SECTION 1 VOCABULARY(30 points)
I. Directions: Match the words in Column A with their definitions in Column B. Write the letter of the answer to each word in Column A on your ANSWER SHEET.(10 points, 1 point for each)
1. challenge A. making dirty or impure
2. inaccessible B. against reason or common sense
3. surge C. forward movement like powerful waves
4.diverse D. greatness of size or importance
5. foul E. of different kinds
6. emerge F. rock in a very hot liquid state
7. heed G. question the lawfulness or rightness of
8. absurd H. give attention to
9.lava I. that cannot be reached
10. magnitude J. come into existence
II. Directions: Read each of the following sentences carefully, and choose A,B,C or D that has the closest meaning to the underlined word or phrase. Blacken the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.(10 points, 1 point for each)
11. Through the passing millennia, thousands of animal species have come and gone.
A. arrived and left
B. appeared and escaped
C. come into existence and become extinct
D. approached and disappeared
12. Occasional loss of livestock must be weighed against the good these animals do in maintaining the balance of nature.
A. estimated by B. balanced by
C. copied in terms of D. compared in terms of value of
13. Recognizing the growing threat HIV/AIDS poses to child survival, the Agency will support efforts for a solution.
A. affects B. takes to
C. increases D. points to
14. Pesticides have also taken their toll.
A. threatened their lives B. destroyed their habitat
C. played their part D. caused deaths
15. With each departure a small part of the diversity of nature that makes life so interesting is also gone.
A. going away B. extinction
C. changing D. disaster
16. Several months later a similar feat was performed by the first American astronaut to walk in space.
A. ordinary task B. noteworthy achievement
C. common deed D. something done
17. On the earth, our atmosphere diffuses light so that, when the sun is up, light seems to be everywhere.
A. sends out in every direction B. focuses in every direction
C. concentrates in every direction D. reflects in every direction
18. During the subsequent lull in hunting, the seal population made a good, although temporary, recovery.
A. stop B. stillness
C. quietness D. pause
19. A mutation happens to suit a new environment, and the “odd” creature survives because it is better fitted.
A. calcium B. remnant
C. alteration D. eradication
20. This is an unexplored area in vitamin research and the only known advantages of vitamin E are confined to specialized medical cases.
A. assessed in B. restricted to
C. contributed to D. expected on
III. Directions: Scan Passage 1 and find the words which have roughly the meanings given below. Write the word you choose in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET.(10 points, 1 point for each)
Note: The numbers in the brackets refer to the numbers of paragraphs in the passage.
21. conditions and surroundings that affect people’s lives (1)
22. passing on of physical or mental characteristics from parents to children (2)
23. have an effect on each other (2)
24. way in which something works (3)
25. power of learning, understanding and reasoning (4)
26. controlling or handling something with skill (4)
27. characteristics and qualities of a person (5)
28. deciding the value or amount of something (6)
29. explaining something which is not easily understandable (6)
30. make something difficult to see clearly (6)
1. We inherit genes, not traits. When we say that a boy got his brown eyes from his father, we really mean that he got the genes for brown eyes from his father. Every gene must develop in an environment, and the environment influences how that gene will develop. In the case of fruit flies, the vestigial(退化的)-wing characteristic will develop if the flies are raised at room temperature. If the flies are reared at about 92oF（33oC）, however, the wings will be almost normal.
2. In the final analysis, the question, “Which is more important, heredity or environment?” has no meaning. There can be no “heredity versus environment” situation: both factors, heredity and environment, must interact for an organism to develop.
3. Still, we can get some idea of the relative contributions of heredity and environment to certain traits. To do this, we must determine the genetic mechanism for a particular trait. We must also determine how much effect the environment can have on the trait. Neither of these determinations is easy, but for a few traits they have both been made.
4. In the case of Down’s syndrome, for example, we know that the presence of an extra number 21 chromosome sets limits on the development of the intelligence and largely determines certain other abnormal characteristics of the victim. Unfortunately, no amount of environmental manipulation can cause the victim’s intelligence to exceed a certain “subnormal” level. Thus we can say that in the development of the phenotype of a person with Down’s syndrome, heredity makes a relatively great contribution— by imposing severe limits.
5. But in most situations one can study, the role of the environment is very much in evidence. Identical human twins who have been reared apart show quite noticeable phenotypic differences, in personality and even in some physical characteristics.
6. The problem of assessing the relative contributions of heredity and environment to human intelligence is notoriously difficult and controversial. On the one hand, many studies have shown high correlations between the intelligence of individuals and their degree of “relatedness”. On the other hand, the many variables encountered in studies of this type make interpretation very difficult. But some studies have found correlations suggesting environmental factors influence intelligence more than genetic factors do. So the question of intelligence and inheritance is still very much up in the air. The problems and the controversy should not, however, obscure one basic fact: intelligence, like any other trait, depends on the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors.
SECTION 2 READING COMPREHENSION (40 points)
IV. Directions: Skim passage 2 and read the statements given right after the passage and judge whether they are True or False. Blacken the corresponding answer you choose on your ANSWER SHEET. (10 points, 1 point for each)
1. Mild stress is known to improve learning. A totally relaxed child will not be as receptive to new information as a child experiencing mild stress. It is also known that when the stress of working at a job is removed when elderly people retire they age more quickly unless new activities are substituted in their lives. It is thought that senility occurs more frequently with inactivity than with continued activity. Much of the great art, inventions and discoveries has resulted from the stress of the creators. Would we have the Sistine Chapel(西斯行廷教堂) if Michaelangelo had lived a quiet stressless life?
2. We must also admit that the bodily changes that occur under stress often lead to activities that could not be performed under normal circumstances. The 110-pound woman who lifts a one-ton automobile to release her child caught under the wheels could not ordinarily perform this feat; the bodily changes produced by the stress of the situation enable her to do this superhuman act. An athlete relies on the changes that occur under stress to help him run faster, tackle harder, and win the game.
3. It appears that the amount of harmful stress any particular individual experiences depends upon how he views the stressful experience. If he sees it as threatening, it is a bad stress; but if he views it as a challenge, it can be a beneficial stress. Also, his personality type plays a significant role in the determination of whether the stress is good or bad. Certain types of people appear to need stress to make their lives exciting and meaningful—it keeps them young, alive, and functioning. Other types seem to need routine, quiet, and peaceful environment.
4. Should you avoid stress or encourage it? The experts don’t have the answer. Since stress has always been part of the human condition and life is not static—unexpected things do happen—complete avoidance is impossible. In fact, worrying about stress is a stress itself. Some authorities suggest that everyone use meditation and relaxation techniques to lessen the effects of stress. They favor changing our busy life-style to slower-paced living, striving less, and staying put more. Other authorities state that these methods may erase the beneficial effects of stress and that if you receive gratifications from a hectic lifestyle, adopting a more relaxed routine may deprive you of needed stimuli and lower the quality of your life.
5.All do agree that attitude is one of the most important factors. A positive attitude can make stress your ally. A negative attitude will make stress your enemy. Since we may never know whose advice to follow, perhaps the best course is to accept stress as inevitable, both good and bad, and to keep the stress that feels good and try to eliminate the stress that feels bad. You be your own expert!
31. Total relaxation enables you to receive new information more easily than stressful circumstance.
32. People age much more quickly if they are active after retirement.
33. People under stress can sometimes make incredible events happen.
34. Women whose weight is over 110 pounds can lift a one-ton object.
35. Whether stress is good or bad is not decided by the stressful situation itself, but by how people view it.
36. Stress keeps some people young, alive and lively.
37. There have been controversies among the authorities over whether meditation and relaxation techniques should be recommended.
38. According to the author, stresses can not be classified into positive and negative ones.
39. Stressful experiences won’t be that awful if we adopt right attitude towards them.
40. If you want to live longer, please stay put and be quiet and peaceful.
V. Directions: Read Passages 3 and 4 and choose the correct answer. Blacken the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.(20 points, 1 point for each)
1. In the evolution of mammals from reptiles, there was a succession of physical changes: the development of warm blood, body hair instead of scales, and the beginning of the nursing of the young. This radical physical transformation provided mammals with a greater tolerance for external temperature and required reliance on specialized food types. When the dominant dinosaurs became extinct, the Age of Mammals began. For the rest 60 million years mammals expanded into the biological vacuum which they were better equipped to exploit than all but a few varieties of reptiles.
2. The habitat of life forms on earth has been the entire planet, conveniently dividing the world into the birds of the air, the fish of the sea, and the creatures of the land. The evolutionary process also created sea-dwelling mammals who appeared to reverse the process of evolution as they returned to the sea. The whales’ limbs became flipperlike, and they lost the hair on their bodies, suiting them better to aquatic life.
3. On the other hand, in the course of the evolution of birds from reptiles, there was a succession of changes in the bone, muscle, and skin structures of the animals. This wholesale restructuring of some reptiles over a period of thousands of years equipped the new animals to escape their predators and to find food more easily. But the evolutionary process did not stop there. Once adapted to flight, some birds continued to change and the process seemed to reverse itself. As penguins adapted to marine life, their wings changed to flippers and their feathers to a waterproof covering, thus suiting the birds for a semi-aquatic existence.
41. The Age of Mammals began when .
A. animals evolved from reptiles
B. animals nursed the young
C. animals were more tolerant to external temperature
D. the dominant dinosaurs died out
42. It can be concluded from this passage that the ancestors of whales .
A. were fish B. chased reptiles
C. lived on the land D. had too many offspring
43. In paragraph 2, the word ‘aquatic’ is closest in meaning to .
A. of earth B. of land
C. of river D. of water
44. In paragraph 3, the word ‘succession’ is closest in meaning to .
A. completion B. series
C. addition D. achievements
45. Certain reptiles gradually became able to escape quickly by .
A. acquiring new structural features
B. becoming smaller and stronger
C. finding food more easily
D. changing their eating habits
46. Penguins are .
A. sea birds B. birds on land
C. reptiles D. mammals
47. What is one of the changes in the course of the evolution of birds from reptiles?
A. Blood temperature. B. Body surface.
C. Skin color. D. Bone structure.
48. Whales and Penguins have something in common in their .
A. flying B. swimming
C. adaptation to nature D. skin structure
49. According to the passage, which statement is true?
A. Birds and mammals developed from reptiles.
B. Reptiles use birds’ eggs as a source of food.
C. Birds adapted to living with reptiles.
D. Mammals are more tolerant to different types of food.
50. Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?
A. The Evolution of Mammals.
B. The Evolution of Life on Earth.
C. The Disappearance of Reptiles.
D. The Adaptation of Whales and Penguins.
1. The temperature of the Sun is over 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit at the surface, but it rises to perhaps more than 16 million degrees at the center. The Sun is so much hotter than the Earth that matter can exist only as a gas, except at the core. In the core of the Sun, the pressures are so great against the gases that, despite the high temperature, there may be a small solid core. However, no one really knows, since the center of the Sun can never be directly observed.
2. Solar astronomers do know that the Sun is divided into five layers or zones. Starting at the outside and going down into the Sun, the zones are the corona, chromospheres, photosphere, convection zone, and finally the core. The first three zones are regarded as the Sun’s atmosphere. But since the Sun has no solid surface, it is hard to tell where the atmosphere ends and the main body of the Sun begins.
3. The Sun’s outermost layer begins about 10,000 miles above the visible surface and goes outward for millions of miles. This is the only part of the Sun that can be seen during an eclipse such as the one in February 1979. At any other time, the corona can be seen only when special instruments are used on cameras and telescopes to keep out the glare of the Sun’s rays.
4. The corona is a brilliant, pearly white, filmy light, about as bright as the full Moon. Its beautiful rays are a sensational sight during an eclipse. The corona’s rays flash out in a brilliant fan that has wispy spikelike rays near the Sun’s north and south poles. The corona is thickest at the Sun’s equator.
5. The corona rays are made up of gases streaming outward at tremendous speeds and reaching a temperature of more than 2 million degrees Fahrenheit. The rays of gas thin out as they reach the space around the planets. By the time the Sun’s corona rays reach the Earth, they are weak and invisible.
51. The temperature of the Sun at the center is__________.
A. over 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit
B. more than 5,000 degrees Centigrade
C. over 16,000,000 degrees Fahrenheit
D. more than 16,000,000 degrees Centigrade
52. One thing that is sure about the core of the Sun is that__________.
A. it is gas B. it is solid
C. the temperature is low D. the pressure is great
53. The zone that is NOT regarded as the Sun’s atmosphere is__________.
A. convection zone B. corona zone
C. chromospheres zone D. photosphere zone
54. Paragraph 2 is mainly about__________.
A. how the Sun evolved B. the structure of the Sun
C. why scientists study the Sun D. the main body of the Sun
55. The word “glare” in Paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to__________.
A. glitter B. gleam
C. blaze D. fire
56.The word “one” in Paragraph 3 refers to__________.
A. the Sun B. the corona
C. an eclipse D. the surface
57. The corona can be seen__________.
A. only in an eclipse
B. with naked eyes
C. with any cameras or telescopes
D. with cameras equipped with special instruments
58. Which is NOT true about the corona?
A. It is the outmost layer of the Sun.
B. It is very bright as the full Moon.
C. It is as white as pearl.
D. It is the thinnest at the Sun’s equator.
59. The word “sensational” in Paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to__________.
A. spectacular B. predictable
C. bizarre D. constant
60. According to the passage, as the corona rays reach the planets, they become__________.
A. hotter B. cleaner
C. thinner D. stronger
VI. Directions: Passage 5 is taken from the textbook. Read the passage carefully and choose the correct answer. Blacken the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.(10 points, 1 point for each)
1. Social anxiety is the single most common psychological problem, according to the 1986 results of the Stanford Shyness Inventory, a survey conducted by Philip G.Zimbardo, professor of social psychology at Stanford University of California. At a party with strangers, for instance, three-quarters of adults have anxiety. “The best estimate is that 40 percent of all Americans suffer from shyness,” says Zimbardo.
2. How can you avoid being nervous when you meet people? Prepare. Preparation for any communicating situation is a must. You’ve been invited to a big dinner party in two weeks. You know that one of the other guests is a politician. Scan the newspapers and magazines; listen to newscasts for topics of conversation in political areas. Then, at the party, pretend you’re an interviewer on talk show. Think of questions to ask that can’t be answered yes or no. “In your opinion, who …” “What do you think of …” Keep the momentum going.
3.Whether you’re delivering a speech, approaching your boss for a raise or an important social occasion, do your homework. The most polished, smoothly delivered, spontaneous-sounding talks are the results of many hours of work. The memorable one-liners and moving phrases that go down in history don’t come from last-minute bursts of inspiration.
4. If you’re making a presentation of any sort, begin preparing as far ahead of time as possible. “Good writing,” says Harvard University historian Richard Marius, “is a kind of wrestling with thought”. Begin the wrestling match early. Two days before your presentation is usually too late to go into the ring and come up with a winning idea.
5. “To communicate,” says New York Times columnist William Samire, “put your thoughts in order, give them a purpose; use them to persuade, to instruct, to discover, to seduce.”
6. Prepare yourself as well as your material, giving special attention to your voice. A shrill, nasal tone strikes your listener like chalk screeching on a blackboard. By putting energy and resonance into your voice, you will have a positive effect. If your voice is timid or quivers with nervousness, you sense it, the audience hears it, and you see discomfort in their eyes. With energy and enthusiasm in your voice, the listeners say ahhh, tell me more. You read approval.
7. Like your voice, your appearance is a communication tool. For example, if you are animated, you are more likely to see animated listeners. You give the audience the message: I’m glad I’m here; I’m glad you’re here.
8. Your approach can, in fact, be a powerful weapon for deflecting hostility—from an audience, an interviewer, an employer. A benevolent aspect says I understand and conveys good will and positive expectations. It works.
9. However, don’t ever assume that an audience, an interviewer, your boss will be sympathetic. Always be prepared for a grilling. Think beforehand of the ten toughest questions you could get and be ready with your answers. And remember, when you’re asked a hostile question, never show hostility to your questioner. If you do, you lose.
10. While the hostile questioner is talking, prepare your response. Take a positive tack immediately, and make your answers short. The instant the interviewer finishes the question, begin the answer: first point, second point, third point… bingo, your conclusion. It’s like shooting a basket. Keep your eyes on the basket, and bounce, bounce, shoot to your conclusion.
11. The way you listen gives messages about you too. Listen with interest, focusing your eyes on the speaker. If you are sitting next toward the person, angle your body slightly in the chair so that you’re turned toward the person. Animate your face with approval. It says, I’m with you, I’m interested in what you’re saying.
12. Once you’re prepared for a situation, you’re 50 percent of the way toward overcoming nervousness. The other 50 percent is the physical and mental control of nervousness: adjusting your attitude so you have confidence, and control of yourself and your audience.
13. I was in the theater for many years and always went to work with terrible stage fright—until I was in “The King and I”. While waiting offstage one night, I saw Yul Brynner, the show’s star, pushing in a lunging position against a wall. It looked as though he wanted to knock it down. “This helps me control my nervousness,” he explained.
14. I tried it and, sure enough, freed myself from stage fright. Not only that, but pushing the wall seemed to give me a whole new kind of physical energy. Later I discovered that when you push against a wall you contract the muscles that lie just below where your ribs begin to splay. I call this area the “vital triangle”.
15. To understand how these muscles work, try this: Sit in a straight-backed chair and lean slightly forward. Put your palms together in front of you, your elbows pointing out the sides, your fingertips pointing upward, and push so that you feel pressure in the heels of your palms and under your arms.
16. Say ssssssss, like a hiss. As you’re exhaling the s, contract those muscles in the vital triangle as though you were rowing a boat, pulling the oars back and up. The vital triangle should tighten. Relax the muscles at the end of your exhalation, then inhale gently.
17.You can also adjust your attitude to prevent nervousness. What you say to yourself sends a message to your audience. If you tell yourself you’re afraid, that’s the message your listener receives. So select the attitude you want to communicate. Attitude adjusting is your mental suit of armor against nervousness. If you entertain only positive thoughts, you will be giving out these vibes: joy and ease, enthusiasm, sincerity and concern, and authority.
18. You have the power within you to become a forceful, persuasive, confident communicator. With these techniques, you will be able to ask for a raise, make a sale, deal with a family crisis, feel comfortable in social and business situations. Master the simple principles set out here and you will never be nervous again.
61. Which of the following is true according to Paragraphs 1 and 2?
A. Two fifths of people suffer from shyness on social occasions.
B. One-quarter of adults do not have anxiety before strangers at parties.
C. Many Americans make good preparations before delivering a speech.
D. Social anxiety is the most common social problem.
62. In Paragraph 3, “do your homework” means .
A. finish your assignment
B. deliver spontaneous talks
C. make preparations
D. avoid being nervous
63. Which is NOT mentioned as a means to communicate?
A. To instruct. B. To persuade.
C. To seduce. D. To warn.
64. The main idea of Paragraph 6 is that .
A. we must prepare our material before communicating with others
B. voice plays an important part in effective communication
C. few people pay enough attention to their tones
D. it is difficult to cover nervousness
65. To prepare yourself you should pay attention to the following EXCEPT .
A. approach B. appearance
C. audience D. voice
66. In the last sentence of Paragraph 8, “it” refers to .
A. good will B. your approach
C. a benevolent aspect D. a powerful weapon
67. When asked a hostile question, the speaker should .
A. keep quiet
B. focus his/her eyes on the questioner
C. answer back
D. never be unfriendly to the questioner
68. According to the author, one can conquer nervousness by acting in the following ways EXCEPT that .
A. he has fully prepared for a situation
B. he has a physical and mental control of nervousness
C. he can prepare himself as well as his material
D. he can turn to experts for help
69. What does the author want to show by his experience of freeing himself from stage fright?
A. He wants to show that mental preparation works before stage performance.
B. He wants to show that self-control of nervousness is important before stage performance
C. He wants to show how important it is to be well prepared physically.
D. He wants to show how one can win the audience.
70. From Paragraph 2 to Paragraph 17, the article discusses .
A. how to deliver lectures successfully
B. how to free oneself from stage fright
C. how to prevent nervousness
D. how to make good preparations for social communication
SECTION 3 QUESTIONS AND TRANSLATION(30 points)
VII. Directions: The following questions are closely related to Passage 5. Write a brief answer (one to three complete sentences) to each of the questions on your ANSWER SHEET. Pay attention to the words, grammar and sentence structure in your answers. (15 points, 3 points for each)
71.Suppose you are going to see a politician, what preparations should you make?
72. Do the memorable one-liners and moving phrases in history come from last-minute bursts of inspiration? Why or why not?
73. Use two contrasting examples to show the influence of voice on communication.
74. What should we prepare for a grilling?
75. Why is it important to adjust your attitude if you want to prevent nervousness?
VIII. Directions: Translate the following sentences(taken from Passage 5) into Chinese and write the Chinese version in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET.(15 points, 3 points for each)
76. Two days before your presentation is usually too late to go into the ring and come up with a winning idea.
77. If your voice is timid and quivers with nervousness, you sense it, the audience hears it, and you see discomfort in their eyes.
78. Put your palms together in front of you, your elbows pointing out the sides, your fingertips pointing upward, and push so that you feel pressure in the heels of your palms and under your arms.
79. If you entertain only positive thoughts, you will be giving out these vibes: joy and ease, enthusiasm, sincerity and concern, and authority.
80. With these techniques, you will be able to ask for a raise, make a sale, deal with a family crisis, feel comfortable in social and business situations.