i.supply the missing paragraph(20 points)
the following passage is incomplete with one body paragraph missing.study the passage carefully and write the missing paragraph in about 100 words.make sure that your tone and diction are in unity with the passage provided.
the breakdown of communication
it is commonly acknowledged that language problems make communication between people from different cultures difficult.because of the language barriers，people cannot express their feelings clearly to each other.however, communication problems also exist between individuals from the same culture.although they have the same cultural background，they sometimes cannot understand each other well.communication between individuals breaks down because of many factors.the most significant ones include personality, age difference and competition between individuals.
personality has a great influence on communication between people.first, the sharing of common interests is often essential for initiating communication. if two people hold completely different attitudes，it will not be easy for them to start communicating with each other.second，the willingness to express their feelings and opinions freely is needed if meaningful communication is to be developed.some people do not want to talk about controversial subjects, fearing that this will hurt their relationship with friends. instead, they keep their discussion of topics at a very superficial level，which prevents them from knowing and understanding each other. the lack of understanding leads to unsuccessful communication. it is clear that personality, to some extent，affects the initiation and maintenance of communication.
although age difference gives rise to communication problems between two generations，competition poses an even greater problem when people are about the same age.intense competition in the modern world creates tremendous pressure on people.in order to get ahead in a career or in school, people tend to devote most of their time to working，studying，or other activities that enhance their prospects for the future.as a consequence，they have little inclination to communicate with others. they are anxious about their achievements because those are the measures of success in life. so, keen competition also discourages people from having a good understanding of each other.
communicating with other people involves much effort because people’s personality, the generation gap and keen competition bring about potential problems. these problems are constantly with us, and any of them may lead to a breakdown in communication between individuals.
ii.write an outline(20 points)
read the following passage carefully and compose a ‘‘topic outline’’ for it.
what is a rodeo?
“rodeo” is a spanish word meaning ‘‘gathering place or marketplace for cattle.” a rodeo itself is a competitive contest based loosely on traditional cowboy skills of riding and roping.it consists of six major events：riding an untamed horse in a saddle;riding an untamed horse without a saddle;riding a bull;roping a calf;wrestling a bull to the ground;racing horses around barrels with women riders. a rodeo is perhaps the most genuinely american of all sports.
the first rodeo took place following a cattle roundup in the 1880s.from this informal cowboy pastime，a colorful spectacle has evolved that contains many familiar american elements--the exciting action of bucking horses and bulls，the explosive masculine environment，the hot dog stands，beer barrels，boots，jeans，and cowboy hats.
today, most rodeos are staged in a large，flat arena that is fenced off to protect the viewing public.grandstands are erected on two sides of the arena;on the other sides are places to hold the horses，calves，and bulls.nearby are narrow chutes from which animals are released into the arena.on a platform a loudspeaker system is set up for the announcer, who introduces the riders and comments on the events as they happen.near the arena are refreshment stands where people gather to buy food and drink. portable rest rooms are set up near the grandstand，and an ambulance is parked nearby in case of an accident.
an opening parade of proud riders on proud horses usually begins a rodeo;the performers carry flapping national and state flags.then the two-act performance begins.calf roping and bull wrestling are timed events.in the fastest possible time，a man must rope and throw to the ground a calf and tie three of its feet together.in bull wrestling，the object is to tumble the bull onto its back with its head and all its feet in line.calf roping has been done under fifteen seconds，and a bull has been wrestled in less than ten seconds.
when riding an animal，a contestant mounts before the chute gates are opened.the rider must stay on the bucking animal for eight seconds;points are given for the performance of both the animal and the contestant.in all riding events，the contestant is disqualified if he touches the animal with his free hand.
probably the most difficult rodeo feat is brahman bull riding.during this event, a rodeo comes to resemble a circus because gaily-costumed clowns come into the arena to distract the bull’s attention from fallen riders.to stay on a bucking bull for as long as eight seconds is one of the most challenging tasks in a rodeo. spectators eagerly wait for this event.
the present circus extends far beyond the region where the contests first developed.now rodeos are popular throughout the western half of the u.s.a.and in major eastern and southern cities.australia also stages these events.one of the biggest rodeos of all is held during the annual calgary stampede in calgary, canada.
iii.compose an essay(60 points)
traditionally, chinese families would gather at home and have a big dinner on the eve of the chinese new year.in recent years, however, many families choose to have the dinner at restaurants.which do you think is a better choice, and why? write a 300-word expository essay stating your views..