I. Reading Comprehension. (50 points, 2 points for each)
Directions: In this part of the test, there are five passages. Following each passage, there are five questions with four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and then write the corresponding letter on your Answer Sheet.
Animal life first appeared on the earth about 400 million years ago. Through the passing millennia, thousands of animal species have come and gone. Until recently, this process was gradual, the result of changes in climate, in habitat, or in the genes of the animals themselves. But the tremendous expansion of modern civilization now threatens to upset this natural balance, putting unprecedented pressure on the survival of our wildlife.
Of all the continents, the most drastic reduction in wildlife has occurred in North America, where the transition from a rural to a highly industrialized society has been most rapid. Among the victims are birds, mammals, and fish. We will never again see the passenger pigeon or the eastern elk. They have been wiped out. Of many other species, only a few representatives still survive in the wild. The U.S. Department of the Interior has put no fewer than 109 species on the endangered species list. This list includes everything from the timber wolf to the whooping crane. Even the bald eagle, our national symbol, is threatened.
Animals that kill other game for food are called predators. The predators include the wolf, mountain lion, fox, bobcat, and bear. Attack against these animals began with the arrival of the first European settlers, who wished to protect their livestock. Eventually, a reward was offered to hunters for every predator that was killed. This reward is called a bounty. Ironically, the Federal government was the chief funder of predator-control programs.
The settlers also brought with them their Old World fears and superstitions concerning predators.Whether preying on livestock or not，predators were shot on sight.This attitude continues to this day for coyotes，eagles，foxes，mountain lions，and bobcats，and is largely responsible for placing the eastern timber wolf, grizzly bear, and bald eagle on the endangered species list.
Yet every animal，including the predator, has its place in nature’s grand design.Predators help maintain the health of their prey species by eliminating the diseased，young，old，and injured.Predators like the mountain lion and the wolf help to keep the deer herds healthy.Their kill also provides food for scavengers that feed on carrion.Occasional loss of livestock must be weighed against the good these animals do in maintaining the balance of nature.
Questions 1-5 are based on Passage One.
1.The fastest disappearance of wildlife has occurred in ______.
2.The major threats to wildlife in the modern world come from ______.
A.industrialization and urbanization.
B.changes in climate，habitat，or the genes
C.rapid increase in man’s population
D.the use of pesticides
3.An endangered species is the one that ______.
A.kills other animals for food
B.faces extinction thus needs protection
C.is dangerous to human beings
D.1ives in places of danger
4.“Animals that kill other game for food are called predators.”(Para.3)The word “game” means ______.
A.animals that kill predators for food
B.animals that feed on carrion
C.animals that are hunted for food
D.animals that appear on the endangered species list
5.Bounty hunters are those who ______·
A.take care of the wild areas
B.kill predators for money
C.preserve wild animals
D.protect the habitat of the wildlife
The establishment of Earth Day began with an idea proposed in October 1969 by John McConnell，a San Francisco resident.
McConnell approached the San Francisco Board of Supervisors with a resolution to devote one day a year to public awareness dedicated to nature and the fragile ecosystem that comprises it.The day’s events would emphasize the urgency of all inhabitants of the planet to take responsibility for building a healthy and ecologically sustainable planet.The board was impressed with McConnell’s idea and declared Earth Day an annual celebration to be held on March 21，the date of the vernal equinox.McConnell stated，“This is the moment when night and day are equal throughout the earth—reminding us of Earth’s beautiful systems of balance which humanity has partially upset and must restore.’’
Earth Day was established as a national day of celebration in the United States in 1 970 and was embraced by the United Nations in 1 97 1 when it declared an Earth Day ceremony to be held each year on the day of the March Equinox.In 1970，Senator Gaylord Nelson，proposed an Earth Week for the third week in April and together with Bruce Anderson，an architect of solar energy and environmental author, co-founded Earth Day USA.The first national Earth Day was celebrated in the United States on April 22，1 970.Twenty million participants nationwide took part in teach-ins，street demonstrations，and workshops in 2,000 communities and 12，000 college and high school campuses.The major public concern at that time was industrial pollution and its effect on the air we breathe，the water we drink，and the health of the planet we live on.Those celebrations led to overwhelming public outcries for legislation mandating ecologically sound environmental policies and rigid controls on industrial pollution.
Over the years, the issues of concern have expanded greatly into all aspects of air, water, soil, and noise pollution. Whether it comes from vehicles, factories, agriculture, housing, or private property, public concern and activism continue unabated with citizens from around the world involved in efforts to achieve a sustainable and enduring ecosystem.
Questions 6-10 are based on Passage Two.
6. This passage mainly discusses ______.
A. how Earth Day originated and developed
B. why Earth Day was set on the day of vernal equinox
C. why John McConnell proposed the idea of Earth Day
D. what the major public concern was in the 1970s
7. Earth Day was first proposed to ______.
A. reflect public concern for industrial pollution at the time
B. call for legislation on environment
C. achieve a sustainable and enduring ecosystem
D. raise the public awareness of nature and the ecosystem
8. The major concern of the first national Earth Day in the United States was _______.
A. deforestation and desertization
B. air pollution and water pollution
C. agricultural waste and pesticide use
D. industrial pollution and its effect
9. According to the last paragraph, people have now realized ______.
A. the establishment of the Earth Day can do little to save our planet
B. the importance of protecting our environment and the ecosystem
C. John McConnell’s proposal played an important role in saving our planet
D. the issues of concern of Earth Day have expanded greatly into all aspects of air, water, soil, and noise pollution
10. The word “enduring” in the last sentence probably means ______.
Several months ago I decided it would be wise to investigate the possibilities of buying a life insurance policy, if for no other reason than because I understood it might be a good investment. I got the name of an insurance agent from a friend and called the agent to get some information. From the kinds of questions I put to him, the agent would tell that I knew nothing about insurance so he kindly offered to explore the matter with me in more detail — to help me determine the kind of policy I ought to be considering.
That evening he appeared at my door promptly at 7:30; without wasting time on amenities, he spread his papers out on the kitchen table and launched into a lengthy explanation. I listened attentively as he talked about the difference between various types of policies, and he explained the kind of coverage he felt I ought to have because of my age bracket and financial objectives. Toward the end of the evening (after three or four hours of talking), he kindly helped me fill out an application for a 50,000 dollar policy, and then he asked if I could go to a Dr. Luther’s office on Friday for a physical examination.
I don’t know why, but it was not until the mention of the doctor’s appointment that I realized fully what was happening. I was about to sign a lifetime contract, yet I had not really made a decision about whether I wanted to buy the policy or not. As a matter of fact, the question of the need for a decision from me one way or the other had not even come up. Suddenly I felt sure that I definitely did not want to buy the policy. However, since he had spent so much time with me, I didn’t want to make him feel that he had wasted his time. So I invented an excuse about things I had to do on Friday, and I assured him I would call him in a few days. Actually, I had no intention of going to see Dr. Luther or of calling the agent again. I wanted to forget the whole thing.
It’s been over three months now since our meeting, and my friendly insurance agent still calls at my office faithfully two or three times a week. My secretary knows that I don’t want to talk to him, so when he calls she tells him that I’m in a meeting or that I’m out of the office or that I’m away on a business trip. I realize now that it was a mistake not to tell him outright that I’m not interested, and please not to bother me any more, all I can do is to avoid his calls and hope I don’t run into him someplace.
Questions 11-15 are based on Passage Three.
11. The writer got the name of the insurance agent from ______.
A. a TV commercial
B. one of his friends
C. an insurance company
D. one of his colleagues
12. Why did the writer phone the insurance agent?
A. He wanted to fill out an application for a life insurance policy.
B. He had decided to buy a life insurance policy.
C. He wanted to explore the possibilities of buying a life insurance policy.
D. He took great interest in the insurance company.
13. After helping the writer fill out the application, the agent asked if ______.
A. he was satisfied with his explanation
B. he could pay the insurance premium immediately
C. he could recommend other people to buy a life insurance
D. he could go to the doctor’s for a physical check-up
14. What do you think about the secretary?
A. She is dishonest.
B. She is experienced.
C. She is sophisticated.
D. She is sympathetic.
15. “... all I can do is to avoid his calls and hope I don’t run into him someplace.”
(Para. 4) The expression “run into him” means ______.
A. being caught by him
B. getting him annoyed
C. meeting him accidentally
D. seeing him as scheduled
We all know that people sometimes change their behavior when someone is looking their way. Now, a new study reported online on April 2nd in Current Biology shows that jackdaws —birds related to crows with eyes that appear similar to human eyes — can do the same.
“Jackdaws seem to recognize the eye’s role in visual perception, or at the very least they are extremely sensitive to the way that human eyes are oriented,” said Auguste von Bayern, formerly of the University of Cambridge and now at the University of Oxford.
When presented with a preferred food, hand-raised jackdaws took significantly longer to retrieve the reward when a person was directing his eyes towards the food than when he was looking away, according to the research team led by Nathan Emery of the University of Cambridge. The birds hesitated only when the person in question was unfamiliar and thus potentially threatening.
In addition, the birds were able to interpret human communicative gestures, such as gaze alternation and pointing to help them find hidden food, they found. The birds were unsuccessful in using static cues, including eye gaze or head orientation, in that context.
Unlike most birds, jackdaws’ eyes have a dark pupil surrounded by a silvery white iris. The researchers said they believe jackdaws are probably sensitive to human eyes because, as in humans, eyes are an important means of communication for them. The hand-raised birds examined in the study may be even better than wild jackdaws at attending to human gaze and responding to the gestures of the people who have raised them.
The findings are particularly notable given that most other species investigated so far, including our closest relatives the chimpanzee and “man’s best friend,” the dog, are not particularly sensitive to eye orientation and eye gaze, von Bayern said. Rather, she continued, chimps and dogs seem to rely on other cues such as head or body orientation in determining the looking direction of others and do not appear to appreciate the eyes as the visual organs. The results suggest that birds may deserve more respect for their mental abilities.
Questions 16-20 are based on Passage Four.
16. According to the report, when does a hand-raised jackdaw hesitate to take a preferred food?
A. When the feeder is looking away from the food.
B. When the feeder is unfamiliar to the bird.
C. When the. feeder holds the food in his hand.
D. When the feeder is looking at the food.
17.According to the researchers，jackdaws can notice human eye orientation probably because ______.
A.1ike humans，they also use eyes to communicate
B.they are far more intelligent than other birds
C.they are mostly hand-raised by humans
D.their eyes also have a dark pupil
18.According to the 4th paragraph，jackdaws are good at interpreting all of the following cues EXCEPT ______.
A.alternating one’s gaze to another direction
B.pointing to where the food is hidden
C.keeping a long gaze at one direction
D.directing one’s eyes towards the food
19.Why does the author refer to chimpanzees and dogs in the last paragraph?
A.To suggest that they are much better at interpreting gaze alternation.
B.To illustrate how unique jackdaws are in being able to notice gaze orientation.
C.To make clear that they rely on other means in determining people’s intention.
D.To show that they communicate more frequently with humans than jackdaws.
20.What does the research finding suggest?
A.We know embarrassingly less about birds than we assume.
B.The closer we communicate with animals，the better we understand them.
C.Not all jackdaws are good at attending to human gaze.
D.We may have underestimated jackdaws’ mental abilities.
Although Beethoven could sit down and make up music easily, his really great compositions did not come easily at all.They cost him a great deal of hard work.We know how often he rewrote and corrected his work because his notebooks are still kept in museums and libraries.He always found it hard to satisfy himself.
When he was 28, the worst difficulty of all came to him. He began to notice a strange humming in his ears. At first he paid little attention; but it grew worse, and at last he consulted doctors. They gave him the worst news any musician can hear: he was gradually going deaf. Beethoven was in despair; he was sure that he was going to die.
He went away to the country, to a place called Heiligenstadt, and from there he wrote a long farewell letter to his brothers. In this he told them how depressed and lonely his deafness had made him. “It was impossible for me to ask men to speak louder or shout, for I am deaf,” he wrote. “How could I possibly admit an infirmity in the one sense (hearing) which should have been more perfect in me than in others ... I must live like an exile.” He longed to die, and said to death, “Come when you will, I shall meet you bravely.”
In fact, Beethoven did something braver than dying. He gathered his courage and went on writing music, though he could hear what he wrote only more and more faintly. He wrote his best music, the music we remember him for, after he became deaf. Instead of the elegant and stately music that earlier musicians had written for their wealthy listeners, Beethoven wrote stormy, exciting, revolutionary music, which reminds us of his troubled and courageous life. He grew to admire courage more than anything, and he called one of his symphonies the “Eroica” or heroic symphony, “to celebrate the memory of a great man”. Describing the dramatic opening notes of his famous Fifth Symphony, he said, “thus fate knocks on the door”.
In those years when he went completely deaf he wrote more gloriously than ever. He could “hear” his music with his mind, if not with his ears. His friends had to write down what they wanted to say to him. He was lonely and often unhappy, but in spite of this, he often wrote joyful music. In his last symphony, the Ninth, a choir sings a wonderful Hymn of Joy. Because of his courage and determination to overcome his terrible disaster, his music has given joy and inspiration to millions of people.
Questions 21-25 are based on Passage Five.
21. When he first learned that he was gradually going deaf, Beethoven accepted the fact ______.
22. “How could I possibly admit an infirmity in the one sense ...” The word “infirmity” is closest in meaning to ______.
23. Beethovan’s best piece of music was composed ______.
A. in his prime time
B. shortly before his death
C. when he noticed a humming in his ears
D. when he became completely deaf
24. Which of the following is the best title for this passage?
A. Beethoven’s Life Story
B. Beethoven’s Fateful Hearing Loss
C. The Music of Beethoven
D. Beethoven’s Courageous Triumph Over Tragedy
25. This passage is arranged in ______.
A. chronological order
B. spatial order
D. general-specific pattern
II. Vocabulary. (10 points, 1 point for each)
Directions: Scan the following passage and find the words which have roughly the same meanings as those given below. The number in the brackets after each word definition refers to the number of paragraph in which the target word is. Write the word you choose on the Answer Sheet.
Dogs are extremely useful as companions for blind people. When a dog has been properly trained, he will always lead his blind master .in the right direction and keep him out of danger. For example, seeing-eye dogs learn never to cross a busy road when cars are coming, even if their masters command them to do so.
Horses are also able to learn many things too. Horses that are used for guard or police duty must learn never to be frightened of noises, traffic, and other disturbance. Racing horses are able to run much faster than other horses, but they are also quite high strung. Therefore, it is necessary for people who train them to be very patient and understanding.
Pigeons have a natural instinct to return home, even if they are very far away and the trip is hard or dangerous. Men utilize this homing instinct to send messages on small pieces of paper that are fastened to the pigeon’s back or legs. In wartime, pigeons have been known to fly as fast as 75 miles an hour and to cover distances of 500 to 600 miles. These homing pigeons begin their training when they are about four weeks old. After a few weeks they can begin flying and carrying
messages. If all goes well, their flying career lasts about four years.
Animals can learn to do many things that, while not necessarily useful, are very amusing to watch. In circuses, animals are taught to do the tricks that are most compatible with their physical and temperamental make-up. Lions and tigers can be taught to spring gracefully when told to do so, or to stay in place on command. Elephants learn to walk in line, to stand on their hind legs, to lie on their sides, and to stand on their head. They can also learn to dance.
26. a person or animal accompanying someone (Para. 1)
27. give an authoritative order (Para. 1)
28. something that distracts one’s mind (Para. 2)
29. an innate behavior in response to certain stimuli (Para. 3)
30. make practical and effective use of(Para. 3)
31. to continue to function well (Para. 3)
32. entertaining (Para. 4)
33. suitable (Para. 4)
34. jump or make a sudden movement forward (Para. 4)
35. of the back part (Para. 4)
III.Summarization.(20 points，2 points for each)
Directions：In this section of the test, there are ten paragraphs.Each of the paragraphs is followed by an incomplete phrase or sentence which summarizes the main idea of the paragraph.Spell out the missing letters of the word on your Answer Sheet.
When you have to explain how something is done，you usually follow a chronological sequence and give a step-by-step description.As the steps must occur one after another, the exact order in which they are carried out is most important.
36.In giving explanations，p ______ description is very important.
Quite a number of people believe that women’s abilities are not so good as men’s.As a result，most employers do not choose women to be in charge of important projects.But I think such view is ridiculous.Everyone is born equal and the ability is cultivated later through education，social action and communication.
37.The prevalent a______ towards working women should be changed.
As we all know, in this rapidly changing world，competition is here and there，especially for high positions.For that reason，it is crucial for those who operate the company or manage the city, town and so on to make decisions，so the work itself needs high quality people to make things better and better.
38.People should improve themselves to qualify for key positions in politics and b______.
Working in more flexible and friendly environments can improve the balance between students，schoolwork and their lives.Not having to commute adds extra time to the day, as much as several hours a week for some students.Thus distance education can also reduce stress，allowing students extra time to study.
39.Distance education Can improve students’ l______，motivation and interactivity.
Some people worry about the violence in TV programs and their effect on young people. Others consider that these same programs are an opportunity for us to release our stronger emotion, our feelings of anger or anxiety. Most people would agree though, that extreme violence should be kept away from children.
40. Though interpreted differently, most people still agree that children be kept away from v___.
Painters and sculptors create images of the human form; writers tell stories or compose poems about human experience; historians and philosophers ponder the essential qualities of human civilization and nature. And in our own lives, we spend a great deal of our energy and attention on observing our fellow creatures with curiosity and interest.
41. One of the main preoccupations of the arts and humanities is the o______ of human beings.
New climate simulations from NASA show that under the warmer global temperatures of the 20th century, water vapor in the atmosphere took longer than normal to fall out of the sky as rain, snow and other precipitation. Generally speaking, the amount decreased over land but increased over oceans.
42. Warmer weather p____ less rain on land but more at sea.
There’s no easy way to admit this. For years, helpful letter writers told us to stick to science. They pointed out that science and politics don’t mix. They said we should be more balanced in our presentation of such issues as creationism, missile defense and global warming. We resisted their advice and pretended not to be stung by the accusations that the magazine should be renamed Unscientific American, or Scientific Unamerican, or even Unscientific Unamerican.
43. Readers’ criticism has long been i____ by Scientific American.
For thousands of years, people around the world have added special meanings to flowers and plants. In the 1800s flower language reached its height of popularity during the rule of Queen Victoria in England. In the 19th century explorers were bringing back plants from all over the world. A beautiful garden was one way to show a person’s social position and good taste.
44. Flowers e______ different feelings and emotions.
Visitors to Britain are often surprised to find that the weather is an almost endless topic of conversation. This is not because the British are not bright enough to think of anything else to talk about, but because there is always a feature of surprise in the British climate. We never know what is in store for us the next day.
45. The climatic v______ in Britain.
IV. Translation. (20 points, 4 points for each)
Directions: In the following passage, there are five groups of underlined sentences. Read the passage carefully and translate these sentences into Chinese. Write the Chinese version on your Answer Sheet.
Judging from countless media reports in newspapers from coast to coast, it would surely seem that we have finally got a handle on the Nation’s crime problem. The most recent FBI release of crime statistics for 1995 revealed a welcome drop in violent crime, including an 8 per cent decline in homicide. 46. After four straight years of lower crime levels, some crime experts and law enforcement officials have even dared boldly to suggest that we’re winning the war against crime.
Though recent trends are encouraging, at least superficially, there is little time to celebrate these successes. It is doubtful that today’s improving crime picture will last for very long. Most likely, this is the calm before the crime storm. 47. While many police officials can legitimately feel gratified about the arrested crime rate — better that it be down than up — there is much more to the great crime drop story. Hidden beneath the overall drop in homicide and other violent crime is a soaring rate of mayhem among teenagers.
48. There are actually two crime trends ongoing in America — one for the young and one for the mature, which are moving in opposite directions. Since 1990, for example, the rate of homicide committed by adults, ages 25 and older, has declined 18 per cent as the baby boomers matured well past their crime prime years. At the same time, however, the homicide rate by teenagers, ages 14 to 17, has increased 22 per cent. Even more alarming and tragic is that over the past decade, the homicide rate at the hands of teenagers has nearly tripled, increasing 172 per
cent from 1985 to 1994.
Therefore, while the overall U.S. homicide rate has indeed declined in recent years, the rate of juvenile murder continues to grow, unabated by the spread of community policing, increased incarceration, and a variety of other popular crime-fighting strategies. 49. In the overall crime mix, the sharp decline in crime among the large adult population has eclipsed the rising crime rate among the relatively small population of teens.
Trends in age-specific violent arrest rates for homicide, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault confirm the patterns found in homicide statistics. Teenagers now exceed all age groups, even young adults, in their absolute rate of arrest for violent crime overall. Conventional wisdom in criminology — that young adults generally represent the most violence-prone group—apparently needs to be modified in light of these disturbing changes.
The causes of the surge in youth violence since the mid-1980s reach, of course, well beyond demographics. 50. There have been tremendous changes in the social context of crime over the past decade, which explain why this generation of youth—the young and the ruthless—is more violent than others before it. Our youngsters have more dangerous drugs in their bodies, more deadly weapons in their hands, and a seemingly more casual attitude about violence. It is clear that too many teenagers in this country, particularly those in urban areas, are plagued with idleness and even hopelessness..