现象 + 举例
新托福口语考试的最后一关task 6中，我们唯一所能依靠的听力材料是学术性较强的一篇lecture，少了阅读材料的辅助，更加深了同学们对讲座内容以及对讲座(monologue)形式的恐惧感，很多刚刚接触新托福的同学甚至对这一部分多少抱有听天由命的想法。其实，随着大家对task 6题目深入的了解，就会发现，这一部分所出现的lecture虽然内容保罗万象，但是大部分都是按照一种套路进行的，也就是：提出一种现象+举例的模式。了解了讲座的常见模式，也就意味着我们在考试时短时间内组织语言也可以有一套一模一样的简洁公式了，也就是topic sentence + example的形式，本文将通过探讨一些常考的不同类型的task 6真题，使同学们对这一部分的答题模式更加熟悉以助同学们备考。
【讲课要点】：心理学中的reinforcement，分为positive reinforcement和negative reinforcement两种，即增加能够激发个人兴趣的东西和消除自己不喜欢的东西。
1. positive(add the pleasure)：早起奖励自己好的food，这样就可以让你喜欢早起这种 behavior。
2. negative(remove the unpleasant behavior)，不喜欢早上shower，那么可以改在晚上，这样人也就不会那么讨厌早起了。
The lecture tells about two main methods which can be used to reinforce people. It states that reinforcement of behavior means that people strengthen certain acts on purpose by using the positive or negative stimulus. Then the professor shows some examples. Let’s suppose that you hate to get up early, but sometimes you have to do so. Then you could choose to encourage yourself to get up early by using either a positive or a negative reinforcement. The positive one is to add the pleasure to your daily life to help you make the decision easier. For example, you can reward yourself with a very nice breakfast if you get up early. A negative one is to remove the unpleasant behavior off your daily routine. For example, If you do not enjoy taking a shower early in the morning, you can take it in the evening instead. Therefore, when you have to get up early in the morning, you might feel better because you have cut things you don’t like out of your morning schedule.
In the lecture the professor tells about the rewarding strategy in Psychology. He states that reward can influence people’s behavior in two ways: positively and negatively. Then the professor goes on to further explain that by taking her daughter — Jenny for an example. Jenny doesn’t like cleaning up the room, so he gives her money to encourage her to do that. And gradually, she likes the work and does it more often，which is the positive effect that rewarding has. But on the other hand, something that a person likes to do may become the daily chores because of the rewarding system. For example, Jenny likes to play the piano，but when her parents give her a reward, she, on the contrary, plays less often ‘cause she thinks playing the piano, just like cleaning the house, is a kind of chore，that is negative effects that rewarding has..
【讲课要点】：生物学理论: plant invasion. 一种新树到新的ecosystem中会destroy the ecosystem
2. 一种树，非常attractive，但是use lots of water, other trees can not survive。.
The lecture tells us that plants can be totally harmless most of the time. But when inappropriately brought into an environment, plants can also cause disasters by breaking ecological balance in local areas, which is biologically identified as plant invasion. Then the professor goes on to explain that by giving two examples. One is that a tree was introduced into South Africa for the purpose of stabilizing the local sand dunes. The tree fulfilled its task very successfully, but the bad news is that the tree grew so tall that they left very little sunlight for their neighboring plants. Threatened by this intruder, many plants started to lose their former territory. Another example is about a tree which was brought into Western United States for its good appearance. It seems not so large, but it has very developed root system, so it absorbed twice the water as other plants of similar size. Also, it reproduced very fast. With its rapid growing, many other local plants gradually died out because of lack of essential water resource.
在这场关于生物学的讲座中，professor通过以两种不同特点的树为例，解释了生物学理论: plant invasion。
1. 有意出现：双焦眼镜(bifocal glasses)
In the lecture, the professor tells about the new technology’s coming up and changing in our daily life. He explains that there are two ways in which those inventions and innovations happen: intentionally and accidentally. Then he takes bifocal glasses for example to illustrate intentional discoveries. Before the bifocal glasses were invented, people had to carry two pairs of glasses wherever they went. One was for seeing things far away, and the other for closer views. Therefore when bifocal glasses were invented, they immediately became popular among many people because of the great convenience provided. He goes on to give another example of accidental innovation. When people first encountered X-ray in the lab, the scientists had no idea of what this finding meant, or where to put this discovery into application.
在这道科技类的题目中，professor在讲座中，列举了bifocal glasses和X-rays来诠释科技发明的两种出现形式：intentionally and accidentally。