PART ⅥREADING COMPREHENSION［30 MIN.］
SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION ［25 MIN.］
In this section there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer. Mark your choices on your ANSWER SHEET.
In a very broad sense, legislation plays the same role in France as judicial decisions play in common law countries. Legislative rules provide the starting point from which lawyers and judges work toward their goal, the most just solution for the problem at hand. Usually the statute provides a clear answer to the problem. In those cases, the statute is strictly applied, more because it is just than because it is a statute. Because of this it often appears that legislation is the law and that the judge’s role is simply to apply automatically the ready-made solutions provided by the legislature. Nevertheless, there are a greatly many cases where the judge’s role is far from creative. The legislature sometimes deliberately speaks in very general terms; it has said that divorce can be obtained where there are serious grounds; contracts must be performed in good faith; a person must repair the damage caused another by his fault; the penalty for a crime can be reduced if there are extenuating circumstances; an act of a government officialis invalid if in excess of his powers. The legislature, however, has not defined serious grounds or fault, nor explained what is required by good faith or what constitutes extenuating circumstances. Of course, statutory law is being applied in all of these cases, but it is essential to recognize that the statute takes on real meaning only as the courts interpret it. The way in which the U.S. Supreme Court interprets the U.S. Constitution can give a common law lawyer an idea of how French courts interpret the legislation from which they work.
66. When French lawyers and judges strictly apply a statute, it is usually because ____.
A. it provides a just solution to a problem
B. statutes are laws, and must be obeyed
C. the judge’s role is always simply to apply automatically the ready-made solutions provided by the legislature
D. the role of the French judiciary is never really creative
67. The statute that says that contracts must be performed in good faith is an example of____.
A. ready-made solutions provided by the legislature
B. the legislature’s deliberate attempt to speak in general terms
C. a case where the judge’s role is far from creative
D. a case where the statute applies a clear answer to the problem
68. French law says that the penalty for a crime ____.
A. is always rigidly set
B. may be changed as society changes
C. depends on the age of the person committing the crime
D. can be reduced if there are extenuating circumstances
69. Many statutes which are stated in very general terms____.
A. are strictly applied
B. make the job of the lawyerand the judge very simple
C. carefully define every aspect of those terms
D. take on real meaning only as the courts interpret them
Campfires twinkled on the beaches and along the causeways near Cape Kennedy. Nearly a million people had come to watch the launch of Apollo 11. Many had sweated in bumper-to-bumper traffic from Cocoa Beach to Titusville the night before. Even at 3 a.m. on this muggy Wednesday morning, the headlights of almost 300,000 cars cut through the darkness, intensifying the excitement. In 6.5 hours, NASA would launch three astronauts in mankind’s first attempt to land on the moon. It was an event no one wanted to miss.
In Firing Room 1 of the launch-control center, the liftoff team was supervising the hazardous loading of 2200 tons of super-cold liquid-oxygen (LOX) and liquid-hydrogen(LH2) propellants into the massive white pillar of Saturn V. Even at rates of up to 10,000 gallons a minute, the operation would take four hours and was so dangerous that the pad, usually crowded with work trucks and men in coveralls, had been ordered evacuated.
Hundreds of engineers and technicians were hunched over computer consoles, monitoring the thousands of separate systems aboard the three-stage booster and the Apollo spacecraft itself. The composite vehicle was heavier than a World War II destroyer. It contained six million parts and a total of 91 engines and motors,making it the most complex machine ever assembled. In theory all this machinery had to work perfectly if we were to succeed in our mission.
At 4:15 a.m., Deke Slayton, director of flight-crew operations, came to wake Neil Armstrong, Mike Collins and me. In our windowless quarters, we couldn’t tell if it was night or day, or if the weather had held for launch morning. But Deke had a sheath of flapping weather reports. “It’s a beautiful morning,” he said.
Deke and astronaut Bill Anders ate breakfast with us. They were friendly and talkative, but also somewhat distant. The three of usNeil, Mike and Iwere going. They were staying behind.
70. What type of writing is the written material?
A. It is a story told by one of the flight crew of Apollo11.
B. It is a news report filed by a correspondent on the spot.
C. It is a diary written by a member of the liftoff team.
D. It is a written statement presented to NASA.
71. Why had nearly a million people come to watch the launch of Apollo 11?
A. They had come to intensify the excitement.
B. They just wanted to show their support for the national project.
C. It was mankind’s first attempt to land on the moon and no one wanted to miss the historic event.
D. They didn’t believe the mission would succeed.
72. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage?
A. The Apollo spacecraft was the most complex machine ever assembled.
B. The liftoff team had been evacuated from the spot several hours before the operation.
C. Hundreds of engineers and technicians were involved in the operation.
D. If all this machinery worked perfectly the operation would succeed definitely.
73. In the last paragraph why did the author use the word distant?
A. Because they lived far from each other.
B. Because they worked in different departments.
C. Because they were indifferent to each other.
D. Because only three of them would participate in the operation.www.59wj.com
We have long ceased to live in a world where education was the prerogative of the few and the interchange of knowledge and ideas was limited to handful of learned men. The demand for education as a right of mankind is accepted.
In many countries the challenge implicit in this demand has to be met largely unaided: such countries have to use their own resources to build the schools and train the teachers they need. But throughout the world there are other countries which, by their association with the Commonwealth, have unique opportunities for helping each other. They range from India to the tiny Pacific island of Pitcarin inhabited by little over 100 people.
Britain’s part in developing education in countries of the Commonwealth and her dependencies goes back over three hundred years. The first colleges set up in the mainland colonies of North America which were to become the United States give tuition modeled on the arts courses at Oxford and Cambridge. British institutions set the early educational pattern in parts of Canada, Australia and New Zealand. In the nineteenth century Britain took a direct interest in developing state-aided education in India, and began financially to help the missionaries pioneering education in the colonies and to set up a few schools where there were no others.
74. The author claims that ____.
A. learning is no longer the right of a select group of people
B. very few people are illiterate
C. exchange of knowledge is now universal
D. special learning should not be left to a few people
75. The tiny Pacific island of Pitcarin is not unaided in her field of education because____.
A. she is member of the Commonwealth
B. she has a population of just 100-odd people
C. she gets help from India
D. she has properly built schools
76. The author states that the early universities in the British colonies were ____.
A. started by British government
B. supported by the British universities
C. modeled on the British universities
D. trying in vain to copy Oxford and Cambridge
77. In the nineteenth last century what Britain did for Commonwealth education was ____.
A. merely to encourage children to go to school
B. to build institutions on the pattern of Oxford and Cambridge
C. to encourage missionaries to set up more schools
D. to give financial help to set up schools
Every people has its own special words and expressions like the American expression “on the wagon”. It means a person who no longer drinks whisky, beer or other kinds of alcoholic drinks. The `wagon’ is a water wagon. In other words, a drinker has decided to change from alcohol to water. An Oklahoma newspaper wrote about a man who had a history of heavy drinking on America’s Fourth of July holiday. Said the newspaper, “We believed that his experience had lifted him onto the water wagon, but he was even drunker the next Fourth of July.”
Why do people decide to go on the wagon? Well, usually because they are alcoholics. They lose control of themselves when they drink. If they take one alcoholic drink, then they want to drink another, and another, until all thought is gone.
Alcoholism is a major social problem in countries throughout the world. The United States is no exception. Experts believe that several million Americans are alcoholics today. Their health care needs, car accidents, reduced job performance and other problems cost thousands of millions of dollars every year.
In the early 1900s, many Americans joined in a campaign to make alcohol illegal in the United States. In 1920 an amendment was added to the Constitution. It made drinking or selling alcohol a crime. But the new law did not stop people from drinking. Criminals produced or imported alcohol illegally and sold it almost everywhere.
After a few years Americans realized the so-called Prohibition Law did not work. So in 1933 another constitutional change was made, canceling the amendment that made alcohol illegal.
In recent years Americans have taken other steps to deal with the problem of alcohol. One important action had been to increase the punishment for people who drive their automobiles after drinking alcohol. Many states now consider this to be a serious crime. Another important step has been to explain to children and students the dangers of alcohol. Many schools now offer special programmes to teach young people about the problem. Doctors have been working to develop new drugs and treatment programmes to help alcoholics. Finally, alcoholics themselves are dealing with the problem of alcoholism. Many of them have “ gone on the wag on” and stopped drinking. They have joined the Alcoholics Anonymous group meeting regularly to discuss their problems and give each other support. “Going on the wagon” is not the only way to conquer alcoholism, but most alcoholic say it is the best way. They must give up alcohol completely so their own body and spirit can survive.
78. People decide to go on the wagon because ____.
A. they enjoy having one drink after another
B. they like the kind of drinks they get on the wagon
C. they are afraid of losing their self-control in drinking again
D. they are alcoholics and can not control themselves well
79. Americans are now taking steps to solve the problem of alcoholism by ____.
A. decreasing the amount of alcohol drunk by drivers
B. teaching young students how to drive safely after drinking alcohol
C. punishing people more heavily for driving after drinking alcohol
D. giving special courses to teach doctors about new drugs and treatments for alcoholics
80. In the United States today ____.
A. alcoholism is not a major social problem
B. there are no more than a million alcoholics
C. the problem of alcoholism costs thousands of millions of dollars every year
D. alcoholism has caused a million automobile accidents a yearwww.59wj.com
SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING ［5 MIN.］
In this section there are five passages with a total of ten multiple choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answer on your ANSWER SHEET.
First read the following questions.
81. The author writes the passage to give the reader a kind of____.
82. According to the study by Men’s Fitness magazine, ____ranked the second most “fit” cities in USA.
A. San Diego
C. San Francisco and Honolulu
D. Detroit and Philadelphia
Now read Text E quickly and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
What are the best places to live in if you want to be slim? According to the study by Men’s Fitness magazine, try sunny, seaside San Diego, which topped the magazine’s list of “ fittest” cities in U.S.A... Stay away from Huston, which, with its polluted air, proliferation of bars and liquor stores, ranked as the “fattest” city. In its annual study, the magazine takes into account a range of issues that make up how healthy it is to live in a city, from air and water quality to the number of fast food joints per person. While the actual percentage of overweight people living in a city is also considered, the study focuses more on opportunities available for people who want to get fit. Because the study emphasized factors like recreation areas and climate, it seems only natural that San Francisco and Honolulu tied for second most “fit” cities after San Diego, while chilly Detroit and Philadelphia were the second and third “fattest” cities on the magazine’s list.
First read the following questions.
83. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage?
A. William is about to begin a four-year degree in art history at St. Andrews University.
B. William is the eldest son of Prince Charles and the late Princess Diana.
C. William would have to find a new university to run away from media exposure.
D. William’s choice of St. Andrews contributed to a 44.4 percent increase in applications.
84. Who are authorized to leak stories about Prince William to the media?
A. Students at St. Andrews.
B. Members of staff.
C. Principle of St. Andrews.
D. None of the above.
Now read Text F quickly and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
The principal of Scotland’s St. Andrews University has warned students that they could be expelled if they leak stories about Prince William to the media. William is due to begin a four-year degree in art history at the Scottish university in October. “ At worst, a perpetrator might find him or herself having to find another university,” he said in an interview in the university’s newspaper The Saint. His remarks also apply to members of staff, who could face disciplinary action if they talk publicly about the prince or his academic performance. William,18, the eldest son of Prince Charles and the late Princess Diana and second in line to the throne, is hugely popular in Britain. His choice of St. Andrews is viewed as an unofficial royal endorsement of the university. The university announced a 44.4 percent increase in applications, which it attributed to the “William factor”.www.59wj.com
First read the following questions.
85. Which sentence expresses the main idea?
A. Necessity is the mother of invention.
B. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
C. Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched
D. Join the unhooked generation.
86. The paragraph is in favor of ____.
A. forbidding smoking in public places
B. outlawing the sale of tobacco products
C. promoting good health habits
D. enforcing strict air quality controls
Now read Text G quickly and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
Whether you are a smoker or a non-smoker, you should take measures to protect your lungs. You can test your lung capacity by holding a lighted match about six inches from your face and trying to blow it out with your mouth wide open. If you cannot blow out the flame, arrange for a medical examination. Using a simple machine called a spirometer. A doctor can measure the lungs’ strength and capacity. In other words, he can test how efficiently you breathe. When combined with a complete physical examination, the spirometer test may detect early sighs of respiratory problems.
First read the following questions.
87. Mr. and Mrs. Pfile arrived at Reader’s Digest Headquarters in Pleasantville, New York by____.
88. How much money did Mr. Pfile win altogether?
A. Five million dollars.
B. $ 5,100,000.00.
C. $ 100,000.
D. $ 4,900,000.
Now read Text H quickly and mark your answers on your ANWER SHEET.
PENNSYLVANIA BUSINESSMAN WINS $5,100,000.00!
PLEASANTVILLE,NYGrand Prize Winner Mr. Ira Pfile received his prize checkIN PERSONfrom Reader’s Digest President, Richard McLoughlin.
Mr. Pfile and his wife, Virginia, were brought to New York by corporate jet from their home in Charleroi, Pennsylvania to attend a special ceremony in their hon or at Reader’s Digest Headquarters in Pleasantville, New York.
Throngs of Digest employees, reporters and cameramen all turned out to celebrate Mr. Pfiles’s lucky windfall and to personally witness the presentation of his award.
In addition to the FIVE-MILLION-DOLLAR Grand Prize, Mr. Pfile also won a Bonus of $100,000 CASHjust for getting his entry back early.
A 1936 graduate of the Wharton School of Business, Mr. Pfile has owned and operated a variety of businesses and is currently active in the real estate field.
Mr. Pfile subscribes to Reader’s Digest and has been reading it since the 1920s. Like her husband, Mrs. Pfile regularly reads the Digest and for years has enjoyed Reader’s Digest Condensed Books as well.
First read the following questions.
89. In the year when the World Cup was held in Munich, Germany, ____was the winner.
C. West Germany
90. According to the passage, USA held the World Cup games in____.
Now read Text I quickly and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
YEAR WINNER SCORE RUNNER-UPSCORE PLACE HELD
[BH]1938Italy 4Hungary 2Paris,France
[BH]1950Uruguay 2Brazil1Rio do Janeiro,Brazil
[BH]1954West Germany 3Hungary2Bern,Switzerland
[BH]1958Brazil 5Sweden 2Stockholm,Sweden
[BH]1966England4West Germany 2London, England
[BH]1970Brazil 4Italy 1Mexico City,Mexico
[BH]1974West Germany 2Netherlands1Munich, Germany
[BH]1986Argentina3West Germany 2Mexico City,Mexico
[BH]1990West Germany 1Argentina0Rome,Italy
* Brazil won the game 3-2 in a penalty-kick shoot-out