Section Ⅰ Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Responsibilities. We all have them; most of us have more than we’d like. That doesn’t change the reality that, sooner or later, we all have to 1____ up to them. But perhaps it does explain our __2___ to add to the ever-growing list. There’s already so much to do in a day, why tack on an 3_____ burden?
Unfortunately, it’s this kind of defeatist mentality 4 __keeps people from enhancing their lives through proper 5 and exercise. Here is the salient point, though: The health and fitness benefits you’ll derive from 6_____ the necessary work are worth whatever sacrifices you must make 7______ the way.
I can’t count how many times I’ve heard the same 8 . Each time, I always give the same response: Yes, I say, working out is work. So is taking the 9 to eat right. 10 yourself on the couch or having drinks with friends after work is a lot easier than exercising, and hitting the McDonald’s drive thru takes a lot less time than cooking a 11 at home. But channel surfing, margaritas and a Quarter Pounder. With Cheese aren’t going to produce some of the things worth having—a low cholesterol level or the 12____ to go shirtless on the beach. Those benefits demand a ___13____ effort.
I’m not saying you should eschew the ___14__ night on the town or gourmet meal at a five-star restaurant. Both have their ___15____ and are components of a well-rounded life. I’ve enjoyed my ___16____ of revelry and fine ___17___ and look forward to those special opportunities to experience more of the good life. But I’ve managed to find a balance between those ___18 pleasures and a permanent ___19____ to a regular workout and a healthy diet. Because, __20____, it is the latter that will have a lasting improvement on the overall quality of my life.
1. [A] come [B] catch [C] confront [D] face
2. [A] resistance [B] reluctance [C] persistence [D] existence
3. [A] exact [B] external [C] extra [D] extensive
4. [A] that [B] which [C] what [D] who
5. [A] food [B] nutrition [C] diet [D] recreation
6. [A] setting in [B] putting in [C] getting in [D] cutting in
7. [A] along [B] by [C] on [D] in
8. [A] reasons [B] questions [C] doubts [D] excuses
9. [A] chance [B] effort [C] time [D] interest
10. [A] Throwing [B] Planting [C] Sitting [D] Placing
11. [A] dish [B] dinner [C] meal [D] hamburger
12. [A] pride [B] confidence [C] enthusiasm [D] inspiration
13. [A] long time [B] long range [C] long term [D] long distance
14. [A] additional [B] emotional [C] occasional [D] sensational
15. [A] place [B] position [C] location [D] attraction
16. [A] share [B] part [C] portion [D] section
17. [A] meal [B] diet [C] dining [D] eating
18. [A] short dated [B] short lived [C] short legged [D] short tempered
19. [A] coherence [B] experience [C] adherence [D]remembrance
20. [A] in a word [B] in the end [C] in the future [D] in a nutshell
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points )
Economists often like to speak of Homo economicus—rational economic man. In practice, human economic behaviour is not quite as rational as the relentless logic of theoretical economics suggests it ought to be. When buying things in a straight exchange of money for goods, people often respond to changes in price in exactly the way that theoretical economics predicts. But when faced with an exchange whose outcome is predictable only on average, most people prefer to avoid the risk of making a loss than to take the chance of making a gain in circumstances when the average expected outcome of the two actions would be the same.
There has been a lot of discussion about this discrepancy in the economic literature—in particular, about whether it is the product of cultural experience or is a reflection of a deeper biological phenomenon. So Keith Chen, of the Yale School of Management, and his colleagues decided to investigate its evolutionary past. They reasoned that if they could find similar behaviour in another species of primate (none of which has yet invented a cash economy) this would suggest that loss aversion evolved in a common ancestor. They chose the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella, a South American species often used for behavioral experiments.
First, the researchers had to introduce their monkeys to the idea of a cash economy. They did this by giving them small metal discs while showing them food. The monkeys quickly learned that humans valued these inedible discs so much that they were willing to trade them for scrumptious pieces of apple, grapes and jelly. Preliminary experiments established the amount of apple that was valued as much as either a grape or a cube of jelly, and set the price accordingly, at one disc per food item. The monkeys were then given 12 discs and allowed to trade them one at a time for whichever foodstuff they preferred.
Once the price had been established, though, it was changed. The size of the apple portions was doubled, effectively halving the price of apple. At the same time, the number of discs a monkey was given to spend fell from 12 to nine. The result was that apple consumption went up in exactly the way that price theory (as applied to humans) would predict. Indeed, averaged over the course of ten sessions it was within 1% of the theory’s prediction. One up to Cebus economicus.
The experimenters then began to test their animals’ risk aversion. They did this by offering them three different trading regimes in succession. Each required choosing between the wares of two experimental “salesmen”. In the first regime one salesman offered one piece of apple for a disc, while the other offered two. However, half the time the second salesman only handed over one piece. Despite this deception, the monkeys quickly worked out that the second salesman offered the better overall deal, and came to prefer him.
21. The capuchin monkey was chosen for the experiments because____________
[A] it is from South America.
[B] it doesn’t understand the concept of money.
[C] it is often used in behavioral experiments.
[D] it is cute and friendly.
22. How were the monkeys introduced to the idea of a cash economy?
[A] They were told that metal discs could be traded for food.
[B] They were given metal discs if they gave the researchers food.
[C] They were shown the different values of three different kinds of food.
[D] They were given some discs which researchers would exchange for food.
23. The researchers reduce the “cost” of apples in order to_________________
[A] see if the monkeys would “buy” more apples, as humans would.
[B] see if the monkeys understood the idea of a cash economy.
[C] see if the monkeys preferred apples or another kind of food.
[D] see what the monkeys would buy with only nine metal discs.
24. The first trading regime mentioned in the final paragraph revealed that ___________
[A] monkeys don’t mind being deceived.
[B] monkeys like to take risks.
[C] monkeys don’t really understand the concept of a cash economy.
[D] monkeys will “buy” from a deceptive person if they offer a better deal.
25. What is the next paragraph likely to cover?
[A] A comparison of the way the monkeys behaved and real economic behaviour.
[B] A second trading regime.
[C] An explanation of the monkeys’ behaviour.
[D] A conclusion on how this might affect theoretical economics.
More and more, it seems, the same tech tools we depend on to get through the day are often the source of our frustrations. Gadgets have gotten better: They do more, are smaller, and cost less. But they don’t work quite the way we want them too, do they? Text-messaging and camera phone features that obscure access to your voice mail. Camcorder batteries that die in the middle of your sister’s wedding. The sick PC that sends copies of its virus to everyone in your E-mail address book.
But there is reason for renewed hope. More companies are discovering that one key to reining in unruly tech is simplicity itself; that is, less is actually more. A few years ago, it seemed only a sprinkling of companies offered products that in their design emphasized ease of use and dependability over frilly, rarely used features. Now analysts report that whole industries—among them cellphones, consumer electronics, and, yes, even computers—seem to be shifting back to basics, with a few companies taking the lead. The downside to this switch for now is that simplicity and reliability oddly enough tend to cost extra. An Apple Macintosh, widely considered user-friendly, costs at least several hundred dollars more than a Windows-based PC. Verizon Wireless, rated by many the most reliable cellphone service, generally costs more than Sprint, Cingular, or T-Mobile. But that effective surcharge could fade if brand loyalty surges for companies that prioritize efficient, friendly design.
So how did we go from the days of small, color TVs and bricklike mobile phones to high definition home theaters and smart phones that are too clever by half? The blame for the personal tech mess goes both ways. Companies are eager to crank out new products with new features. It’s a quick way to get attention, distancing a product from competitors and dusting upstarts in a cutthroat arena. Shoppers, meanwhile, are routinely seduced by the new bells and whistles. Consumer electronics tend to be among the more expensive purchases people make during the year, so why not get the gizmo that does more? “We’re all trapped in an economic myth that more is better,” says John Maeda, a media arts and sciences professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Haddon Fisher’s Motorola phone locks up a couple of times a day, says the Syracuse University sophomore. He has also had to put up with a PC that would spontaneously reboot while he slept or attended class. “You learn to live with a certain level of pain,” he says. Such vexations, repeated across the country, have eroded confidence in tech manufacturers. A recent survey conducted for Royal Philips Electronics found that two thirds of American consumers have lost interest in a tech product because it looks too complex—and half think the manufacturers are just guessing at what will sell, rather than listening to their customers.
26.In paragraph 1, the author cites the examples in order to demonstrate that__________
[A] gadgets do not function as we would like.
[B] gadgets work, but we do not use them properly.
[C] gadgets are smaller and cost less.
[D] people need clear instructions on how to use new gadgets.
27. Why might less mean more as far as modern gadgets are concerned?
[A] Gadgets cost less and do more things.
[B] Simple gadgets cost more than complex ones.
[C] Gadgets with fewer features are less likely to let you down.
[D] Most people prefer simple gadgets.
28. “Dusting upstarts in a cutthroat arena” in paragraph 3 means________________
[A] matching your competitors in the marketplace.
[B] introducing new features in gadgets that are on the market.
[C] defeating competitors in a competitive market.
[D] competing effectively with companies that introduce new, unnecessary features.
29. Why do people buy products that do more, even if they are less efficient or less user friendly?
[A] Because people usually purchase brand-name products, regardless of actual quality.
[B] Because we live in a consumer society.
[C] Because we think we are getting a better deal.
[D] Because people are unaware of what exactly they are purchasing.
30. American consumers losing interest in tech products because__________________
[A] the products are too difficult to use.
[B] the companies don’t listen to consumer complaints.
[C] US-made electronics are unreliable.
[D] consumers are losing faith in products that don’t do what they want them to do.
Americans have always been excessive worshippers of what William James called “the bitch goddess success”. Self-help gurus have topped the bestseller lists since Benjamin Franklin published his autobiography. Americans are much more likely than Europeans to believe that people can get ahead in life so long as they are willing to work hard. And they are much more likely to choose a high-paying job that carries a risk of redundancy than a lower-paid job that guarantees security.
But you can’t have winners without losers (or how would you know how well you are doing?). And you can’t broaden opportunity without also broadening the opportunity to fail. For instance, until relatively recently, blacks could not blame themselves for their failure in the “race of life”, in Abraham Lincoln’s phrase, because they were debarred from so many parts of it. Now the barriers are lifted, the picture is more complicated.
All of which creates a huge problem: how exactly should a hyper-competitive society deal with its losers? It’s all very well to note that drunkards and slackers get what they deserve. But what about the honest toilers? One way to deal with the problem is to offer people as many second chances as possible. In his intriguing new book “Born Losers: A History of Failure in America”, Scott Sandage argues that the mid-nineteenth century saw a redefinition of failure—from something that had described a lousy business to something that defined a whole life.
Yet one of the striking things about America is how valiantly it has resisted the idea that there is any such thing as a born loser. American schools resist streaming their pupils much longer than their European counterparts: the whole point is to fit in rather than stand out. American higher education has numerous points of entry and reentry. And the American legal system has some of the most generous bankruptcy rules in the world. In Europe, a bankrupt is often still a ruined man; in America, he is a risk-taking entrepreneur.
American history—not to mention American folklore—is replete with examples of people who tried and tried again until they made a success of their lives. Lincoln was a bankrupt storekeeper. Henry Ford was a serial failure. At 40, Thomas Watson, the architect of IBM, faced prison. America’s past is also full of people who came back from the brink. A second way to deal with losers is to celebrate them. Perhaps in reaction to the relentless boosterism of business life, American popular culture often sympathises with losers. But even in the loser-loving bits of popular culture, the American obsession with success has a habit of winning through. More often than not, born losers turn out to be winners in disguise.
31. According to paragraph 1, why are Americans “much more likely to choose a high-paying job that carries a risk of redundancy than a lower-paid job that guarantees security”?
[A] Because they don’t mind taking risks.
[B] Because Americans believe in the idea of “no pain, no gain”.
[C] Because Americans rely a lot on self瞙elp books written by famous people.
[D] Because a having high瞤aying job is how many Americans view success.
32. Paragraph 2 suggests that ________________
[A] America was once a racist country.
[B] black Americans now have equal rights.
[C] if you give someone the chance to succeed, you also give them the chance to fail.
[D] you can know how successful you are by seeing how many people are failing.
33. The “honest toilers” mentioned in paragraph 3 refer to__________________
[A] lazy people and alcoholics.
[B] trustworthy workers.
[C] people who fail even though they try hard.
[D] born losers—people who need lots of second chances in order to succeed.
34. We can learn from paragraph 4____________
[A] that the United States is better than Europe.
[B] that American society is designed to give people many opportunities.
[C] that the American system is better for children and businessmen.
[D] that Scott Sandage’s book is largely irrelevant to modern American society.
35. According to paragraph 5, which of these is NOT an example of why Americans might like losers?
[A] They often succeed in the end.
[B] Losers often have legal problems.
[C] There is sometimes a dislike of people who enthusiastically promote business.
[D] Some very famous Americans were once losers.
Few things say “forget I’m here” quite so eloquently as the pose of the shy—the averted gaze, the hunched shoulders, the body pivoted away from the crowd. Shyness is a state that can be painful to watch, worse to experience and, in survival terms at least, awfully hard to explain. In a species as hungry for social interaction as ours, a trait that causes some individuals to shrink from the group ought to have been snuffed out pretty early on. Yet shyness is commonplace. “I think of shyness as one end of the normal range of human temperament,” says professor of pediatrics William Gardner of Ohio State University.
But normal for the scientist feels decidedly less so for the painfully shy struggling merely to get by, and that’s got a lot of researchers looking into the phenomenon. What determines who’s going to be shy and who’s not? What can be done to treat the problem? Just as important, is it a problem at all? Are there canny advantages to being socially averse that the extroverts among us never see? With the help of behavioral studies, brain scans and even genetic tests, researchers are at last answering some of those questions, coming to understand what a complex, and in some ways favorable, state shyness can be.
For all the things shyness is, there are a number of things it’s not. For one, it’s not simple introversion. If you stay home on a Friday night just because you prefer a good book to a loud party, you’re not necessarily shy—not unless the prospect of the party makes you so anxious that what you’re really doing is avoiding it. “Shyness is a greater than normal tension or uncertainty when we’re with strangers,” says psychologist Jerome Kagan of Harvard University. “Shy people are more likely to be introverts, but introverts are not all shy.”
Still, even by that definition, there are plenty of shy people to go around. More than 30% of us may qualify as shy, says Kagan, a remarkably high number for a condition many folks don’t even admit to. There are a lot of reasons we may be so keyed up. One of them, new research suggests, is that we may simply be confused.
In a study published early this year, Dr. Marco Battaglia of San Raffaele University in Milan, Italy, recruited 49 third-and fourth-grade children and administered questionnaires to rank them along a commonly accepted shyness scale. He showed each child a series of pictures of faces exhibiting joy, anger or no emotion at all and asked them to identify the expressions. The children who scored high on the shyness meter, it turned out, had a consistently hard time deciphering the neutral and the angry faces.
36. In paragraph 2, the writer intends to _______________
[A] introduce paragraph 3.
[B] illustrate the questions scientists are asking and how they can find answers to them.
[C] contrast the ideas raised in paragraph 1.
[D] show us the writer's field of interest and expertise.
37. Why is it considered strange that there are so many shy people?
[A] Because it is considered by psychologists to be an undesirable trait.
[B] Because it is not a trait associated with social animals.
[C] Because our ancestors were not shy, so we should be like them.
[D] Because shy people could not have survived in early human society.
38. Which of the following people would psychologists certainly consider to be shy?
[A] A person who prefers to study alone rather than spend time with friends.
[B] A person who is afraid to talk to an attractive person of the opposite sex.
[C] A person who isn’t good at introducing themselves to new people.
[D] A person who feels exceptionally nervous when around unfamiliar people.
39. It is suggested that shy people might be confused because ________________
[A] they misinterpret other people’s facial expressions.
[B] they have problems recognising certain facial expressions.
[C] they are extremely introverted.
[D] they are unable to admit to being shy.
40. Which of the following would best replace the word “canny” used in paragraph 2?
[A] clever. [B] distinct.
[C] unknown. [D] surprising.
The following paragraphs are given in the wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The third and fifth paragraphs have been placed for you in boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1 (10 points).
［A］Kids who watched the least TV—especially between the ages of 5 and 11—had the highest probability of graduating from university by the age of 26, regardless of IQ or socioeconomic status. While those who watched the most TV, more than 3 hours per day, had the highest chance of dropping out of school without qualifications. Furthermore, the effects seemed to be strongest for those who had a median IQ level, probably because the outcomes for the children at either IQ extreme are less likely to be affected by TV watching.
［B］Frederick Zimmerman and Dimitri Christakis at the University of Washington in Seattle, found that kids who watched the most TV before the age of 3 performed poorest on reading and mathematics tests at ages 6 and 7. But there did seem to be some benefit for TV watching in 3 to 5 year olds, possibly because of the large number of educational programs targeted at this age category, such as Sesame Street. For the duration of this study—1990 to 1996—very little educational programming for under-threes was available in the US.
［C］In an accompanying editorial, Ariel Chernin and Deborah Linebarger at the University of Pennsylvania, U.S., points out that all three studies do not separate the effects of educational versus entertainment programming. One proposed mechanism of how TV harms educational achievement is that TV takes time away from creative play, reading or doing homework. But, the editorial notes, research specifically examining this suggests “it is not the amount of viewing that matters but the content of what is viewed”.
［D］But results from studies on cognitive abilities and TV watching have been mixed. Some researchers have found that high quality, educational TV programmes are a boon for learning. Others have shown that the negative effects of hours in front of the TV disappear when confounding factors—such as IQ or socioeconomic status—are included. So Robert Hancox at the University of Otago in New Zealand and colleagues studied nearly 1000 children born in Dunedin, NZ, in 1972 and 1973. The researchers gathered data from both parents and children on how many hours a day were each spent watching TV at age 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15. The team then re-evaluated participants at the age of 26.
［E］They suggest that parents should encourage kids to watch quality, educational programming. But Barry Milne, a co-author on the New Zeland study and now at the Institute of Psychiatry in London, UK, points out this may be simpler said than done: “Content could well be a confounding factor. But what we did find is that the type of TV kids actually do watch is not good for them.”
［F］Two other studies, also published in the July issue of Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine found similar results. Dina Borzekowski at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and colleagues found that Northern Californian third-graders—aged about 8—with a TV in their bedroom watched more TV and performed worse on standardised tests than classmates without a bedroom TV.
［G］Too much time in front of the TV reduces children’s learning abilities, academic achievement, and even the likelihood of their graduating from university, suggest three new studies. But it may be the quality, not quantity, of the programmes that really matters. Decades of studies have linked childhood hours in front of the TV with aggressive behaviour, earlier sexual activity, smoking, obesity, and poor school performance. The research has led the American Academy of Pediatrics to suggest children watch no more than 2 hours of TV per day and that children under 2 years old watch none at all.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
Specialists in numerous fields, including library science and Web design, are now calling themselves information architects, but the roles they have assumed are diverse. (46)As with any newly developing profession, there is a need to refine and clarify the role of the information architect and the accompanying job description. I have a formal education in architecture, have worked with numerous architects as an architectural signage designer and am now working as an information and interaction designer.
(47)In the traditional profession, an architect’s first responsibility on any building project is to meet with the client to determine the goals and requirements for the building, as well as the overall vision of the building. The architect works with the client to develop a set of requirements for the building called the program. The program spells out each major function and the detailed requirements for each function, such as size and access requirements, as well as the general overall requirements.
Similarly, an information architect is responsible for meeting with the client to help determine the overall goals of the project and what the client wishes to accomplish.(48) An example in website design might be determining that a site should include a product catalog, a calendar of events and a newsletter, that it must be accessible by all people with version 3.x browsers and above, and that it must be optimized for an 800x600 size screen. In some instances, a strategist might be hired as a consultant to assist in this development.
The reality is that all traditional architects must be competent in many different roles.(49) Some are better at the design aspects and may choose to concentrate their efforts there, while others are better at the coordination roles or the communication roles. However, traditional architects must pass a rigorous nine-part exam that proves competency in each of these roles in order to be called an architect.(50) Because of this broad range of expertise and the difficult nature of playing all of these roles, these architects have earned a certain respect in our society that we must be careful not to encroach on unfairly. As information specialists, we all know the power of language, and we must be careful how we use it. If we are to use the word architect in our job titles and the description of our profession, we must ensure that we are justified in doing so.
Section Ⅲ Writing
Your History faculty holds a movie night every month, showcasing different movies about historic events. Write a 100 word letter recommending a movie to the movie night director. Your letter should include:
1) an introduction of yourself and the movie;
2) a description of why the movie would be appropriate for the movie night;
3) your hopes to see the movie with your fellow classmates so you can discuss it.
Write a 160-200 word essay based on the picture provided below. Your essay should including the following:
1) a description of the picture;
2) an interpretation of the meaning of the picture; and
3) your comment on the phenomenon.
Model Test 4
Section I Use of English
[解析]come up to的意思是“等于，达到”，catch up to的意思是“赶上，跟上”，confront的意思是“遭遇，面临”，不能和up to搭配，face up to表示“勇敢地对付（或接受）”。本句中的them 指的是前面提到的responsibilities，所以选face up to，D是正确答案。
[解析]resistance 意思是“抵抗，反抗”，reluctance 意思是“不愿，勉强”，persistence意思是“坚持”，existence 意思是“存在”。根据上下文，大多数人承担的责任比自己愿意承担的多，但这无法改变他们迟早要承担更多责任的事实。由此可见在责任面前，人们无法抵制，而是不情愿。所以作者说这也许正是在越来越多的责任面前人们不乐意的原因，正确选项为B。
[解析]本文主旨是鼓励人们通过合理的饮食和体育锻炼来提高生活的整体质量。food 指具体某种食物，不能概括天天饮食，nutrition的意思是“营养”，diet是“日常饮食，平时营养”，recreation 指“消遣，娱乐”。待选项与exercise（体育锻炼）构成并列，根据句子意思，C是最合适的答案。本句意思是：很遗憾，正是这种失败主义者的心理使人们不想通过合理的饮食和体育锻炼来提高生活质量。
6.[答案]B putting in
[解析]set in 意思是“开始”，put in 意思是“花费，付出（时间、精力等）”，get in意思是“加入，收割”，cut in意思是“插嘴”。后面的名词是necessary work，合适的搭配选项应是put in，正确答案为B。
[解析]along the way 表示“在…的过程中”，by the way意思为“在途中，附带说说”，on the way 意思是“来到，接近，在进行中”，in the way为“挡道的，妨碍人的”之意。根据句子意思，正确答案是A。这句话的意思是合理饮食和体育锻炼换来的身体健康值得坚持过程中所做的任何牺牲。
[解析]take a chance的意思是“冒险，投机”，take the effort to do sth.的意思是“花精力去做某事”，take the time to do sth.为固定说法，意思是“花时间去做某事”，take interest后面不能搭配不定式。后面那句话提到去麦当劳当然比自己做饭省时间，可见此处强调时间，所以答案为C。
[解析]throw oneself on的意思是“一下倒在”，plant有“使固定”的意思，sit是“坐，使就座”，place是“放置，安置，安排”。根据句子的意思，plant更形象贴切，本句意思是下班后一动不动地窝在沙发里或者去和朋友喝几杯当然比锻炼身体轻松多了。答案是B。
[解析]pride为“骄傲，自豪”之意，confidence是“信心，自信”，enthusiasm 意思是“激情”，inspiration则为“灵感”。只有体形健美的人才敢在海滩上go shirtless （光着上身走），啤酒肚不大有这样的信心。成天在电视机前不断换频道、贪杯嗜食的人胆固醇不可能低，也没信心go shirtless on the beach。所以正确答案为B。
[解析]additional 意思是“附加的，额外的”，emotional 意思是“情绪的，情感的”，occasional 意思是“偶尔的”，sensational 意思是“激起强烈感情的，令人兴奋的”。根据句子意思，应该选occasional，这句话的意思是我并不是说偶尔到城里作乐或是去五星级饭店吃一顿都不可以。正确答案为C。
[解析]place，position和location 都有“位置”之意，attraction为“吸引力”。have a place是固定搭配，意思是“有一席之地，起一定作用”的意思。到镇子上一夜狂欢或是去饭店吃饭也是生活中不可缺少的成分。所以正确答案为A。
20.[答案]B in the end
[解析]in a word 意思是“总之”，in the end意思是“最终，结果”，in the future意思是“将来”，in a nutshell 意思是“简括地说”。这句话是将short瞝ived pleasures和permanent adherence to a regular workout and a healthy diet对提高生活质量的作用进行比较，强调最终的结果，所以in the end 为合适选项，正确答案为B。
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
[解析]细节题。根据题干中the idea of a cash economy回到原文第三段第二句。did this指的就是introduce the monkeys to the idea of a cash economy，他们给猴子们一些小金属圆盘， 同时向它们展示食物。通过这种办法给猴子的大脑里引入现金交易的概念。所以D为正确答案。A中的told没有事实依据。B如果猴子给研究人员食物，就能得到金属圆片。这明显不对。应该是猴子们用金属圆片买研究人员手里的食物。文章中没有明确表明三种不同食物的不同价格，所以排除C。
[解析]推断题。文章末端首句提到要连续进行三种trading regimes的试验， 然后只讲了第一种，当然接下来要讲第二种了，所以B为正确答案。其他选项均无依据。
[解析]语义题。第三段第三句指出：公司急于制造出具有新功能的新产品，这是一个快速吸引顾客注意力，与竞争对手拉开距离，在激烈的市场竞争中打败对手的办法。所以答案为Ｃ。Ａ明显不对，因为“dusting upstarts in a cutthroat arena”的前面已经说了与竞争对手拉开距离，所以不可能后面又说“赶上竞争对手”。Ｂ文中未提。Ｄ中的unnecessary明显不对。
[解析]细节题。根据题干定位到文章末句：Royal Philips Electronics最近的调查表明，美国三分之二的消费者对技术产品失去兴趣，因为它看上去太复杂了——一半消费者认为厂家只是猜测卖什么赚钱，而不听取消费者的呼声。所以Ｄ为正确答案。Ａ、Ｃ为主观臆造。Ｂ公司不听取消费者的抱怨，这不是根本原因。
[解析]推断题。第一段第3-5行指出：像我们这样一个渴望社会交往的物种，使人们离开群体的这一性格特点（害羞）本该在人类早期就彻底消失。但害羞却很常见。这句话中的ought to have been 和yet 都流露出令人感到奇怪的感觉。因为害羞本不是社会动物所具有的性格特点，所以有那么多人害羞就令人奇怪了。从而答案选B。A项与原文内容不符。俄亥俄州立大学的教授William Gardner认为害羞是人类正常性格范畴的一部分。C在原文没提到。文章没有明确说我们的祖先不害羞。D是在原文基础上的臆断，文章只是说害羞本该在人类早期就彻底消失。
[解析]细节题。根据原文第三段第四行shy的定义，答案选D。exceptionally nervous对应原文的greater than normal tension or uncertainty。A项类似的例子在第三段第二句中已被否定（not necessarily shy）。B文中未提。C不擅长把自己介绍给别人，根据原文这是内向的表现，而内向的人未必就害羞。
[解析]词义题。此题采用排除法。Canny所在句的大意是：不愿参加社交活动（害羞）是不是有外向人永远看不到的好处呢？根据同义词原则，A为正确答案。根据上下文语境推断，如果选 unknown，就和canny 所在句的后半部分的定语从句内容重复，所以排除C。如果选B，则与定语从句内容重复矛盾。
41.G 42.D 43.F 44.C 45.E
整个篇章共七段，其中两段的位置已给出（第三段和第五段）。因为整个篇章是基于三个实验的，所以关于实验的描述是贯穿全文的线索。开头第一段肯定是关于三个实验的总述，C段和G段都有关于三个实验的描述：C段中的“all three studies” 中的“all”是总结性的用语，而且本段后面部分描述的是问题的解决办法，所以C用来做总结比较合适。G中的“three new studies”，它前面的话题引入以及它后面问题的引发都比较适合做第一段，提出问题。所以，４１题答案为G 。
剩余选项中A、B、D和F都是关于具体的实验的，其中 A和B已给出，而F的开头是“Two other studies”，所以４２题选D比较合适，另外从上下文内容上看D开头的“cognitive abilities and TV watching”和G开头的描述相呼应；D中的“IQ or socioeconomic status”又为A中“IQ or socioeconomic status”的出现做了伏笔；而且D后半部分关于实验的描述和后面的A项内容吻合。
46.[结构分析]这是一个简单句。主干是there is a need...，as with...是状语，修饰整个句子，to refine and clarify...是不定式短语作定语修饰a need。
[句子切分] As with any newly developing profession, / there is a need / to refine and clarify the role of the information architect and the accompanying job description.
1) refine和clarify并列，宾语是the role...and the...job description，所以refine在这里不是本义“精练，提炼”，而是引申义“使（语言、文字等）变得精妙（或精确）”，clarify是“阐明，使清晰明了”，为了使译文简洁，可译为“进行精确而清楚的解释”。
2) information architect是一个特殊的表达法，直译为“信息建筑师”即可。
3) accompanying是现在分词作定语，修饰job description，意思是“随之而来的”。
4) job description是固定表达，意为“职务说明”。
47.[结构分析]这是一个简单句。主干是an architect’s first responsibility...is to meet with the client，in the traditional profession是介词短语作状语，修饰整个句子，on any building project是介词短语作定语，修饰responsibility，to determine...是不定式作状语表目的。
[句子切分] In the traditional profession, / an architect’s first responsibility (on any building project) is to meet with the client / to determine the goals and requirements for the building, / as well as the overall vision of the building.
1) meet with是“和…会晤”的意思。
2) determine有两个宾语，即the goals and requirements和the vision，所以应选择同时能与两者搭配的词义，译为“定下”。
3) as well as是一个固定短语，意思是“除…之外，和”，翻译时要将这个短语的位置提前。
4) vision的修饰语是of the building，即与这座建筑有关的，那么就可以排除“视力，视觉”的意思，正确的解释是“规划”。
48.[结构分析]这是一个复合句。主句是An example in website design might be determining...，determining的宾语是三个并列的从句。
[句子切分] An example in website design might be determining / that a site should include a product catalog, a calendar of events and a newsletter, / that it must be accessible by all people with version 3.x browsers and above, / and that it must be optimized for an 800x600 size screen.
3) accessible的意思是“可接近的，可使用的”，这个从句里的it指代a site，因此译为“看到”即可。
[句子切分] Some are better at the design aspects / and may choose to concentrate their efforts there, / while others are better at the coordination roles or the communication roles.
50.[结构分析]这是一个复合句。主句是these architects have earned a certain respect，because of...and...是介词短语作状语表原因，in our society是介词短语作状语表地点，that引导的定语从句修饰respect。
[句子切分] Because of this broad range of expertise and the difficult nature of playing all of these roles, / these architects have earned a certain respect (in our society) that we must be careful not to encroach on unfairly.