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大学英语专业八级人文指导:英国的形成 第三节 英国的形成

  35. William replaced the witan , the council of the Anglo-Saxon kings, with the Grand Council of his new tenants-in-chief.


  36. The Doomsday Book, completed in 1086, was the result of general survey of England made in 1085, and stated the extent , value, the population, state of cultivation and ownership.


  37. William’s policy towards the church was to keep it completely under his control, but at the same time to uphold its power.


  38. Henry Π was the first king of the House of Plantagenet. He took measures to bring the disorders of king Stephen reign to an end.


  39. Henry Π greatly strengthened the King’s Court and extended with its judicial work. He insisted that all clerks charged with criminal offences should be tried in the King’s Courts instead of in the Bishop’s Court.


  40. It was these exceptional privileges enjoyed by the clergy that brought King Henry into collision with Tomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury.


  41. Geoffrey Chaucer’s best known work is the Canterbury Tales which describes a group of pilgrims traveling to Canterbury to visitTomas Becket’s tomb.


  42. The baron’s charter, or Magna Carta, as it came to be known was presented by a delegation of their class to the king and his advisers in the summer of 1215.


  43. A committee of 24 barons plus the Mayor of London was chosen to help the king carry out the Charter, with the right of declaring war on him should he break its provisions.


  44. Magna Carta was a statement of feudal and legal relationship between the crown and the barons, a guarantee of the freedom of the church and a limitation of the power of the king.


  45. While the king Henry Ⅲ and Prince Edward were keep in prison, Simon de Montfort summoned in 1265 the great council to meet at Westminster which developed later into the Lords and the Commons known as a parliament.


  46. The statute of Wales in 1284 placed the country under English law and Edward Ⅰpresented his new-born-son to the Welsh people as the Prince of Wales, a title held by the heir to the throne ever since.


  47. When Edward Ⅲ claimed the French Crown by the right of his mother Isabella, the French refused to recognize the claim because the Salic Law debarred females from the succession. In 1337 Edward declared a war that was to last a hundred years.


  48. Black Death swept through England in the summer of 1348 without warning. It killed between one half and one third of the population of England.


  49. In 1351 the government issued a statute of Laborers which made it a crime for peasant to ask for more wage or for their employers to pay more than the rates laid down by the Justice of the Peace.


  50. Although the Peasant Uprising of 1381, was brutally suppressed, it had far-reaching significance in English history. It dealt a telling blow to villeinage and a new class of yeomen farmers emerged, paving the way for the development of capitalism.

  尽管1381年的农民起义被血腥镇压了,但在英国历史上留下了深远的影响。它沉重打击了封建农奴制度,产生了全新的自耕农阶级,为资本主义发展铺设了道路 。


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