1. Our income has got smaller, so we must be realistic and give up our car.
2.The special TV report disrupted regular programming.
3.A feeling of good fellowship prevailed at the social gathering.
4.The splendid dress enhanced her beauty.
5.This proved an important contribution toward the public health.
6.The notion that the earth is round has been widely accepted since Magellan accomplished the first voyage around the world.
7.He found that he had several options.
8.He stretched the rubber band till it snapped.
9.In a 1983 newspaper poll, Ann Landers, an advice columnist, was listed among the twenty-five most influential women in the United States.
10.My uncle was an electrician.
A.person who is elected
B.person who fixes bicycles
C.person who fits pipes
D.person who repairs lights
11.A careless person is apt to make mistakes
12.He dreamed of being a newspaperman, perhaps a foreign correspondent.
13.The truck gained momentum as it rolled down the steep road.
14.Man is fated to suffer many disappointments in his quest for truth.
15.The council are going to merge our school in the big new county school.
A new era is upon us
A new era is upon us. Call it what you will: the service economy, the information age, the knowledge society. It all translates to a fundamental change in the way we work. Already we’re partly there. The percentage of people who earn their living by making things has fallen dramatically in the Western World. Today the majority of jobs in America, Europe and Japan ( two thirds or more in many of these countries) are in the service industry, and the number is on the rise. More part-time jobs, more people are self-employed. But the breadth of the economic transformation can’t be measured by numbers alone, because it also is giving rise to a radical new way of thinking about the nature of work itself. Long-held notions about jobs and careers, the skills needed to succeed, even the relation between individuals and employers---all these are being challenged.
We have only to look behind us to get some sense of what may lie ahead. No one looking ahead 20 years possibly could have foreseen the ways in which a single invention, the chip (集成块), would transform our world to its applications in personal computers, digital communications and factory robots. Tomorrow’s achievements in biotechnology, artificial intelligence or even some still unimagined technology could produce a similar wave of dramatic changes. But one thing is certain: information and knowledge will become even more vital, and the people who possess it, whether they work in manufacturing or services, will have the advantage and produce the wealth. Computer knowledge will become as basic requirement as the ability to read and write. The ability to solve problems by applying information instead of performing routine tasks will be valued above all else, if you cast your mind ahead 10 years, information services will be predominant. It will be the way you do your job.
16.The service industry is relying more and more on female work force.
17.Most of the job opportunities can now be found in the service industry.
18.People’s traditional concepts about work no longer hold true.
19.People have to change their jobs from time to time.
20.By referring to computers and other inventions, the author means to say that future achievements in technology will bring about inconceivable dramatic changes.
21.The future will probably belong to those who possess and know how to make use of information.
22.The passage is mainly about features and implications of the new era.
1 The atmosphere is a mixture of several gases. There are about ten chemical elements which remain permanently in gaseous form in the atmosphere under all natural conditions. Of these permanent gases, oxygen makes up about 21 percent and nitrogen about 78 percent. Several other gases, such as argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, neon, krypton and xenon, comprise the remaining one percent of the volume of the dry air. The amount of water vapor and its variations in amount and distribution is of extraordinary importance in weather changes. Atmospheric gases hold in suspension great quantities of dust, pollen, smoke and other impurities which are always present in considerable, but variable amounts.
2 The atmosphere has no definite upper limits but gradually thins until it becomes imperceptible. Until recently it was assumed that the air above the first few miles gradually grew thinner and colder at a constant rate. It was also assumed that upper air had little influence on weather changes. Recently studies of the upper atmosphere, currently being conducted by earth satellites and missile probing, have shown these assumptions to be incorrect. The atmosphere has three well-defined strata.
3 The layer of the air next to the earth, which extends upward for about ten miles, is known as the troposphere. On the whole, it makes up about 75 percent of all the weight of the atmosphere, because most of the solar radiation is absorbed by the earth’s surface which warms the air immediately surrounding it. A steady decrease of temperature with the increasing elevation is a mot striking characteristic. The upper layers are colder because of their greater distance from the earth’s surface and rapid radiation of heat into space. The temperatures within the troposphere decrease about 3.5 degrees per 1000 feet increase in altitude. Within the troposphere, winds and air currents distribute heat and moisture. Strong winds, called jet streams are located at the upper levels of the troposphere. These jet streams are both complex and widespread in occurrence. They normally show a wave shaped pattern and move from west to east at velocities of 150 mph, but velocities as 400 mph have been noted. The influences of changing locations and strengths of jet streams upon weather conditions and patterns are no doubt considerable. Current intensive research may eventually reveal their true significance.
4 Above the troposphere to a height of about 50 miles is a zone called the stratosphere. The stratosphere is separated from the troposphere by a zone of uniform temperatures called the tropopause. Within the lower portions of the stratosphere is a layer of ozone gases which filter out most of the ultraviolet rays from the sun. The ozone layer varies with air pressure. If this zone were not there, the full blast of the sun’s ultraviolet light would burn our skins, blind our eyes and eventually result in our destruction. Within the stratosphere, the temperature and atmospheric composition are relatively uniform.
5 The layer upward of about 50 miles is the most fascinating but the least known of the three strata. It is called the ionosphere because it consists of electrically charges particles called ions, thrown from the sun. The northern lights ( aurora borealis ) originate within this highly charged portion of the atmosphere. Its effect upon weather conditions, if any, is as yet unknown.
23.Paragraph 1 _____.
24.Paragraph 2 _____.
25.Paragraph 3. _____.
26.Paragraph 4. ______.
A.The Definition and The Description of The Ions
B.The Definition And The Description of The Stratosphere
C.The Sun’s Rays
D.Recent Studies of The Upper Atmosphere Versus Past Studies
E.The Definition And The Description of The Troposphere
F.The Composition of The Atmosphere
27.At the top of Jungfrau, which towers 12,000 feet above the town of Interlaken in Switzerland, the temperature is usually _______.
28.Life as we know exists on the earth because the atmosphere _________.
29.The atmosphere consists of _________.
30.The troposphere is the warmest part of the atmosphere because it _______.
A.contains a layer of ozone gases.
B.about 42 degrees colder than on the ground.
C.21% oxygen by weight.
D.less than 1% of xenon by volume
E.about 75 degrees colder than in Interlaken
F.is warmed by the earth’s heat.
Geologists have been studying volcanoes for a long time. Though they have learned a great deal, they still have not discovered the cause of volcanic action. They know that the inside of the earth is very hot, but they are not sure exactly what causes the great heat. Some geologists have thought that the heat is caused by the great pressure of the earth’s outer layers. Or the heat may be left from the time when the earth was formed. During the last sixty years scientists have learned about radium, uranium, thorium and other radioactive elements. These give out heat all the time as they change into other elements. Many scientists now believe that much of the heat inside the earth is produced by radioactive elements.
Whatever the cause of the heat may be, we do know that the earth gets hotter the farther down we dig, in deep mines and oil wells the temperature rises about 10F for each 50 feet. At this rate the temperature 40 miles below the earth’s surface would be over 40000F. this is much hotter than necessary to melt rock. However, the pressure of the rock above keeps most materials from melting at their usual melting points. Geologists believe that the rock deep in the earth may be plastic, or puttylike, in other words, the rock yields slowly to pressure but is not liquid. But if some change in the earth’s crust releases the pressure, the rock melts. Then the hot, liquid rock can move up toward the surface.
When the melted rock works its way close to earth’s crust, a volcano may be formed. The melted rock often contains steam and other gases under great pressure. If the rock above gives way, the pressure is released. Then the sudden expansion of the gases causes explosions. These blow the melted rock into pieces of different sizes and shoot them high in the air. Here they cool and harden into volcanic ash and cinders. Some of the material falls around the hole made in the earth’s surface. The melted rock may keep on rising and pour out as lava. In this way, volcanic ash, cinders and lava build up the cone-shaped mountains that we call volcanoes.
31.The subject of this passage is the _______.
A.formation of volcanoes
B.results of volcanic action
C.work of geologists
D.interior of the earth
32.The cause fro the heat in the interior of the earth is _______.
B.the great pressure of the earth
D.the heart remaining from the formation of the earth
33.From the information given in the passage, most minerals would melt fastest _______.
A.at 40000F, at sea level
B.at 40000F, 5000 feet below sea level
C.at the exact center of earth at 40000F
D.at 40000F, 5000 feet above the sea level
34.Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage?
A.Geologists know that volcano action is caused by radioactive elements.
B.Geologists know that there is higher temperature within the earth.
C.The real causes of the heat inside the earth have not been found.
D.Scientists have made various guesses about the causes of heat inside the earth.
35.The best title for the passage is _______.
A.The Heat Inside the Earth
D.The Melted Rock
Cell Phones Increase Traffic, Pedestrian Fatalities
Cell phones are a danger on the road in more ways than one. Two new studies show that talking on the phone while traveling, whether you're driving or on foot, is increasing both pedestrian deaths and those of drivers and passengers, and recommend crackdowns on cell1 use by both pedestrians and drivers.
The new studies, lead-authored by Rutgers University, Newark, Economics Professor Peter D. Loeb2, relate the impact of cell phones on accident fatalities to the number of cell phones in use, showing that the current increase in deaths resulting from cell phone use follows a period when cell phones actually helped to reduce pedestrian and traffic fatalities. However, this reduction in fatalities disappeared once the numbers of phones in use reached a "critical mass" 3 of 100 million, the study found.
These studies looked at cell phone use and motor vehicle accidents from 1975 through 2002, and factored in4 a number of variables, including vehicle speed, alcohol consumption, seat belt use, and miles driven. The studies found the cell phone-fatality correlation to be true even when including factors such as speed, alcohol consumption, and seat belt use.
Loeb and his co-author determined that, at the current time, cell phone use has a "significant adverse effect on pedestrian safety" and that “cell phones and their usage above a critical thresholds adds to motor vehicle fatalities." In the late 1980s and part of the 1990s, before the numbers of phones exploded, cell phone use actually had a "life-saving effect" in pedestrian and traffic accidents, Loeb notes. "Cell-phone users' were able to quickly call for medical assistance when involved in an accident. This quick medical response actually reduced the number of traffic deaths for a time," Loeb hypothesizes.
However, this was not the case when cells were first used in the mid-1980s, when they caused a "life-taking effect" among pedestrians, drivers and passengers in vehicles. In those early days, when there were fewer than a million phones, fatalities increased, says Loeb, because drivers and pedestrians probably were still adjusting to the novelty of using them, and there weren't enough cell phones in use to make a difference in summoning help following an accident, he explains.
The "life-saving effect" occurred as the volume of phones grew into the early 1990s, and increasing numbers of cells were used to call 911 following accidents, leading to a drop in fatalities, explains Loeb. But this life-saving effect was canceled out6 once the numbers of phones reached a "critical mass" of about 100 million and the "life-taking effect" - increased accidents and fatalities outweighed the benefits of quick access to 911 services, according to Loeb.
Loeb and his co-authors used econometric models to analyze data from a number of government and private studies. He and his co-authors recommend that governments consider more aggressive policies to reduce cell phone use by both drivers and pedestrians, to reduce the number of fatalities.
36.The two new studies, lead-authored by Professor Peter D. Loeb
A.show that talking on the phone while driving or walking in the street increases deaths of drivers and pedestrians.
B.show that talking on the phone while driving increases pedestrian deaths.
C.recommend that strict measures be taken to restrain cell phone use.
D.both A and C.
37.According to the second paragraph, when did cell phones actually help to reduce pedestrian and traffic fatalities?
A.Right after cell phones were invented.
B.Before the number of cell phone users reached a critical mass
C.When cell phone users totaled to a certain number.
D.When the number of cell phones decreased to a certain number.
38.What is said about cell phone use in the mid-1980s in paragraph 5?
A.It had a life-taking effect because there weren't enough cell phones in use then.
B.The increased use of cell phones then caused a "life-taking effect."
C.Traffic fatalities increased then because the number of cell phones in use decreased.
D.Traffic fatalities decreased then because the number of cell phones in use increased.
39.What is said about cell phone use in paragraph 4?
A.The number of cell phones in use exploded in the late 1980s and part of the 1990s.
B.The number of traffic deaths was reduced in the late 1980s and part of the 1990s due to cell phone use.
C.Cell phone users are likely to be involved in traffic accidents.
D.The use of cell phones has a life-saving effect for pedestrians and drivers.
40.Which of the following statements DOES NOT answer the question "What caused the "life-saving effect" to occur in the early 1990s?"
A.There were more cell phone users during that period.
B.The number of cell phone users reached about 100 million.
C.More cell phones were used to call 911 when accidents occurred.
D.Cell phones enabled people to have quick access to 911 services.
An important new industry, oil refining, grew after the civil war. Crude oil, or petroleum --- a dark, thick ooze from the earth --- had been known for hundreds of years. But little use had ever been made of it. In the 1850’s Samuel M. Kier a manufacturer in western Pennsylvania, began collecting the oil from local seepages (油苗) and refining it into kerosene. Refining, like smelting is a process of removing impurities from a raw material.
Kerosene was used to light lamps. It was a cheap substitute for whale oil, which was becoming harder to get. Soon there was a large demand for kerosene. People began to search for new supplies of petroleum.
The first oil well was drilled by E.L.Drake, a retaired railroad conductor. In 1859 he began drilling in Titusvill, Pennsylvania. The whole venture seemed so impractical and foolish that onlookers called it “ Drake’s Folly”. But when he had drilled down about 70 feet (21 meters ), Drake struck oil and his well began to yield 20 barrels of crude oil a day.
News of Drake’s success brought oil prospectors to the scene. By the early 1860’s these wildcatters were drilling for “black gold “ all over western Pennsylvania. The boom rivaled the California gold rush of 1848 in its excitement and Wild West atmosphere. And it brought far more wealth to the prospectors than any gold rush.
Crude oil could be refined into many products. For some years kerosene continued to be the principal one. It was sold in grocery stores and door-to-door. In the 1880’s and 1890’s refiners learned how to make other petroleum products such as waxes and lubricating oils. Petroleum was not then used to make gasoline or heating oil.
41.What is the best title for the passage?
A.Oil Refining : a historical perspective
B.The California Gold Rush: Get Rich Quickly
C.Private Property: Trespassers Will Be Prosecuted
D.Kerosene Lamps: A Light In the Tunnel
42.It can be inferred from the passage that kerosene was preferable to whale oil because whale oil was too_______.
43.According to the passage, many people initially thought that E. L. Drake had made a mistake by ________.
A.going on a whaling expedition
B.moving to Pennsylvania
C.retiring from his oil
D.retiring from his job
44.The author mentions all of the followings as possible products of crude oil EXCEPT _____.
45.Why does the author mention the California gold rush?
A.To explain the need for an increased supply of gold
B.To indicate the extent of United States mineral wealth
C.To describe the mood when oil was first discovered
D.To argue that gold was more valuable than oil
Looking into the Future
Bertrand Russell, a famous philosopher, said in 1944, “The one thing the study of the past teaches us is that the future is never how people imagine it will be.”
In 1946, physicists predicted that within twenty years, most of the world’s energy would be supplied by nuclear power. __________ (46) In 1951, a famous surgeon said that he and his colleagues were confident that “by the end of the 1950s, a cure for most if not all cancers will have been found.” In 1954, an American economist predicted Americans would go on getting richer and richer. ___________ (47).
In the year 1969, an automation engineer working for Max Factor Cosmetics in Britain said that “within twenty or twenty-five years factories that today employ hundreds of workers will need only five or ten computer technicians to run them.” _____________ (48).
In the early 1970s, there were many predictions that before the end of the century most homes in the United States, Europe and Japan would have computers in them. ___________ (49)
Long before 1980, it was predicted that instead of letting nature and luck choose their children’s characteristics, people would have to decide which characteristics they wanted their children to inherit from them and previous generations in their families. ____________ (50)We may be able to have “undesirable” characteristics changed or destroyed through genetic therapy. Perhaps we may even begin to wish that Bertrand Russell was right when he said that history teaches us that the future is never like that future we imagine.
A. “By the end of the century,” he said, “there will be no poverty anywhere in the country.”
B. If this prediction comes true, we will be faced with a much greater responsibility than ever before.
C. According to the same predictions, this would result in “an information explosion” as well as “radical and revolutionary changes in the way we work, learn, and do business.”
D. When this prediction came true, more people would be killed than ever before.
E. They were certain that this would not only be “far cleaner than coal and other fossil fuels but far safer and much cheaper.”
F. He added that this “will lead to enormous social problems for unskilled manual workers in particular, who will be unable to find work.”
Obtaining Drinking Water from Air Humidity
Not a plant to be seen, the desert ground is too 51 . But the air contains water, and research scientists have found a 52 of obtaining drinking water from air humidity. The system is based completely on renewable energy and is therefore autonomous.
Cracks permeate the dried-out desert ground and the landscape bears testimony to the lack' of water. But even here, where there are no lakes, rivers or groundwater, considerable quantities of water are stored in the air. In the Negev desert1 in Israel2, for example, annual average relative air humidity is 64 percent -- in every cubic meter of air there are 11,5 milliliters of water.
German research scientists have found a way of converting this air humidity autonomously into drinkable water. "The process we have developed is based exclusively on renewable energy sources such as thermal 53 collectors and photovoltaic cells, which makes this method completely
energy-autonomous. It will therefore function in regions 54 there is no electrical infrastructure," says Siegfried Egner, head of the research team. The principle of the 55 is as follows3: hygroscopic brine ~ saline solution which absorbs moisture -- runs down a tower-shaped unit and absorbs water from the air. It is then sucked into a tank a few meters 56 the ground in which a vacuum prevails4. Energy from solar collectors heats up the brine, which is diluted by the water it has 57 .
Because of the vacuum, the boiling point of the liquid is 58 than it would be under normal atmospheric pressure. This effect is known from the mountains: as the atmospheric pressure 59 is lower than in the valley, water boils at temperatures 60 below 100oC. The evaporated, non-saline water is condensed and runs down through a completely filled tube in a controlled manner. The gravity of this water column continuously produces the vacuum and so a vacuum pump is not needed. The reconcentrated5 brine runs down the tower surface 61 to absorb moisture from the air.
"The concept is suitable for various water 62 . Single-person units and plants 63 water to entire hotels are conceivable," says Egner. Prototypes have been built for both system components— air moisture absorption and vacuum evaporation —and the research scientists have already 64 their interplay on a laboratory scale. In a further step the researchers intend to develop a demonstration 65 .
51. A.dry B.dirty C.sandy D.clean
52. A.path B.way C.channel D.road
53. A.oil B.wood C.coal D.solar
54. A.when B.what C.where D.who
55. A.promise B.progress C.prospect D.process
56. A.of B.with C.off D.below
57. A.absorbed B.attracted C.allowed D.affected
58. A.wetter B.hotter C.fighter D.lower
59. A.close B.there C.beyond D.nearby
60. A.gradually B.distinctly C.necessarily D.possibly
61. A.again B.too C.either D.more
62. A.users B.owners C.providers D.producers
63. A.using B.obtaining C.supplying D.cleaning
64. A.repaired B.sold C.copied D.tested
65. A.tank B.method C.facility D.tool.