Ⅰ.Vocabulary and Structure (10 points, 1 point for each item)
1. It is time now to learn ________ to protect our atmosphere, the roof over the world of man.
A. what B. which C. how D. that
2. Association refers ________ taking the material we want to remember and relating it to something we remember accurately.
A. in B. to C. up D. by
3. Tomatoes ________ love apples and were supposed to make people ________ ate them fall in love.
A. called … who B. were called … who
C. called … whom D. were called … whom
4. The doctor advised that Jim ________ down for a rest.
A. lie B. lies C. lay D. lain
5. ________ a little earlier, I would have caught the train.
A. Did I leave B. Would I leave
C. Had I left D. Have I left
6. When we call a word “popular”, we do not mean that it is a favorite word, ________ simply that it belongs to the people as a whole, that is, it is everybody's word.
A. so B. since C. for D. but
7. I would rather you ________ swimming now.
A. went B. go C. to go D. going
8. His illness accounts ________ his absence from class.
A. to B. for C. over D. after
9. The more words you are familiar with, the less you are aware of reading words and ________ you are aware of content and meaning.
A. more B. less C. the more D. the less
10. Almost 20% of all American families ________ single parent families, and in 85% of these families the single parent ________ the mother.
A. are … is B. are … are C. is … are D. is … is
Ⅱ. Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each item)
Many children act in TV shows. They work several hours every day, so they cannot go to regular school. How do they get 11 ?
In Hollywood, where many TV shows are made, about forty teachers give lessons for 12 in the shows. They teach wherever their pupils are working.
The teacher's 13 is very important. She is responsible for making sure that the child works only the permitted hours each week. She is also responsible for making sure that the child learns the 14 subjects. She makes sure, too, that the child gets enough 15 and play, along with his education.
Child actors are required to 16 classes twenty hours each week. California law says that they must be taught from September to the middle of June. If they do not get good 17 in school, they are not permitted to continue working in TV shows.
TV children are usually good 18 , and most of their teachers like this special kind of work. Their classes are held in many 19 places. Sometimes the 20 is a Mississippi riverboat. Sometimes it is the inside of a spaceship. Often the pupils become famous stars.
11. A. a school B. an honor C. an education D. a job
12. A. workers B. characters C. students D. children
13. A. job B. attitude C. worry D. emotion
14. A. interesting B. required C. easy D. difficult
15. A. food B. clothes C. work D. rest
16. A. go to B. attend C. learn D. keep up
17. A. marks B. remarks C. awards D. rewards
18. A. boys B. actors C. girls D. pupils
19. A. dangerous B. interesting C. safe D. lonely
20. A. home B. house C. classroom D. stage
Ⅲ．Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each item)
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
The communication process begins with the formulation of an idea or the selection of information by its sender. The sender then encodes the idea into symbols, thereby creating a message, which is subsequently transmitted (传送) through one or more channels (e.g., speaking, writing, or electronic media). It is at this point that the receiver decodes(解码) and attaches meaning to the message. If effective communication has occurred, the receiver will understand the idea and information as the sender intended. Unfortunately, the potential for physical and perceptual noise, which can distort the intended message of the sender, is present at every stage of the process. Fortunately, noise can be overcome through effective feedback(反馈), a response from the sender that allows misunderstandings to be identified and resolved. Twoway communication-communication that allows feedback-is almost always more effective than oneway communication.
Each of the steps in the communication process has potential problems that can impede(妨碍) effective communication. During encoding, the primary difficulty usually results from the nature of symbols and the semantic (语义) variation in their meanings. In addition to these distortions, the sender must also be aware of nonverbal messages that might distort the message. This awareness is important because research has shown that nonverbal messages are given greater weight by the receiver when decoding and attaching meaning to the message. The effectiveness of encoding will be increased if the sender develops empathy (感情移入) for the receiver and is aware of his or her own feelings and emotions. The key to effective transmission of the message is choosing the most appropriate channel or channels of media for the situation.
21. The best title for the passage is ________.
A. Communication Process B. Communication
C. Effective Communication D. Transmission of Messages
22. Twoway communication is more effective than oneway communication because ________.
A. it allows feedback
B. it can distort the intended message of the sender
C. the sender is aware of the nonverbal messages that might distort the message
D. none of the above
23. Unless the receiver understand the idea and information as the sender intended, ________.
A. effective communication can be achieved
B. effective communication cannot be achieved
C. the communication process will not end
D. both B and C
24. Problems that might impede effective communication are caused by________.
A. the nature of symbol
B. the semantic variation in their meanings
C. nonverbal messages
D. all of the above
25. Which of the following is critical to effective communication?
A. Creating a message.
B. Developing empathy for the receiver.
C. Overcoming noise through effective feedback.
D. Choosing the most appropriate channel or channels of media.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Scientists claim that air pollution causes a decline in the world's average air temperature. In order to prove that theory, ecologists have turned to historical data in relation to especially huge volcanic eruptions. They suspect that volcanoes affect weather change that are similar to air polluiton.
One source of information is the effect of the eruption of Tambora, a volcano in Sumbawa, the Dutch East Indias, in April 1815. The largest recorded volcanic eruption, Tambora threw 150 million tons of fine ash into the stratosphere(平流层). The ash from a volcano spreads worldwide in a few days and remains in the air for years. Its effect is to turn incoming solar radiation into space and thus cool the earth. For example, records of weather in England show that between April and November 1815, the average temperature had fallen 4.5 . During the next twentyfour months, England suffered one of the coldest periods of its history. Farmers' records from April 1815 to December 1818 indicate frost throughout the spring and summer and sharp decreases in crop and livestock markets. Since there was a time lag(滞后) of several years between cause and effect, by the time the world agricultural commodity community had deteriorated, no one realized the cause.
Ecologists today warn that we face a twofold menace. The everpresent possibility of volcanic eruptions, such as that of Mr. St. Helens in Washington, added to man's pollution of the atmosphere with oil, gas, coal, and other polluting substances, may bring us increasingly colder weather.
26. It is believed that the earth gets colder when ________.
A. volcanoes erupt
B. the air is polluted by modern man
C. the rays of the sun are turned into space
D. all of the above
27. The effects of Tambora's eruption were ________.
A. felt mainly in the Dutch East Indias
B. of several day's duration worldwide
C. evidence of pollution's cooling the earth
D. immediately evident to the world's scientists
28. The cause of cold weather in England from 1815 to 1818 was ________.
A. decreased crop and livestock production
B. volcanic ash in the atmosphere
C. pollution caused by the Industrial Revolution
D. its proximity to the North sea
29. No one realized the cause of the deterioration of the world agricultural commodity market because ________.
A. there was a long delay between cause and effect
B. the weather is beyond our comprehension
C. weather forecasts were inaccurate
D. ecologists didn't exist until modern times
30. If, as some scientists predict, the world ends in ice, what might be the cause?
A. Modern man's pollution of the air.
B. Volcanic eruptions.
C. Obliteration(破坏) of solar radiation.
D. All of the above.
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
The great advance in rocket theory 40 years ago showed that liquidfuel rockets were far superior in every respect to the skyrocket with its weak solid fuel, the only kind of rocket then known. However, during the last decade, large solidfuel rockets with solid fuels about as powerful as liquid fuels have made their appearance, and it is a favorite layman's(外行) question to inquire which one is “better.” The question is meaningless; one might as well ask whether a gasoline or a diesel engine is “better.” It all depends on the purpose. A liquid fuel rocket is complicated, but has the advantage that it can be controlled beautifully. The burning of the rocket engine can be stopped completely; it can be reignited(重新点火) when desired. In addition, the thrust can be made to vary by adjusting the speed of the fuel pumps. A solidfuel rocket, on the other hand, is rather simple in construction, though hard to build when a really large size is desired. But once you have a solidfuel rocket, it is ready for action at very short notice. A liquidfuel rocket has to be fueled first and cannot be held in readiness for very long after it has been fueled. However, once a solidfuel rocket has been ignited, it will keep buming. It cannot be stopped and reignited whenever desired (it could conceivably be stopped and reignited after a pre calculated time of burning has elapsed) and its thrust cannot be varied. Because a solidfuel rocket can be kept ready for a long time, most military missiles employ solid fuels, but manned spaceflight needs the fine adjustments that can only be provided by liquid fuels. It may be added that a liquidfuel rocket is an expensive device; a large solidfuel rocket is, by comparison, cheap. But the solid fuel, pound per pound, costs about 10 times as much as the liquid fuel. So you have, on the one hand, an expensive rocket with a cheap fuel and on the other hand a comparatively cheap rocket with an expensive fuel.
31. The author feels that a comparison of liquidand solidfuel rockets shows that ________.
A. neither type is very economical
B. the liquidfuel rocket is best
C. each type has certain advantages
D. the solidfuel rocket is best
32. The most important consideration for manned space flight is that the rocket be ________.
A. inexpensive to construct
B. capable of lifting heavy spacecraft into orbit
C. easily controlled
D. inexpensive to operate
33. Solidfuel rockets are expensive to operate because of their ________.
A. size B. burning time
C. fuel D. complicated engines
34. Which of the following statements is not characteristic of liquidfuel rockets?
A. The fuel is cheap.
B. They are cheap to build.
C. They can be stopped and reignited.
D. They must be used soon after fueling.
35. Which of the following statements is a possible disadvantage of solidfuel rockets?
A. They are complicated.
B. They are uneasily adjusted.
C. They are expensive to construct.
D. They cannot be ready for action with little time for preparation.