut and dried H. free morphemes
( ) 39. watch/teach I. idiom verbal in nature
( ) 40. brain trust J. idiom adjectival in nature
Ⅲ. Complete the following statements with proper words or expressions according to the course book. (10%)
41. According to semanticists, a word is a unit of ______.
42. Modern English vocabulary develops through three channels: creation, semantic change and ______.
43. ______ morphemes are chiefly found in derived words.
44. Prefixes only modify the ______ of the stem.
45. Lexical ______ of a word has two components: conceptual meaning and associative meaning.
46. In dictionaries, a ______ has its meanings all listed under one headword whereas homonyms are listed as separate entries.
47. Indeed, it often happens that a word is retained for a name though the meaning has changed because the ______ has changed.
48. The sentence “I lost Betty's picture.” is ambiguous due to ______.
49. Based on the criterion of ______ functions, idioms may be classified into five groups.
50. Encyclopedic dictionaries have the characteristics of both ______ dictionaries and encyclopedia.
Ⅳ. Define the following terms. (10%)
54. synchronic approach
55. desk dictionaries
Ⅴ. Answer the following questions. Your answers should be clear and short. Write your answers in the space given below. (20 % )
56. Why, in modern English, were word endings mostly lost with just a few exceptions?
57. What are the differences between inflectional affixes and derivational affixes?
58. How do you account for the semantic change in the living languages?
59. What are contextual clues? Find out the meanings of the words in bold type and tell what contextual clues have helped you in arriving at the meanings.
A. Do you know the architect? He designed St. Paul's Cathedral.
B. The book was only published posthumously, for the author had been dead for three years already.
C. It is undesirable to write with too many parentheses, a pair of brackets round word or phrases.
Ⅵ. Analyze and comment on the following. Write your answers in the space given below. (20%)
60. Analyze and comment on the three causes of meaning change within the scope of the extra-linguistic factors, each with example word(s) given below.
61. Analyze and comment on the fundamental difference between the processes of radiation and concatenation with the words neck and treacle..