How Americans See Themselves
Americans do not usually see themselves, when they are in the United States, as representatives of their country. They see themselves as individuals who are different from all other individuals, whether those others are Americans or foreigners. Americans may say they have no culture, since they often think of culture as an overlay of customs to be found only in other countries. Individual Americans may think they chose their own values, rather than having had their value forced on them by the society in which they were born. If you ask them to tell you something about “American culture”, they may be unable to answer and they may even deny that there is an “American culture”.
Because they think they are responsible as individuals for having chosen their basic values and their way of life, many Americans don’t like generalizations others make about them. Generalizations disturb Americans. They may be unhappy with the thought that they hold certain ideas and act in certain way simply because they were born and raised in the U.S, and not because they had consciously thought about those ideas and ways of doing things and chosen the ones they preferred.
At the same time, Americans will readily generalize about various subgroups within their own country. Northerners have fixed views about Southerners, and vice versa. There are fixed views of people from the country and people from the city; people from the coasts and people from inland; people from the Midwest; minority ethnic groups; Texans; New Yorkers; Californians; lowans and so on.
Therefore, Americans see few generalizations that can safely be made about them in part because they are “so individualistic” and in part because they think regional and other kinds of differences clearly distinguish Americans of various groups from each other.
31.American, when in the United States, see themselves as
A.representatives of their country
B.people different from person to person
C.individuals much the same as foreigners
D.individuals that share the same values and way of life.
32.Americans may think that “ American culture”
A.does not really exist
B.is better than other cultures
C.is different from other cultures
D.is highly valued around the world
33.Individual Americans may think that their values
A.are based on their personal choices
B.are forced on them by the society in which they were born
C.can also be found in other cultures
D.should be recognized the world over.
34.Americans are disturbed by generalizations others make about them because
A.different Americans have different sources of origin
B.not all Americans were born and raised in the US
C.American culture has not been thoroughly studied
D.They, as individuals, do not have the same ideas and ways of doing things.
35.Which of the following statements is true?
A.Americans do not like to make generalizations about themselves on the basis of regional differences.
B.Americans have fixed ideas about different people coming from different regions and areas within their own country.
C.Americans think that they are equal to one another no matter where they were born.
D.Americans are trying hard to iron out their regional differences.
Career with a Uniform
WANT to be the next Xu Sanduo? The TV drama Soldiers Sortie (Shibing Tuji) might have caused millions of young people to dream idly of putting on an army uniform and going off to boot camp.
In fact, a large number of students graduating might consider doing just that. Last month, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) announced that there will be 120,000 job openings this year for college grads. So, one out of every 50 grads has a chance if he or she would like to march down to the local recruiting office. Anyone enlisting will get preferential treatment in tuition compensation and in job opportunities.
This decision comes against a backdrop of bad employment news and a cooling economy. This year’s recruitment quota outnumbers last years 39,000 by about three-fold.
"It’s important to pull in fresh, talented people who can deal with the new equipment and a high-tech military to modernize the nations defense," said Bai Zixing, a senior officer in the PLA General Staff Department.
The age limit for college recruits has been raised to 24, and there’s one more important policy change: Grads who have already volunteered to sign up can quit if they change their minds after finding another job before November, the deadline for enlistment. This gives grads an extra choice in starting a career.
The following is a list of preferential things that college grads qualify for if they join the army:
A one-time recruitment payment of up to 24,000 yuan, to cover four years of college tuition and loans (this has to be returned if the person is forced to leave the army before completing the service contract).
Priority in promotions and in getting admitted to military academies.
Anyone with a bachelor’s degree or above and a good performance record can be promoted to the rank of officer directly, if they meet certain other criteria. An ordinary soldier may need a couple of years longer to get there.
Anyone with a junior college degree can go on for a bachelor’s degree without having to take the entrance exams.
Anyone wanting to take the grad school entrance exam after completing their service can add 10 points to the exam results.
Anyone getting a merit citation second class can enter grad school without taking the exam after completion of the service obligation.
There are no restrictions on things like going abroad after.com the service period, unless one deals with confidential work in the army.
36.According to the passage, all of the following reasons make many college grads choose to join the army EXCEPT:
A.The Story of Xu Sanduo causes young people to dream to put on a uniform.
B.The grads are facing a grim employment situation.
C.The pay from the PLA is relatively higher than the grads can earn in other jobs.
D.The PLA offers a series of preferential treatments for college grads who join the army.
37.It can be inferred that about students graduating consider join the army.
38.Besides the backdrop of bad employment news and a cooling economy, which of the following causes the PLA to raise this years recruitment quota?
A.The TV drama Soldiers Sortie is high in the ratings.
B.The PLA wants to attract high-quality personnel to meet the need of hi-tech sector in the nations defense.
C.The PLA is increasing the size of the army.
D.Some students who have already volunteered to sign up may change their minds.
39.Why does the author think that the grads are given an extra chance in starting a career?
A.The one-time recruitment payment offered by the PLA may ease the grads economic burden.
B.The grads who join the army have more chances to further their study after completing their service.
C.Grads who have already volunteered to sign up can give up before the deadline for enlistment if they can find another job that is more suitable.
D.No restrictions are made on things like going abroad after the service period.
40.The word confidential in the last paragraph could best be replaced by
There are more than 100 million cars in the U.S. An ordinary car gets less than 15 miles from each gallon of gas. It travels about 10,000 miles each year. In that time, it uses about 650 gallons of gas. In all, automobiles use up some 70 billion gallons of gas a year. That comes out be four-and-half million barrels a day.
The importance of saving gas, then cannot be stressed too much. Let’s say, the fuel used by each car could be cut back just 15 percent. This could be done by making fewer trips each day. It could be done by keeping the automobiles in good shape. It could be done through better driving habits. If these were done, the nation’s use of fuel would fall by close to two thirds of million barrels per day.
Everyone can help to save gas. One way is to ride buses. Some could walk to work. Others could ride their bikes. Another way is to share a ride. About one-third of all cars are used for going to and from work. You can go shopping with a friend from time to time. If two people use a car instead of one, they all save. Driving stress would be less, too, with fewer cars on the road. The savings on gas around the nation would come to one-half million barrels a day. Still another way to save is by cutting out trips one does not need to take. Can you find one car trip per week that could be done by telephone? Can you combine trips? If each car traveled 10 miles less each week, they could save three-and-a-half billion gallons of gas a year. This come to nearly 5 percent of the total passenger car demand for gas.
The way people drive decides how much fuel they save. Careful drivers may get 20 percent more miles per gallon than ordinary drivers. They obey the 55-mile-per-hour speed limit. If just one gallon of gas were saved each week for each car in the country, a total of five-and-a-half billion gallons could be saved a year.
41.Which of the following statements is true about an average car according to the passage?
A.An ordinary car can run a lot more than 10,000 millions with 650 gallons of gas.
B.An ordinary car can run no more than 15 miles with one gallon of gas.
C.An ordinary car with ten gallons of gas can run no more than 150 miles.
D.An ordinary car can run 10,000 miles each year with 70 billion gallons of fuel.
42.he passage mentions all of the following facts EXCEPT
A.keeping one’s car in good shape helps one save gas
B.riding buses instead of driving is helpful to gas saving
C.sharing a ride or walking to work is another way to save gas
D.driving stress can be greatly relieved by using less gas.
43.The author thinks that if more people share a ride, there would be
A.fewer cars on the road
B.a higher speed limit
C.more highway accidents
D.fewer cars to be sold
44.According to the passage, it is possible to save five percent of the total passenger car demand for gas each year, if
A.people all share car-riding instead of owning their own cars
B.all the cars cut off one trip on 10 miles each week
C.two people go shopping from time to time
D.people use telephones instead of riding cars
45.Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the text?
A.Drivers could change their driving habits and keep their cars in good shape.
B.The importance of saving fuel is severely ignored.
C.Saving gas is important and could be done in several ways.
D.People should use fewer automobiles and make good use of telephone..