1. Careful Reading. (40 points, 2 points for each)
Directions: Read the following passages carefully. Decide on the best answers and them write the corresponding letters on your Answer Sheet.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage.
The appeal of advertising to buying motives can have both negative and positive effects. Consumers may be convinced to buy a product of poor quality or high price because of an advertisement. For example, some advertisers have appealed to people’s desire for better fuel economy for their cars by advertising automotive products that improve gasoline mileage. Some of the products work. Others are worthless and a waste of consumers’ money.
Sometimes advertising is intentionally misleading. A few years ago, a brand of bread was offered to dieters with the message that there were fewer calories in every slice. It turned out that the bread was not dietetic (适合于节食的), but just regular bread. There were fewer calories because it was sliced very thin, but there were the same number of calories in every loaf.
On the positive side, emotional appeals may respond to a consumer’s real concerns. Consider fire insurance. Fire insurance may be sold by appealing to fear of loss. But fear of loss is the real reason for fire insurance. The security of knowing that property is protected by insurance makes the purchase of fire insurance a worthwhile investment for most people. If consumers consider the quality of the insurance plans as well as the message in the ads, they will benefit from the advertising.
Each Consumer must evaluate her or his own situation.Are the benefits of the product important enough to justify buying it? Advertising is intended to appeal to consumers.but it does not force them to buy the product.Consumers still controlthe final buying decision.
1.Advertising can persuade the consumer to buy worthless products by________.
A.stressing their high quality
B.convincing him of their low price
C.maintaining a balance between quality and price
D.appealing to his buying motives
2.The reason why the bread advertisement is misleading is that______.
A.thin slices of bread could contain more calories
B.the loaf was cut into regular slices
C.the bread was not genuine bread
D.the total number of calories in the loaf remained the same
3.According to the passage，which 0f the following statements is true?
A.Sometimes advertisements really sell what the consumer needs.
B.Advertisements occasionally force consumers into buying things they don’t need.
C.The buying motives of consumers are controlled by advertisements.
D.Fire insurance is seldom a worthwhile investment.
4.It can be inferred from the passage that a smart consumer should______.
A.think carefully about the benefits described in the advertisements
B.guard against the deceiving nature of advertisements
C.be familiar with various advertising strategies
D.avoid buying products that have strong emotional appeal
5.The passage is mainly about______.
A.how to make a wise buying decision
B.ways to protect the interests of the consumer
C.the positive and negative aspects of advertising
D.the function of advertisements in promoting sales
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage.
Americans are proud of their variety and individuality, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform, whether it is the uniform of an elevator operator or the uniform of a five-star general. Why are uniforms so popular in the United States?
Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more professional than civilian (百姓的) clothes. People have become conditioned to expect superior quality from a man who wears a uniform. The television repairman who wears a uniform tends to inspire more trust than one who appears in civilian clothes. Faith in the skill of a garage mechanic is increased by a uniform. What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose professional identity than to step out of uniform?
Uniforms also have many practical benefits. They save on other clothes. They save on laundry bills. They are tax-deductible (可减税的). They are often more comfortable and more durable than civilian clothes.
Primary among the arguments against uniforms is their lack of variety and the consequent loss of individuality experienced by people who must wear them. Though there are many types of uniforms, the wearer of any particular type is generally stuck with it, without change, until retirement. When people look alike, they tend to think, speak, and act similarly, on the job at least.
Uniforms also give rise to some practical problems. Though they are long-lasting, often their initial expense is greater than cost of civilian clothes. Some uniforms are also expensive to maintain, requiring professional dry cleaning rather than the home laundering possible with many types of civilian clothes.
6. It is surprising that Americans who worship variety and individuality____.
A. enjoy having a professional identity
B. still judge a man by his clothes
C. hold the uniform in such high regard
D. respect an elevator operator as much as a general in uniform
7. People are accustomed to thinking that a man in uniform______.
A. appears to be more practical
B. suggests quality work
C. discards his social identity
D. looks superior to a person in civilian clothes
8. The chief function of a uniform is to______.
A. provide the wearer with a professional identity
B. inspire the wearer’s confidence in himself
C. provide practical benefits to the wearer
D. make the wearer catch the public eye
9. According to the passage, people wearing uniforms ______.
A. tend to lose their individuality B. are usually helpful
C. look like generals D. have little or no individual freedom
10. The best title for this passage would be______.
A. Uniforms and Society
B. Advantages and Disadvantages of Uniforms
C. The Importance of Wearing a Uniform
D. Practical Benefits of Wearing a Uniform
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.
British newspapers can be classified into groups according to various criteria, such as area of distribution, size of sales, socioeconomic class of their readers, days (and times) of publication, and political bias. Each of these different criteria will lead to more or less different groupings.
With regard to the area of distribution a fairly clear distinction can be made between national papers and local papers. The national, e.g. The Times, Daily Mirror and Sunday Express, are readily obtainable in virtually all parts of the United Kingdom at the same time. On the other hand, local papers, e.g. Yorkshire Post or Liverpool Echo, serve a particular area, and outside that area must be specially ordered.
As regards the sales figures, we must recognize that there is no clear line that will distinguish between large and small sales. However, we make a somewhat arbitrary distinction here, partly based on copies sold, but also influenced by the type of content of the papers. This separates the so-called “popular” papers from the “quality” papers: the “qualities”, like Sunday Times or Financial Times, tend to have larger, more serious articles than the “populars”, such as The People or News of the World.
Regarding the socioeconomic class of the readers, a classification on these lines will to a large extent reflect the above distinction into quality and popular. This is because the quality papers are mostly intended for the upper income groups, while the popular papers find their readers among the lower socioeconomic groups. Thus, a reader of The Observer or Financial Times, which are quality papers, is likely to be an educated person with quite a good income, while a reader of Daily Mail or The Sun is more likely to be a less well-educated person with a lower income.
As to the days of publication, most British papers are either so-called “daily papers”, (which in tact do not appear on Sundays), e.g. The Guardian or The Scotsman, or Sunday papers, like Sunday Times or News of the world. Local papers with small circulations, however, might appear only once or twice a week, or even less frequently, depending on the demand for them. Concerning the time of publication, the vast majority are morning papers, i.e. they go on sale early in the morning, while the minority are the so-called “evening” papers, whose sales might start as early as midday, and then continue until the evening.
11. According to various criteria British newspapers can be classified into______.
A. national papers and local papers B. “qualities” and “populars”
C. morning papers and evening papers D. all of the above
12. The Times, Daily Mirror, and Sunday Express are readily obtainable in virtually all parts of the UK at the same time. Therefore, they are______.
A. so-called “daily paper” B. national papers
C. popular papers D. local papers
13. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. The “'quality” papers tend to have large, more serious articles than the “populars”.
B. The “popular” papers have larger sales.
C. The “quality” papers find their readers among the upper income groups.
D. A reader of the “qualities” is likely to be a less well-educated person with a lower income.
14. As to the days of publication, British daily papers appear______.
A. only on Sundays B. only once or twice a week
C. every day except on Sundays D. every day
15. Sales of the so-called “evening” papers might start______.
A. early in the morning B. as early as noon
C. in the evening D. at midnight
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.
Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age. For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences.
Although we focus on the needs of exceptional children, we find ourselves describing their environment as well. While the leading actor on the stage captures our attention, we are aware of the importance of the supposing players and the scenery of the play itself. Both the family and the society in which exceptional children live are often the key to their growth and development. And it is in the public schools that we find the full expression of society’s understanding—the knowledge, hopes, and fears that are passed on to the next generation.
Education in any society is a minor of that society. In that mirror we can see the strengths, the weaknesses and the culture itself. The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.
“All men are created equal.” We’ve heard it many times, but it still has important meaning for education in a democratic society. Although the phrase was used by this country’s founders to denote equality before the caw, it has also been interpreted to mean equality of opportunity. That concept implies educational opportunity for all children—the right of each child to receive help in learning to the limits of his or her capacity, whether that capacity be small or great. Recent court decisions have confirmed the right of all children —disabled or not—to an appropriate education, and have ordered that public schools take the necessary steps to provide that education. In response, schools are modifying their programs, adapting instruction to children who are exceptional, to those who cannot profit substantially from regular programs.
16. In paragraph 2, the author cites the example of the leading actor on the stage to show that
A. the growth of exceptional children has much to do with their family and the society
B. exceptional children are more influenced by their families than normal children are
C. exceptional children are the key interest of the family and society
D. the needs of the society weigh much heavier than the needs of the exceptional children
17. The reason that the exceptional children receive so much concern in education is that_______.
A. they are expected to be leaders of the society
B. they might become a burden of the society
C. they should fully develop their potential
D. disabled children deserve special consideration
18. The word “denote” in the fourth paragraph most probably means_______.
A. translate B. indicate
C. blame D. ignore
19. This passage mainly deals with ____
A. the differences of children in their learning capabilities
B. the definition of exceptional children in modern society
C. the special educational programs for exceptional children
D. the necessity of adapting education to exceptional children
20. From this passage we learn that the educational concern for exceptional children_______.
A. is now enjoying legal support
B. disagrees with the tradition of the country
C. was clearly stated by the country’s founders
D. will exert great influence over court decisions
II. Speed Reading. (10 points, 1 point for each)
Directions: Skim or scan the following passages. Decide on the best answers and then write the corresponding letters on your Answer Sheet.
Questions 21-25 are based on the following passage.
The human thumb made man. Its development was as important an event in man’s growth as his success in learning to walk upright. The thumb shaped the human hand. Without it, man might not have survived. Luckily, the hand developed only one thumb. Two thumbs on one hand would be like having two or more cooks in a small kitchen. They would get in each other’s way. As one English writer said almost 500 years ago, “Ah, each finger today is a thumb, I think.”
That is how we still describe a man who cannot get anything right. We say he is “all thumbs”. There are days when this happens to all of us, days when everything we do seems to go wrong. We cannot even get the right shoes on. The typist cannot hit the right key. The carpenter’s hammer misses the nail and hits his finger. Nothing can be done but throw up one’s hands and moan (悲叹), “God, I am all thumbs today!”
Clearly, the hand can have just one master—the thumb. It gives the hand a freedom and control of movement that are beautiful to see. This can be seen in old sculptures and stone carvings. We have a special phrase to express this mastery of the thumb. When one is ruled by another, completely controlled by him, we say the person is “under the other’s thumb”. A sick man, for example, often finds himself “under his doctor’s thumb”. Tenants have often complained about being “under the thumb of the landlord”.
There was a time, very long ago, when such tenants might in anger “bite their thumbs” at the landlord. Such a gesture was an insult that could not be accepted lightly. People no longer do this. But they do something as childish and as offensive and ugly. They “thumb their noses” at somebody they want to defy or insult.
21. If a person has two or more thumbs on one hand, he would______.
A. do more things B. have a lot of trouble
C. work as two or more cooks D. become a writer
22. Without ______man might not have survived.
A. the cook B. the thumb
C. the finger D. the writer
23. When a person says “I am all thumbs today”, he means that_______.
A. he can’t get the right shoes on
B. his hammer misses the nail and hits his finger
C. he does everything smoothly
D. he can’t get everything right
24. When a person is completely controlled by another person, _______.
A. we say that he is “all thumbs”
B. we say that he has “a great thumb”
C.. we say that he is “under the other’s thumb”
D. he turns thumb down on him
25. When you want to insult someone, you can_______.
A. put your thumb on your nose B. wave your thumb at him
C. put him under your thumb D. do nothing with your thumb
Questions 26-30 are based on the following passage.
Where did the movies begin? It is often said that they are an American invention, but this is not entirely true. The motion picture has been the most international of arts before the dawn of the 20th century.
Soon after 1889, when the famous American inventor Thomas Edison first showed motion pictures through a device called the kinetoscope, other devices for the same purpose appeared all over the world. One other important contribution by Edison was the introduction of 35mm as the international standard film width. When it became possible to use any 35mm machine for showing movies from any part of the world, the international trading of films could begin.
During the first years, there were no special movie theaters. Films were often shown in buildings which had formerly been stores. In America, these became known as nickelodeons because each member of the audience paid a nickel (five cents) to watch the movie.
At first, movies pleased people just because the experience of watching them was new. In the black and white shadows, one could see larger-than-life images of reality and they moved! But images alone cannot keep people interested forever. Then cameras were taken to South Africa and Cuba to photograph wars in action. Prizefights were filmed, and so were religious processions. But none of these attractions could please the crowds for long.
What gave the movies the possibility of becoming an art form was the introduction of narrative. Someone realized that a film could tell a story.
Edwin S. Porter was a director and cameraman for Thomas Edison’s company. He advanced the art of the film by a giant step when, in 1903, he produced The Great Train Robbery. Although this account of a mail robbery and the pursuit of the robbers was very simple, it required the filming of several different locations. The result was a film that not only shifted freely from place to place but even enabled viewers to see two actions that occurred at the same time. They watched the robbers escape and then saw the pursuers gathering for the pursuit. Within this brief, eight-minute movie lay the seeds of a true art form.
In 1908, Biograph, a small film company in New York, employed a man who was to become the first true genius of motion pictures. He was D. W. Griffith, an unsuccessful actor and writer of plays, who had worked briefly for Porter. Griffith preferred writing to acting, but at Biograph he worked as a writer, an actor and a director. In less than five years, he directed almost 300 pictures, raised Biograph to a leading position among film companies, and laid the foundations for modern
26. The first motion pictures were shown by Thomas Edison in_______.
A. 1889 B. 1903
C. 1907 D. 1908
27. _______ made the international trading of films possible.
A. The use of nickels
B. Movie theaters
C. The introduction of 35mm as the international standard film width
D. A device called the kinetoscope
28. _______made it possible for films to become an art form.
A. Larger-than-life images of reality
B. The fact that wars were filmed
D. The introduction of narrative
29. The writer said that Porter advanced the art of the film by a giant step in producing The Great Train Robbery.This is probably because the film_______.
A. had a title which had a tremendous effect
B. was the longest at that time
C. was produced by a director
D. required the filming of several different locations
30. _______is regarded as the first true genius of motion picture.
IlI. Discourse Cloze. (10 points, 1 point for each)
Directions: The following passage is taken from the textbook. Read the passage and fill in the numbered spaces (there are more suggested answers than necessary). Write your answers on the Answer Sheet.
WORLD WAR II, the name commonly given to the global conflict of 1939-1945. It was the greatest and most destructive war in history. 31. _______, World War II included gigantic struggles not only in Europe but in Asia, Africa, and the far-flung (广泛的,漫长的) islands of the Pacific as well. More than 17 million members of the armed forces of the various belligerents (交战国) perished during the conflict. Its conduct strained the economic capabilities of the major nations and left many countries on the edge of collapse.
At the end of World War I the victorious nations formed the League of Nations for the purpose of airing international disputes, and of mobilizing its members for a collective effort to keep the peace in the event of aggression by any nation against another or of a breach (对法律、义务等的违犯) of the peace treaties. The United States, imbued (鼓吹) with isolationism, did not become a member. The League failed in its first test. In 1931 the Japanese, using as an excuse the explosion of a small bomb under a section of track of the South Manchuria Railroad (over which they had virtual control), initiated military operations designed to conquer all of Manchuria. 32. _______ Thereupon, Japan resigned from the League. Meanwhile, Manchuria had been overrun and transformed into a Japanese puppet state under the name of Manchukuo. 33. _______.
In 1933 also, Adolf Hitler came to power as dictator of Germany and began to rearm the country in contravention (违反，违背) of the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. 34.___. That year the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini began his long-contemplated invasion of Ethiopia, which he desired as an economic colony. 35. _______. British and French efforts to effect a compromise settlement failed, and Ethiopia was completely occupied by the Italians in 1936.
Alarmed by German rearmament, France sought an alliance with the USSR. Under the pretext that this endangered Germany, Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland in 1936. 36. _______. Emboldened by this success, Hitler intensified his campaign for Lebensraum (space for living) for the German people. 37. _______. In September, as Hitler increased his demands on the Czechs and war seemed imminent, the British and French arranged a conference with Hitler and Mussolini. At the Munich Conference they agreed to German occupation of the Sudetenland, Hitler’s asserted last claim, in the hope of maintaining peace. This hope was short lived, for in March 1939, Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia and seized the former German port of Memel from Lithuania. There followed demands on Poland with regard to Danzig (波兰港口) and the Polish Corridor. 38. _______. After surprising the world with the announcement of a nonaggression pact (条约) with his sworn foe, the Soviet Union, he sent his armies across the Polish border on Sept. 1, 1939.39. _______.
As the Germans devastated Poland, the Russians moved into the eastern part of the country and began the process that was to lead to the absorption in 1940 of Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania. They also made demands on Finland. 40. _______.
Meanwhile, Japan had undertaken military operations for the subjugation of China proper, and was making preparations for the expansion of its empire into Southeast Asia and the rich island groups of the Southwest Pacific. Mussolini watched the progress of his fellow dictator, Hitler, while preparing to join in the war at a favorable moment.
(From The World War II in Brief)
A. The League voted minor sanctions (制裁) against Italy, but these had slight practical effect
B. He denounced the provisions of that treaty that limited German armament and in 1935 reinstituted compulsory military service
C. Whereas military operations in World War I were conducted primarily on the European continent
D. He forcibly annexed (兼并) Austria in March 1938, and then, charging abuse of German minorities, threatened Czechoslovakia
E. Because of a lack of resources, Allied strategy had envisioned the prior defeat of Germany while remaining on the defensive against the Japanese
F. After receiving the report of its commission of inquiry, the League adopted a resolution in 1933 calling on the Japanese to withdraw
G. The Poles remained adamant (顽强的，坚决的), and it became clear to Hitler that he could attain his objectives only by force
H. Beset (缠扰) by friction and dissension (冲突，纠纷) among its members, the League took no further action
I. Britain and France, pledged to support Poland in the event of aggression, declared war on Germany two days later
J. It was a dangerous venture, for Britain and France could have overwhelmed Germany, but, resolved to keep the peace, they took no action
K. The recalcitrant (顽抗的) Finns were subdued in the Winter War of 1939-1940, but only after dealing the Russians several humiliating military reverses
L. War’s end found the United States and the USSR the two greatest powers in the world
IV. Word Formations. (10 points, 1 point for each)
Directions: Complete each of the following sentences with the proper form of the word in the brackets. Write your answers on the Answer Sheet.
41. (significant) It is a waste of time to listen to his ______talk.
42. (astonish) I was ______ at the news of his escape.
43. (bankruptcy) Our business is at the crossing. If this deal does not succeed, we shall
44. (vain) Before they fled the country, the enemy ______attempted to destroy all the
45. (extinct) His movie of the______of dinosaurs was a great success.
46. (exist) In her speech, the Minister came out against any change to the ______law.
47. (patient) The nurse has been criticized for the third time for she is always ______with
48. (mystery) There are many______stories about the Egyptian pyramids.
49. (valid) This ticket has passed its expiration date, and so it is now______.
50. (deprivation) If you drive too fast, the police will______you of your licence.
V. Gap Filling. (10 points, 1 point for each)
Directions: The following passage is taken from the textbook. Fill in the numbered gaps with the correct form of the words or phrases in the box (there are more words than necessary). Write your answers on the Answer Sheet.
force steady dependent able unite
among hold call approve apply
remarkably with turn
Before the war ended, these thirteen states realized that they would need to work together in peacetime as they had been 51. ______ to do in wartime. In 1782 they put into effect a plan for 52.______ under a federal system. This meant that each of the states would remain 53. ______ in many ways but would join with the others in a government that would be able to do things that individual states could not do by themselves with success. Unfortunately this plan did not provide for a federal government strong enough to 54.______ it to do what needed to be done. This became clear after a few years of experience. In 1786 a call went out to all the states inviting them to send delegates to a meeting to be held in Philadelphia in the spring of 1787. This meeting was the Constitutional Convention, a great 55.________ point in American history.
No more important meeting has ever been held in America. To it came fifty-five men, 56. ______ them some of the most famous men in our history. They included George Washington who presided over the convention, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton. They worked 57.______ and in secret from May well into September and adjourned only after they had written a new plan of government to be sent to the thirteen states for 58.______ The document was the Constitution of the United States. A great English statesman called this constitution “the most 59. ______ work known to me in modern times to have been produced by the human intellect, at a single stroke (so to speak), in its 60. ______ to political affairs.” Before 1788 had ended, the Constitution had been approved in most of the states and in 1789 it went into effect. Since then it has been the fundamental law of the nation.
(From The Constitution of the United States)
VI. Short Answer Questions. (10 points, 5 points for each)
Directions: The following 2 questions are based on Passage Four in this test paper. Read the passage carefully again and answer the questions briefly by referring back to Passage Four. Write your answers on the Answer Sheet.
61. What’s the function of education in a society? Why does the public education show great interest in exceptional children?
62. What does the statement “All men are created equal.” mean according to the passage?
VII. Translation. (10 points, 2 points for each)
Directions: The following excerpt is taken from the textbook. Read the paragraphs carefully and translate into Chinese each of the numbered and underlined parts.
It was twenty years ago and I was living in Paris. 63. I had a tiny apartment in the Latin Quarter overlooking a cemetery and I was earning barely enough money to keep body and soul together. She had read a book of mine and had written to me about it. I answered, thanking her, and presently I received from her another letter saying that she was passing through Paris and would like to have a chat with me; but her time was limited and the only free moment she had was on the following Thursday; she was spending the morning at the Luxembourg and would I give her a little luncheon at Foyot’s afterwards? 64. Foyot’s is a restaurant at which the French senators eat and it was so far beyond my means that I had never even thought of going there. 65. But I was flattered and I was too young to have learned to say no to a woman. (Few men, I may add, learn this until they are too old to make it of any consequence to a woman what they say.) 66. I had eighty francs (gold francs) to last me the rest of the month, and a modest luncheon should not cost more than fifteen. If I cut out coffee for the next two weeks I could manage well enough.
I answered that I would meet my friend—by correspondence—at Foyot’s on Thursday at half past twelve. 67. She was not so young as I expected and in appearance imposing rather than attractive. She was, in fact, a woman of forty (a charming age, but not one that excites a sudden and devastating passion at first sight), and she gave me the impression of having more teeth, white and large and even, than were necessary for any practical purpose. She was talkative, but since she seemed inclined to talk about me I was prepared to be an attentive listener..