1. he deserved ________ the prize for writing such an amazing short story. i don’t understand his not receiving the award.
a. winning b. having won
c. to win d. to have won
2. hard ________ he tried, he was unable to meet the deadline for the term paper.
a. although b. as
c. if d. since
3. ________, a man who can express himself effectively is likely to succeed more rapidly than those who can’t.
a. other things to be equal b. were other things equal
c. to be equal to other things d. other things being equal
4. there she spent her days in a bare, gray-walled room lined ________ small boxes, where the orphans kept whatever playthings they had.
a. by b. with
c. for d. over
5. hearing aids make ________ possible for people with hearing problems to use the telephone and even to listen to music.
a. that b. what
c. it d. which
6. “appearance is essential,” he said. each morning he put on clean socks, ________ trousers and a fresh white shirt.
a. pressed b. pressing
c. presses d. press
7. if you try to chase two rabbits at the same time, you will not catch ________ one.
a. each b. any
c. neither d. either
8. parents should learn to explain their feelings to the child so that the child can realize the ________ of his or her behaviour on them.
a. result b. affect
c. importance d. impact
9. when children approach their teens, they become more ________ of their appearance.
a. conscious b. suspicious
c. ambitious d. conscientious
10. the steps ________ up to her house were a great barrier, and carrying groceries was almost impossible for her.
a. running b. moving
c. leading d. setting
11. research in the social science focuses on problems of individuals in contexts such as family, work setting, and society ________.
a. in principle b. at large
c. in short d. at all
12. people were ________ when the boy said that the kangaroo, resting on its hind legs and its large tail, had five legs.
a. amused b. moved
c. puzzled d. surprised
13. tv may make people less happy with what they have, for they see a world that ________wealth.
a. criticizes b. exaggerates
c. analyses d. describes
14. the upside-down catfish is the only fish that ________ swims on its back.
a. habitually b. traditionally
c. commonly d. randomly
15. intellectual-property experts are trying to ________ new models that will allow the film industry to survive downloading.
a. come up with b. come across
c. come out of d. come upon.
those who have a strong love for climbing high and difficult mountains are often looked upon with astonishment. why are men and women 16 to suffer cold and hardship, and to 17 on high mountains? this astonishment is caused, probably, by the difference between mountaineering and other forms of activity 18 men give their leisure.
mountaineering is a sport and not a game. there are no man-made rules, as there are for such games as golf and football. there are rules of a different kind which it would be dangerous to 19 , but it is this freedom from man-made rules 20 makes mountaineering interesting to many people. those who climb mountains are free to use their own methods.
if we compare mountaineering with other more 21 sports, we might think that one big difference is that mountaineering is not a “team game”. we should not be 22 in this. there are, 23 , no “matches” between “teams” of climbers, but when climbers are on a 24 linked by a rope on which their lives may 25 , there is obviously teamwork.
the mountain climber knows that he may have to fight forces that are stronger and more powerful than man. he has to fight the forces of 26 . this sport requires high physical and mental 27 .
a mountain climber continues to improve in skill year after year. a skier is probably 28 his best by the age of thirty, and most international tennis champions are in their early twenties. but it is not 29 for men of fifty or sixty to climb the highest mountains. they may take more time than younger men but they probably climb with more skill and less 30 of effort. they certainly experience equal enjoyment.
16. a. forbidden b. willing c. reluctant d. forced
17. a. take risks b. take shelter c. make fortunes d. make peace
18. a. in that b. so that c. for which d. to which
19. a. break b. follow c. deal with d. set up
20. a. what b. it c. that d. which
21. a. ignored b. examined c. practiced d. discussed
22. a. misunderstood b. mistaken c. disappointed d. disturbed
23. a. in short b. up to now c. of course d. on one hand
24. a. trip b. cliff c. stage d. step
25. a. depend b. decide c. build d. base
26. a. nature b. universe c. world d. environment
27. a. certainty b. safety c. quantities d. qualities
28. a. off b. after c. behind d. past
29. a. unclear b. unusual c. unlike d. unfair
30. a. storage b. concern c. waste d. usage
31. and you would not be alone, because pollsters have found that people today do not choose political leaders who shape history for their “most admired” list, but rather movie and television celebrities, fashion models, professional athletes, and even comic book and cartoon characters.
a. people today do not respect political figures most...
b. people today do not believe history is influenced by politics...
c. people today look up to historic figures rather than political ones...
d. people today do not depend on political leaders to make up their minds...
32. we are slaves to nothing but the clock.
a. we try to keep the clock correct.
b. we follow our time schedule closely.
c. we never have enough time to work.
d. we work for everything except the clock.
33. i should never have selected a business career if i had been permitted to choose.
a. to be a businessman was not what i really wanted for my career.
b. to choose a career other than business was not so promising for me.
c. i could have made a better choice in career if i had been more flexible.
d. i could have been more successful in business if i had had a better chance.
34. “we’ve got to believe it. we can’t afford not to.”
a. we would believe it if we could.
b. we should believe it at any price.
c. we won’t take the risk of not believing it.
d. we won’t allow any hesitation in believing it.
35. there is abundant luxury in the room but a minimum of taste.
a. things in the room look expensive, but show poor taste.
b. although it is neat and clean, the room doesn’t seem comfortable.
c. despite its attractive surroundings, the room lacks relaxing atmosphere.
d. the room offers a quite impersonal feeling even though it is very spacious.
36. she had wakened with a slight fever, just bothersome enough to keep her home from her job in a war plant.
a. her fever was so troublesome that she lost her job.
b. she had to quit her job and stayed home because of her fever.
c. she had a slight fever, which made her work at home difficult.
d. her fever was not serious but it gave her an excuse not to go to work.
37. remembering other and larger countries, we see at once that one of its charms is that it is immensely varied within a small range.
a. though it is charming, it is too small.
b. both its size and its scenery vary a lot.
c. it is more beautiful than larger countries.
d. it is not large but offers a variety of scenery.
38. you are a stimulant for me to become more fully what i might become, and my loving enhances your being as well.
a. your nature makes me love you more.
b. my love for you can cure your disease.
c. i have to love you more so that you can grow fully.
d. you will also become a better person because i love you.
39. if you think i’m going to raise a good-for-nothing, you’ve got another think coming.
a. how could you consider the suggestion i put forward as useless?
b. you’d better think carefully before you make comments on my idea.
c. you’d better stop expecting me to bring up a lazy and irresponsible child.
d. how could you doubt my ability to provide a proper education to my child?
40. in strict truth an invention is almost never the sole product of any one mind.
a. it is clear that too many people are involved in an invention.
b. strictly speaking, an invention never comes from a single person.
c. the truth is that an invention needs almost everyone’s participation.
d. it is true that no man’s achievement can be regarded as an invention..
astronaut selection is critically important to make a mission successful. it requires individuals who are capable of dealing with isolation from family and friends, crowded living conditions, great pressure to succeed and extreme danger.
what are the criteria for an ideal astronaut? generally, a person must be athletic and must possess both technical and interpersonal skills. technical skills are particularly important. astronauts need to be able to competently carry out scientific and technical tasks during the mission. they must be capable of taking accurate measurements and making observations while living in a weightless environment.
interpersonal skills are also critically important. studies have shown that ideal astronauts are people who can be either introverts (内向的人) or extroverts. introverts tend to be withdrawn, which helps them put up with isolation from family and respect the privacy of others. on the other hand, extroverts are outgoing and provide social stimulation for a crew. both character types are necessary for different reasons. there are many seemingly contradictory traits that astronauts should possess: introverted yet at times extroverted, leaders yet capable of being led, and so on. an astronaut’s ability to adapt to different situations is most important.
as the duration of space missions increases, human factors become even more important. a manned mission to mars would require a compatible crew that would ensure mission success, and of course, mission safety. behavioral studies have been conducted in space analogs, which are environments similar to the confinement and isolation of space. these studies have shown that long periods of isolation can lead to sleep disturbances, emotional instability and depression - all
things that would disrupt the work performance of a crew of astronauts. in order to minimize the chances of such conditions developing, the selected crew must get along extremely well. easier said than done.
scientists at nasa used the analogy (类比) of a jigsaw puzzle to describe the relationship of a crew of astronauts. the members of space crews bear a certain resemblance to the pieces in jigsaw puzzles: what is important is not so much the shape and color of each individual piece, but the way the different pieces fit together. there has been much debate over how a space crew for a potential mission to mars should be selected, but currently a three-phase system is favored. in this selection process, the first phase is selecting a large group of people who satisfy the needed technical skills. the second phase is to pick out the individuals with the best interpersonal skills. the third phase is to group the individuals into mini-crews and then monitor those crews for compatibility as they undergo training for a mission. finally, the most well-formed, smoothly-functioning crew of astronauts is selected as the best crew for the mission.
astronaut selection is a difficult process. many potential candidates nearly perfect for the job are rejected because of minor details. however, if you dream of becoming an astronaut, don’t be discouraged by the odds. if the job description of an astronaut appeals to you, and you feel you have the “right stuff” for the job, then reach for the stars. in this case, the sky is not the limit.
41. an ideal astronaut is a person who ________.
a. respects others’ privacy
b. is sociable and outgoing
c. adapts easily to different situations
d. is withdrawn from family and friends
42. which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “compatible” in the fourth paragraph?
a. gentle b. stable
c. competitive d. cooperative
43. which of the following statements is true?
a. astronauts like to play jigsaw puzzles in their spare time.
b. jigsaw puzzles are commonly used for astronaut training.
c. the shape and color of jigsaw pieces are attractive to astronauts.
d. the relationship of an astronaut crew is similar to that of jigsaw pieces.
44. the first phase of selecting the best crew for a mission to mars is picking out those ______.
a. with good interpersonal skills
b. with excellent physical qualities
c. who function well together as a group
d. who can perform many scientific tasks
45. what might be a proper title for the passage?
a. the ideal astronaut
b. a manned mission to mars
c. astronauts and jigsaw puzzles
d. interpersonal skills of astronauts
in the states, each fall a new crop of first-year college students, wavering between high hopes for the future and intense anxiety about their new status, scan college maps searching for their classroom. they have been told repeatedly that college is the key to a well-paying job, and they certainly don’t want to support themselves by flipping hamburgers or working at some other dead-end job. so, notebooks at the ready, they await what college has in store. unfortunately many of them will not return after the first year. why do so many students leave? there are several reasons. some find the academic program too hard, others lack the proper study habits or motivation, and a large group leave for personal reasons.
not surprisingly, the academic shortcomings of college students have strong links to high school. in the past, a high-school student who lacked the ability or desire to take a college-preparatory course could settle for a diploma in general studies and afterward find a job with decent pay. now that possibility scarcely exists, so many poorly prepared students feel compelled to try college. getting accepted by some schools isn’t difficult. once in, though, the student who has taken nothing beyond general mathematics, english, and science faces serious trouble when confronted with freshman composition, and biological or physical science. most colleges do offer courses and other assistance that may help some weaker students to survive. in spite of everything, however, many others find themselves facing ever-worsening grade-point averages and either fail or just give up.
like academic shortcomings, poor study habits have their roots in high school, where even average students can often breeze through with a minimum of effort. in many schools, outside assignments are rare and so easy that they require little time or thought to complete. to accommodate slower students, teachers frequently repeat material so many times that slightly better students can grasp it without opening their books. and when papers are late, teachers often don’t mark them down. this “kindness” produces students who can’t or don’t want to study, students totally unprepared for the rigorous demands of college. there, courses may require several hours of study each week in order to be passed with even a “c.” in many programs, outside assignments are commonplace and demanding. instructors expect students to grasp material after one explanation, and many won’t accept late papers at all. students who don’t quickly develop disciplined study habits face a flood of low grades and failure.
poor student motivation worsens faulty study habits. students who thought high school was boring find even less attraction in the more challenging college offerings. lacking any commitment to do well, they shrug off assigned papers, skip classes, and avoid doing required reading. over time, classes gradually shrink as more and more students stay away. with final exams upon them, some return in a last-ditch effort to save a passing grade, but by then it is too late. eventually, repetition of this situation forces the students out.
46. which of the following is true of first-year college students?
a. they have been forced to go to college.
b. they have mixed feelings about their college life.
c. few of them are confident about their past achievements.
d. they believe college can guarantee them well-paying jobs.
47. students’ performance in college ________.
a. decides their work habits in the future
b. indicates their academic score in the past
c. shows their expectations for future career
d. reflects what they have experienced in high school
48. many college students drop out in their first year because ________.
a. they can’t get enough help in college
b. their efforts bring them embarrassment
c. their study in college is getting no better
d. they prefer other ways to acquire knowledge
49. in order to prepare their students for college, high school teachers ________.
a. should not mark their late papers
b. should force them to study long hours
c. should help them develop good study habits
d. should not explain the course materials in detail
50. which of the following can best explain the words “shrug off” in the last paragraph?
a. forget b. ignore
c. delay d. hate
51. the first element of success is the ________ to succeed. (determine)
52. anger is a momentary ________, so control your passion or it will control you. (mad)
53. to be a(n) ________, one needs profound knowledge as well as a very vivid imagination. (invent)
54. one ________ of a carpenter is to have good tools, which add to his skill, confidence, and pleasure in owning them. (require)
55. people who leave home in the morning slamming doors behind them are likely to be less ________ than those who leave home with a smile. (product)
56. children may go on the trip only with the permission of their parents or ________. (guard)
57. the rescuers succeeded in bringing out all victims ________ in the coalmine accident. (live)
58. universities offer fellowship to ________ research in basic theoretical studies. (courage)
59. your vacation on this beautiful island will be ________ without a meal of delicious seafood. (complete)
60. mobile homes can be moved from place to place, but they are now usually designed for ________ living at one location. (round, year).
topic: what do you think of the wade family’s principles in the text “first principles”? use the following questions as an outline:
1) what are the family’s first principles?
2) how did the family overcome their difficulties, using their principles?
3) how would you comment on the family and their principles?