Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C, and D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
A study of art history might be a good way to learn more about a culture than that is possible to learn in general history classes. Most (1) ____ history courses concentrate on politics, economics, and war. (2) ____, art history (3) ____ on much more than this because art reflects not only the political values of a people, but also religious belief, (4) ____, and psychology. (5) ____, information about the daily activities of our own can be provided by art. In short, art expresses the essential qualities of a time and a place, and a study of it clearly offers us a (6) ____ understanding than (7) ____ can be found in most history books.
In history books, objective information about the political life of a country is (8) ____; that is, facts about political are given, but (9) ____ are not expressed. Art, on the other hand, is (10) ____: it reflects emotions and impressions. The great Spanish painter Francisco Goya severely criticized the Spanish government for its (11) ____ of power over people. Over a hundred years later, symbolic (12) ____ were used in Pablo Picasso’s Guemica to express the (13) ____ of war. (14) ____, on another continent, the powerful paintings of Diego Rivera depicted the Mexican artists’ concealed (15) ____ and sadness about social problems.
In the same way, art can (16) ____ a culture’s religious beliefs. For hundreds of years in Europe, religious art was almost the only type of art that existed. Churches and other religious buildings were filled with paintings that depicted people and stories from the Bible. (17) ____ most people couldn’t read, they could still understand biblical stories in the pictures on church walls. (18) ____ contrast, one of the main characteristics of art in the Middle East was (and still is) its (19) ____ of human and animal images. This reflects the Islamic belief that statues are (20) ____.
01. [A] prevalent
02. [A] Indeed
03. [A] comments
04. [A] emotions
05. [A] In addition
[B] In summary
[C] In any case
[D] In effect
06. [A] stronger
07. [A] it
08. [A] supplied
09. [A] counsels
10. [A] biased
11. [A] misuse
12. [A] signs
13. [A] defense
14. [A] Nevertheless
15. [A] grievance
16. [A] contain
17. [A] Although
18. [A] With
19. [A] relevance
20. [A] ineligible
Section II Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C, or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)
As the post-Enron wave of corporate scandals washed over America last year, a common response in Europe was: it couldn’t happen here. Far from having the world’s best-policed markets, the United States, many European politicians claimed, suffered uniquely from a lethal combination of greedy and overpaid bosses, conflicted auditors and investment bankers, reliance on accounting rules not principles, and an obsession with quarterly profit numbers. In America, as many as 1,200 companies have been forced to restate their accounts in the past five years, in Europe the number is barely in double digits. So it is outrageous, many Europeans now argue, that America is seeking to impose the unwieldy Sarbanes-Oxley act, passed in the wake of Enron, on European companies listed in New York.
As more sensible European regulators recognize, this smugness was never justified; it is only necessary to recall scandals such as Vivendi and Elan. But Europe’s claim of immunity from corporate slackness has now been blown out of the water by this week’s revelations that Royal Ahold of the Netherlands overstated its profits for 200-02 by as much as $500m. The company’s Amsterdam-based auditors, Deloitte & Touche, failed to pick the problems up in 2001, even though worries about Ahold’s accounts were widely expressed in the markets for most of last year. The Dutch market regulator admitted this week that it had no powers of discipline over faulty auditing.
What about the relative numbers of restatements? Because America’s GAAP accounting system relies on thousands of pages of rules, it is more vulnerable to manipulation than Europe’s more principles-based approach. But given the largely non-existent regulation of auditors and the poor corporate governance prevalent in much of Europe, a more plausible conclusion is that Europe has had fewer accounting scandals than America mainly because nobody has seriously looked for them, not because they are not there.
This is not to say that Europe should adopt Sarbanes-Oxley in toto. That hastily drafted law was designed for America’s very different system. Many of the law’s rules on managers and boards seem unduly intrusive even for America. But statutory, independent regulation of auditors, as prescribed by Sarbanes-Oxley, makes sense everywhere. So do rules to stop accounting firms doing consulting work for audit clients; and it is also worth considering mandatory rotation of auditors.
The case for independent regulation is the stronger because European Union companies are due to adopt international accounting standards by 2005. It is little use taking this welcome step towards tougher standards, which the Europeans are urging on America in the interests of global harmonization, if there is nobody to oversee the rules. Yet the European Federation of Accountants admits that, in six EU countries, there is in effect no enforcement at all.
21. Which of following it true according to Paragraph 1?
[A] Many European politicians would boast of immunity from America’s corporate ills.
[B] Many companies suffered from their absolute reliance upon accounting rules.
[C] Many Europeans protested against America’s principles imposed upon European firms.
[D] Many European regulators responded sensibly to the wave of corporate scandals.
22. The phrase “in toto” (Line 1, Paragraph 4) most probably means
[A] based upon sensibility.
[B] following in a haste.
[C] given a difference system.
[D] acting in a similar fashion.
23. In contrast to American, Europe, in coping with faulty corporate auditing, would attach importance to
[A] rule enforcement.
[B] reliable principles.
[C] justified prescription.
[D] frequent restatements.
24. It seem that the ultimate solution to the problem of corporate scandals lies in
[A] the interests of global harmonization.
[B] the independent regulation of auditors.
[C] the adoption of tougher standards.
[D] the supervision of consulting work.
25. According to the author, the European corporate situation is
[A] fairly optimistic.
[B] quite promising.
[C] somewhat depressing.
[D] very astonishing.
When it became known some 30 years ago that authorities in the Soviet Union were forcing imprisoned dissidents to take powerful drugs under the guise of treating them for mental illness, Americans condemned such behaviors as barbarous. Next week, the Supreme Court will hear oral arguments in a case that centers on whether an insane defendant can be forcibly medicated to make him competent to stand trial. And making its way towards the court is another case with an even starker question: should an insane man be forcibly doped to make him sane enough to be executed?
The case that reaches the court next week concerns Charles Sell, who he lost control at one court hearing, insanely screaming racial abuse and spitting in the face of the judge. In a series of subsequent court hearings and appeals, judges agreed with the hospital’s medical staff that he must be forcibly given antipsychotic drugs for his own safety. Mr Sell appealed to the Supreme Court, claiming that forcing him to take the drugs would breach his rights under the amendments of the constitution.
Libertarian groups have taken up Mr Sell’s case as an example of outrageously aggressive government intervention. Mr Sell’s brief to the Supreme Court follows this line of argument, making broad claims that the government’s efforts to inject him with mind-altering drugs is such a breach of his rights to liberty, bodily integrity, freedom of thought, personal autonomy and privacy that it should not be allowed.
The federal government’s lawyers concede that in Mr Sell’s case prosecutors must prove three things: that forcibly medicating him will probably restore him to mental competence; that the side-effects will not be too onerous; and that there is no less-intrusive alternative. If these safeguards are observed, however, the government argues that the public interest in prosecuting serious felonies should outweigh Mr Sell’s right to refuse the medication.
It may seem difficult to believe, but the Supreme Court has never ruled explicitly on this issue. In a 1986 case it said that prisoners so insane that they could not understand the punishment they were about to suffer or why they were being punished could not be executed. And it has also ruled that prisoners can be forcibly medicated in their own interest. But these two rulings fit together awkwardly. Is it ever in the interest of a prisoner to be forced to take drugs that may, temporarily, make him sane enough to be executed?
The issue may be an ethical hot potato, but it is far from academic. Medication, both forced and voluntary, is widespread throughout America’s prison system. Many of those on death row suffer from serious mental illness, and some of these are on medication. The court’s critics claim that, in reality, it has often turned a blind eye to the execution of the insane simply by refusing to hear their appeals.
26. What is implied in the first sentence?
[A] The Supreme Court strongly opposes forced medication.
[B] Medication may be unduly imposed upon insane victims.
[C] Prisoners have no constitutional rights to file their appeals.
[D] American defendants enjoy a higher degree of civilization.
27. The author mentions the case of Mr. Sell to
[A] justify his desperation in the face of outrageous violation of his rights.
[B] criticize the Supreme Court’s hesitation to allow voluntary medication.
[C] expose the side-effects of less-intrusive powerful drugs administered.
[D] call attention to the overlooked rights of insane defendants.
28. The views of libertarian groups and the federal government on forcible medication are
29. Which of the following best defines the word “aggressive” (Line 3, Paragraph 4)
30. This text may most probably be extracted from an article entitled
[A] “Forcible Medication: A New Insanity Defence.”
[B] “A Conflict between Individual Rights and Collective Rights.”
[C] “Mr Sell, a Prisoner on Death Row: Mad but Alive.”
[D] “Insane Defendants who can forcibly be Convicted and Executed.”
Having failed to crush down digital piracy, can the record industry merge its way out of trouble? That question has been around since late last year when EMI, the world’s biggest independent record company, is said to have begun talks to revive two old merger ideas. In time, some expect the five big companies to become three.
Piracy remains the biggest headache. The record industry has squashed Napster in the courts, but other online music-swapping services have sprung up in its place. The industry is suing this and other file-sharing services, but new ones emerge as fast as old ones are shut down. Little wonder that sales of recorded music dropped in 2002 by an estimated 9%.
In this shrinking market, the savings that might be squeezed from a merger offer a lifeline. However, consolidation is but one of three strategies that the industry hopes will help it survive as it works out how to beat the pirates. A second is a renewed effort to rely less on instant stars and more on long-term talent. Overnight stars can fade as fast as they are born. Hear’Say, a British band assembled by a TV talent show two years ago and signed to Vivendi Universal’s Polydor, went straight to number one with its first album; now the band has split up.
A third idea is to transform narrowly defined record firms into broader music companies. Revenues from touring, concerts, and sponsorship added about 40% to global sales of recorded music in 2001, making the global music industry worth $47.6 billion, according to a recent report by Music Week. Some new sorts of music revenues are emerging: sales of snatches of songs to use as mobile-phone ring-tones raised $ 71m last year for artists, according to Informa Media, a research group — small, but 58% up on 2001.
For a true star, the extra pot is far bigger: record companies get only 15% of all revenues generated by such an artist, although they have made the star’s name and marketed his brand. The rest goes to the singer, agent, manager, producer and assorted other hangers-on.
Even if the industry buys itself time through consolidation and other strategies, its long-term health requires a solution to piracy. Investing in musicians is ultimately about building a back catalogue of hits that provide an ongoing source of revenues. But what is the point of a back catalogue if pirates are helping themselves to its tracks for nothing? If that is the outcome, the winners from today’s merger talks could simply be the sellers.
31. Digital piracy is something
[A] the record industry must fight against.
[B] getting more pervasive since last year.
[C] merger companies are responsible for.
[D] incurred in EMI’s merger strategies.
32. The statement “the extra pot” (Line 1, 5) implies that
[A] selling song snatches bring in big revenues.
[B] stars’ records are best-sellers in a shrinking markets.
[C] some stars might reap earnings extravagantly.
[D] many musicians are underpaid by their companies.
33. It can be inferred from the text that pirates
[A] threaten to do more harm than good.
[B] are insensitive to the emergence of stars.
[C] crush down the initiative of investors.
[D] are likely to pose a real challenge.
34. Which of the following is true according to the text?
[A] A combination of different strategies paves the way for further expansion.
[B] The record industry is desperately seeking a way out of its problems.
[C] The short-term consolidation proves to be best solution to digital piracy.
[D] There would be awkward negotiations between mergers and pirates.
35. From the text we can see that the writer seems
If you could sex cities, Florence would be male and Venice female. In 1833 Chateaubriand thought Venice was a female city situated at the water’s edge about to be extinguished with the day. But there is a less sentimental conception of Venice’s femininity: of a woman of easy virtue who clings on to many clients despite the ravages of time which are treated by means of shrewdly applied face lifts. There is enough lingering charm to toy with the memories of her admirers. But this Venice is dying.
All these images are to be found in Margaret Plant’s thoroughly and lovingly researched, thoughtful and hugely concise history of modern Venice. It is surprisingly revealing and ought to make lovers of an unchanged and unchanging Venice reconsider their enthusiasm and prejudices. Ms Plant begins by describing the plucky survival of Venice in the wake of its invasion by Napoleon’s army in 1797. Napoleon stole the four bronze horses from the basilica of San Marco, destroyed its boat-building capacity, and demolished a church in Piazza San Marco. But these were the last major upheavals in Venice. In the absence of political clout, Venice succumbed to the tourist trade — something it had always an instinctive feeling for.
Tourism became an insidious influence on the debate between the party that wanted Venice to be a creature of its past which concentrated on conservation and restoration, and those who preferred to improve the quality of life even if that meant changing the face of the place.
Ms Plant declares that the 1880s were the moment in the modern history of Venice because that decade confirmed it was to be a dead city. “It began quite precisely in 1887, when the city was fetishised and its face turned resolutely to the past. It became a virtual cliché to advocate that Venice had the world as its audience; its own citizens are confirmed as a lower order.”
The fascists tried to alter the policy, developing a port on the mainland in Marghera, but pollution from chemical plants attacked the stone fabric of the city. In 1996 a great flood deluged Venice, and when it was repaired it looked exactly as it had done. After decades of restoration it looks as well as it ever has. Its international audience luxuriates in Venice. But the numbers of tourists rise uncontrollably and the city is flooded with monotonous regularity.
Since Venice has always preferred romance to reality and retained a morbid fascination, Ms Plant’s conclusion is apt enough: “Meanwhile the seas are rising. In the city of apocalypse the four golden horses are at the ready, pawing at the porch of St Mark, waiting to haul the city out of the waters and into the sky.”
36. The sentence “Florence would be male and Venice female” (Line 1, Paragraph 1) means that
[A] Florence is less attractive to clients seeking romance.
[B] Florence is situated further away from water’s edge.
[C] Florence is more immune to man-made preservation.
[D] Florence is less thoughtful of its admirers’ expectations.
37. It is implied in the second paragraph that many lovers of Venice may
[A] fail to recognize the subtlety of its changes.
[B] hold prejudices against political conflicts.
[C] criticize the vicious behaviors of the fascists.
[D] retain a controlled and instinctive fascination.
38. The word “fetishised” (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means
39. According to the author, those who are concentrated on the restoration of Venice should accept the fact that
[A] their efforts are dubiously oriented.
[B] its images improve the quality of life.
[C] their advocates are less sentimental.
[D] the old city is inevitably dying.
40. The text is intended to express the idea that
[A] restoring old cities entails thoughtful and thorough planning.
[B] an old city is bound to be extinguished in foreseeable future.
[C] preserving an old city means interfering with it all the time.
[D] a let-alone policy would be best applicable to a fragile old city.
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
[A] The rise of English as the EU’s dominant working language was given a decisive push by the Union’s last expansion, in 1995, when Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the club. Officials from all three countries, especially the two Nordic ones, are much more likely to be fluent in English than French. The Union’s public voice is increasingly anglophone. For a brief period earlier this year the spokesmen for all three major institutions in Brussels — the commission, the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers — were British. Jonathan Faull, the commission’s chief spokesman, will be replaced this month by Reijo Kemppinen, a Finn. But for French-speakers the change is a double-edged sword. The good news for them is that this high-profile job will no longer be held by a Briton; the bad news is that Mr. Faull’s French is rather better than MR. Kemppinen’s.
[B] Some French officials argue that there are wider intellectual implications that threaten the whole European enterprise. In a speech at a conference in Brussels on the French language and EU enlargement, Pierre Defraigne, a senior official at the commission, argued that “it’s not so much a single language that I fear but the singled way of thinking that it brings with it.” When French was Europe’s dominant language in the 18th century, French ideas were the intellectual currency of Europe.
[C] In Brussels Mr. Dethomas was chief spokesman for Jacques Delors, the powerful and charismatic French head of the European Commission who stepped down in 1995. Until that year the sole working language in the commission’s press room was French, but it was already clear which way the wind was blowing. “Quite often”, say Mr. Dethomas, “I would give the official briefing in French, and then I would have to give a second briefing in my office in English.”
[D] These days, however, ambitious young Europeans need to perfect their English and so tend to polish off their education in Britain or the United States, where they are exposed to Anglo-Saxon ideas. For a country like France, with its own distinct intellectual traditions in economics, philosophy and law, such a trend is understandably galling. The commission’s Mr. Defraigne worries aloud whether “it is possible to speak English without thinking American.”
[E] But the rise of English within EU institutions particularly alarms the French elite because for many years the Brussels bureaucracy has been a home-from-home, designed along French administrative lines, often dominated by high-powered French officials working in French. Moreover, the emergence of English as the EU’s main language gives an advantage to native English-speaking Eurocrats. As Dethomas notes: “It’s just much easier to excel in your own language”.
[F] The fact that the key EU institutions have bases in francophone cities — Brussels, Luxembourg and Strasbourg — means that lots of French will continue to be spoken in the EU’s corridors and meeting rooms. But the grip of English will tighten still more next year, when the Union will take in ten more countries, mainly from central Europe. The commission is planning to recruit over 3,000 Eurocrats from the former communist block. The best guess is that some 60% of them will speak English as their second language; for only 20% or so will it be French.
[G] From his desk at the European Commission’s office in Warsaw, Bruno Dethomas has been gloomily monitoring the decline of his native French within the European Union. “When I left Brussels in 1995,” he remarks (in perfect English), “70% of the documents crossing my desk were written in French. Nowadays 70% are in English.”
G → 41. → 42. → F → 43. → 44. →45.
Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
The really critical implication of the discovery still lies with the door that geneticists have opened on the environmental influences of our behaviour, our personalities and our health, and for the critical blow it strikes the idea of biological determinism.
(46) For the past decade, the public has witnessed a rising epidemic of tales of discoveries of genes that dispose humanity to homosexuality, to alcoholism, to political persuasion, to running ability, and to artistic taste.
But even before yesterday’s revelations by Venter, scientists had stopped believing in the gay gene. Yet belief in its existence still persists among the public. (47) The assault on biological determinism that geneticists have now triggered will be timely, and human nature is a lot more complex and intriguing than determinists have given it credit for.
It has become increasingly fashionable for individuals particularly in the United States to blame actions and crimes on the influence of their genes. Several US defendants accused of violent crimes have argued that they were innocent victims of their genes. (48) In other words, genetic predestination could soon have been used to excuse murder or robbery — if it had not been for this discovery that we lack the genes to thus dispose us!
Kevin Davies is the author of “The Sequence”, a story of the human genome race. He said, (49) “There has been a recent study on perfect pitch, the ability to know the absolute pitch of a musical note, that strongly suggests that is acquired through the inheritance of a single gene”.
“That may sound like a clear-cut piece of biological determinism. However, there is a crucial corollary you have to be exposed to early musical training for the ability to materialise. In other words, even in seemingly simple inherited abilities, nurture has a role to play.”
And then there is the case quoted by Venter. “Take the example of colon (结肠) cancer. People say there is a gene that predisposes us to the disease. And certainly it runs in families. (50) However, it is only the colon where we find all sorts of toxins and bacteria that provides the harsh circumstances that final causes that gene to finally break down and for cancer to spread.”
In short, it is not a colon cancer gene but a gene that affects our ability to respond to the environment. And that, is what human nature is all about.