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  61. The destruction of Spanish Armada showed England’s superiority as a naval power. It enabled England to become a great trading and colonizing country in the years to come.


  62. Renaissance was the transitional period between the Middle Ages and modern times, covering the years c1350-c1650. In England, the Renaissance was usually thought of as the beginning with the accession of the House of Tudor to the throne in 1485.


  63. English Renaissance achieved its first expression in the so-called Elizabethan drama. Its first exponents were Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, and William Shakespeare.


  64. English Renaissance literature is primarily artistic, rather than philosophical scholarly.


  65. William Shakespeare wrote 37 plays, including the following tragedies: Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Harmlet, king Lear, Othello, and Cymbeline.


  66. The most famous of the Catholic compiracies was the Gunpowder plot of 1605. on November 5, 1605, a few fanatical Catholics attempted to blow King James and his ministers up in the House of Parliament where Guy Fawkes had planted barrels of gunpowder in the cellars.


  67. James Ⅰ , a firm believer in the Divine Right of Kings, would have preferred on Parliament at all and actually did without one for seven years.


  68. It was at this Parliament that the king was forced to accept the Petition of Right regarded as the second Magna Carta.


  69. On August 22, 1642, the First Civil War began. The king’s men were called Cavaliers, and the supporters of Parliament were called Roundheads.


  70. Charles was tried by a High Court of Justice, found guilty of have levied war against his kingdom and the Parliament, condemned to death, and executed on a scaffold outside the Banqueting House at Whitehall on January 30, 1649.


  71. The English Civil War not only overthrew feudal system in England but also shocked the foundation of the feudal rule in Europe.


  72. Meanwhile, Oliver Cromwell and the “Rump” declared England a commonwealth. In December 1653,by an Instrument of Government, he became Lord Protector of the commonwealth of England.


  73. The Parliament thus elected in 1660 resolved the crisis by asking the late king’s son to return from his long exile in France as king CharlesⅡ. The Restoration as it was called, was relatively smooth.


  74. Te Eglish politicians rejected JamesⅡ, and appealed to a protestant king, William of Orange to invade and take the English throne. This take-over became known as the Glorious Revolution.


  75. William and Mary jointly accepted the Bill of Rights which confirmed the principle of parliamentary supremacy. Thus the age of constitutioned monarchy of a monarchy.


  76. It was during Anne’s reign that the name great Britain came into being when in 1707, the Act of Union united England and Scotland.


  第五节 英帝国的兴衰

  77、The Whigs were those who opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for nonconformists. The Tories were traditionalists who wanted to preserve the powers of the monarchy and the church of England.辉格党人是指哪些反对绝对主权,支持新教徒宗教自由权利的人,托利党人是指那些支持世袭王权的人。

  78. During the late 19th and early 19th centuries the open-field system ended when the Enclosure acts enabled weal their landowner to seize any land to which tenants could prove no legal title.


  79.The industrial revolution refers to the mechanization of industry and the consequent change in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.


  80.The limited monarchy which resulted from the powerful economic interests in the community could exert their influence on Government policy.



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