1. 关于“False”和“Not Given”的解释 (An Explanation of “False” and “Not Given”)
Students generally find this type of exercise rather difficult. One reason is that they are used to doing true and false exercises where the false covers false and not given. Then when they come to do true, false or not given, they cannot make the distinction between the three different types of contradiction and not given. It is therefore important that students are able to understand what false means in true, false and not given. There are three types of contradictions:
学生通常发现这种题型很难。其中的原因之一是这些学生习惯于做true和false题目，其中的false涵盖了false和not given两种情况。所以当学生在做true, false和 not given的题目时他们无法区分三个不同种类的矛盾对立状况和”not given”的区别。因此，学生要理解”false”的含义。总共有三种矛盾对立状况：
statements which are the opposite of the original text.
statements which are the opposite of the original text, because they are negative.
statements where the information is not the opposite or negative, but the information in the statement contradicts that given in the text.
Look at the examples below relating to the text and exercises:
原文：Hurricanes have winds of at least 74 miles per hour.
题目：Hurricanes are winds with the speed of up to 74 miles per hour.
分析：由于原文中的核心内容是“at least 74 miles per hour”，而题目中是“up to 74 miles per hour”。因此，这就是False的第一种情况：命题与原文内容对立(相反)。
原文：As forecasting improved communities were no longer surprised by hurricanes and could take measures to evacuate ahead of the storm. While destruction still continues, the number of deaths in hurricanes has dropped significantly.
题目：The destruction caused by hurricanes has ceased due to improvements in forecasting.
分析：原文的核心内容是“While destruction still continues”，而题目中的内容是“The destruction caused by hurricanes has ceased”。因此，这就是False的第二种情况：命题否定原文内容。
原文：In 1609, a fleet of ships carrying settlers from England to Virginia USA was struck by a hurricane. Some of the ships were damaged and part of the fleet grounded on Bermuda, an isolated nation in the Atlantic. These passengers became the first people to live on Bermuda.
题目：The first people to live on Bermuda were settlers who chose to live there as alternative to England.
原文：The Mayans also showed their respect for hurricanes by building their major settlements away from the hurricane-prone coast-line.
题目：The Mayans lost many of their major settlements because of hurricanes.
分析：尽管题目和原文中有对应的词出现：The Mayans和major settlements，但是题目中的因果关系在文章中并没有体现。也没于出现有关“lost”的相应表述。因此我们可以判断此题为not given。
2. What is the keyword? 什么是关键词
Select ONE keyword from each of the following:
Networking is not a modern idea.
People fall into two basic categories.
All teachers are cynics.
The first piece of Hesse’s art has little effect on visitors to the gallery.
The New Forest has already been made into a National Park.
little or perhaps first
The suggested answers I’ve given may not seem that obvious to the students who would possibly consider keywords such as 'modern' or 'New Forest' as more significant. However, the keywords shown have a greater significance in terms of the meaning of the whole statement and illustrate a number of traps in the test. For instance:
我所给出的参考答案又有可能对学生来说不是那么明显。学生有可能认为诸如”modern”或”New Forest” 这一类关键词更重要一些。但是，根据整个题目的意义来说，参考答案所给出的关键词更加重要，而且体现了考试出题的陷阱。请看以下例子的分析:
'not' makes the statement negative as opposed to possibly being positive in the text
'two' determines a specific number of categories which may differ in the text.
'all' determines that every teacher is a cynic and not a proportion of.
'little' has a negative connotation as opposed to 'a little' another one to watch out for is 'few' and 'a few'
'already' shows that the New Forest was made into a National Park in the past and is not a future proposal i.e. an indication of past, present or future time.
These examples hence illustrate the importance of looking out for: negativity, a specific number, the whole or a proportion of, positive and negative connotation and reference to time. Other ones to watch out for include:
l Modals e.g. words like must, should, have to (varying degrees of obligation or certainty)
l Adverbs of frequency e.g. sometimes, always
l Words such as most, some, all
诸如most, some, all等限定词
3. 同义转换能力 (Paraphrasing Ability)
A paraphrase is a restatement of a paragraph, sentence, or word.
The original sentence (文章原句):
“Until recently, criminologists could not afford to analyze DNA evidence for all homicide cases.”
An effective paraphrase of this sentence(题目中的同义转换):
“Crime labs now can use DNA for all murder cases.”
NOTE: This paraphrase utilizes synonyms to replace key words. Some are very close (DNA vs. DNA evidence and homicide vs. murder), while others take more liberties (criminologists vs. crime labs and could not vs. now can). The essential meaning has been retained, however, despite these significant changes.
◆ replace a Phrase with a Word (or a Word with a Phrase) 单词词组转换
Until recently转换成了now，criminologists转换成了Crime labs
◆ Start the Sentence Differently 句型结构转换
原句采用了Until recently……criminologists could not的结构, 而在题目中的运用了Crime labs now can……的结构
◆ Replace a Word with a Synonym 同义词转换
◆ Change Passive into Active Voice/Negative Slant to Positive 主动被动转换/ 否定肯定转换
这种转换方式和句型结构的转换有相似的地方，但更注重表达方式的理解。如”until recently……could not afford to analyze……” 转换成了”……now can use……”