Philip Roth was hailed as a major new author in 1960.
This kind of animals are on the verge of extinction, because so many are being killed for their fur.
B) dying out
C) being reported
The number of United States citizens who are eligible to vote continues to increase.
I feel regret about what's happened.
Evidence exists that hearing problems may be alleviated by changes in diet and exercise habits.
The conclusion can be deduced from the promises.
Since the Great Depression, the United States government has protected farmers from damaging drops in grain prices.
The poet William Carlos Williams was a New Jersey physician.
Long before the concert began, big crowds of pop fans had assembled in the stadium.
During his lifetime he was able to accumulate quite a fortune.
Medicine depends on other fields for basic information, particularly some of their specialized branches.
If wool(羊毛) is put into hot water, it tends to shrink.
They have a far better yield than any other farm for miles around.
They are endeavoring to change society as a whole.
The other women seemed contented and they even exhibited their bellies(腹部) with pride.
First self-contained heart implanted
A patient on the brink of death has receive has received the world’s first self-contained artificial heart- a battery-powered device about the size of a softball that runs without the need for wires, tubes or hoses sticking out of the chest.
Two surgeons from the University of Louisville implanted the titanium and plastic pump during a seven-hour operation at Jewish Hospital Monday. The hospital said the patient was “awake and responsive” Tuesday and resting comfortably. It refused personal details.
The patient had been expected to die within a month without the operation, and doctors said they expected the artificial heart to extend the person’s life by only a month. But the device is considered a major step toward improving the patient’s quality of life.
The new pump, called AbioCor, is also a technological leap from the mechanical hearts used in the 1980s, which were attached by wires and tubes to bulky machinery out side the body. The most famous of those, the Jarvec-7, used air as a pumping device and was attached to an apparatus about the size of z washing mashing machine.
“I think it’s potentially a major step forward in the artificial heart development,” said Dr.David Fadon, president of the American Heart Association. However, he said the dream of an implantable, permanent artificial heart is not yet a reality; “This is obviously an experimental device whose long-term success has to be demonstrated.” Only about half of the 4,200 Americans on a waiting list for donor hearts received them last year, and most of the rest died.
Some doctors, including Robert Higgins, chairman of cardiology at the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond, said artificial hearts are unlikely to replace donor hearts.
“A donor hear in a good transplant can last 15 to 30 years,” he said. “Its going to be hard to replace that with a machine.”
The AbioCor has a 2-pound pumping unit, and electronic controls that adjust the pumping speed based on the body’s needs, It is powered by a small battery pack worn out side the body that transmits current through the skin.
1.The pump of the first implanted self-contained heart was made of titanium and plastic.
C Not mentioned
2. The patient’s life was expected to last several years longer by implanting the artificial heart.
C Not mentioned
3. There is no difference in structure between the self-contained heart and the mechanical heart.
C Not mentioned
4. The American Heart Association recommended widely using the self-contained heart.
C Not mentioned
5.Dr. David Faxon believed that the implantable, permanent artificial heart will certainly be developed in the future.
C Not mentioned
6. Approximately two thousand one hundred patients received heart implantation in America last year.
C Not mentioned
7. Some doctors doubt the possibility of donor hearts being replaced by artificial ones.
C Not mentioned
阅读下面这篇短文，短文后有2项测试任务：(1)1---4 题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2--5 段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第5--8题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确的选项，分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
Smoke gets in your mind
1.Lung cancer, hypertension, heart disease, birth defects – we are all too familiar with the dangers of smoking. But add to that list a frightening new concern. Mental illness. According to some controvesial new findings, if smoking does not kill you, it may, quite literally, drive you to despair.
2.The tobacco industry openly pushes its product as something to lift your mood and smoothe anxiety. But the short-term feel-good effect may mask the truth: that smoking may worsen or even trigger anxiety disorders, panic attacks and depression, perhaps even schizophrenia.
3.Cigarettes and mental illness have always tened to together. An estimated 1.25 billion people smoke worldwide. Yet people who are depressed or anxious are twice as likely to smoke, and up to 88 precent of those with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are smokers. A recent American survey concluded that around half of all cigarettes burn in the fingers of those with mental illness.
4.But the big question is why? The usual story is that the illness comes first. Mentally ill people take up smoking, or smoke more, to alleviate some of their distress. Even when smoking seems to start before the illness, most doctors believe that early but invisible symptoms of the desire to light up. But perhaps something more sinister.
5.A growing number of researchers claim that smoking is the cause, not the consequence of clinical depression and several forms of anxiety. “we know a lot about the effects of smoking on physical health, and now we are also starting to see the adverse effects in new research on mental illness ,” says Naomi Breslau, director of research at the Henry Ford Health Care System in Detroit.
6.Breslau was one of the first to consider this heretical possibility. The hint came from studies, published in 1998, which followed a group of just over 1,000 young adults for a five-year period. The 13 percent who began the study with major depression were around three times more likely to progress from being light smokers to daily smokers during the course of the study, though there was no evidence that depression increased the tendency to take up smoking. But a history of daily smoking before the study commenced roughly doubled the risk of developing major depression during the five-year period. Smoking, it seems, could pre-date illness.
7.At first Breslau concluded that whatever prompts people to smoke might also make them depressed. But as the results of other much larger studies began to back the statistical link, she became more convinced than ever that what she was seeing were sings that smoking, perhaps the nicotine itself, could somehow affect the brain and cause depression.
8.One of these larger studies was led by Goodman, a paediatrician. She followed the health of two groups of teenagers for a year. The first group of 8704 adolescents were not depressed, and might or might not have been smokers, while the second group of 6947 were highly depressed and had not been smokers in the past month. After a year her team found that although depressed teenagers were more likely to have become heavy smokers, previous experimentation with smoking was the strongest predictor of such behaviour, not the depression itself. What is more important is that teenagers who started out mentally fit but smoked at least one packet per week during the study were four times more likely to develop depression than their non-smoking peers. Goodman says that depression does not seem to start before cigarette use among teens. “Current cigarette use is, however, a powerful determinant of developing high depressive symptoms”.
9.Breslau, too, finds that smokers are as much as four times more likely to have an isolated panic attack and three times more likely to develop longer-term panic disorder than non-smokers. It’s a hard message to get across, because many smokers say they become anxious when they quit, not when they smoke. But Breslau says that this is a short-lived effect of withdrawal which masks the reality that, in general, smokers have higher anxiety levels than non-smokers or ex-smokers.
1. Paragraph 3____________.
2. Paragraph 4____________.
3. Paragraph 6____________.
4. Paragraph 8____________.
A.Doubt about the usual belief
B.Researcher's opinions divided
C.Positive effects of smoking as advertised
D.close association between depression and smoking
E.Breslau's conclusion supported by another larger study
F.Effect of smoking on mental health initially proved
5. Nowadays many doctors have become aware that smoking is not only a Hazard to people's physical health _______.
6. The cigarette ads which claim that smoking can help soothe anxiety _______.
7. Breslau's study ______ than Goodman's but lasted longer.
8. To contradict Breslau's conclusion, many smokers say that they are less anxious when they smoke ________.
A.have been proved to be misleading
B.but to their mental health as well
C.taking up smoking
D.involved fewer people
E.they started to smoke at an early age
F.But their level of anxiety increases when they quit smoking
Global cancer rates to rise 50% by 2020
The number of new cancer cases worldwide is expected to increase by 50% by the year 2020. But a new report suggests that as many as a third of new cancers could be avoided by adopting healthier lifestyles and through public health action.
The World Cancer Report, released by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, part of the World Health Organization), shows that cancer has now emerged as a major public health threat in developing countries as well as affluent ones.
Overall, cancer was responsible for 12% of all heaths in 2000. But in many countries more than a quarter of all deaths are caused by cancer.
The report shows that 10 million new cancers were diagnosed globally in 2000, and that number is expected to rise to 15 million by 2020. Researchers say most of that increase will mainly be due to steadily aging populations in both developed and developing countries and current trends in smoking and other unhealthy habits.
“Cancer has emerged as a major public health problem in developing countries for the first time, matching its effect in industrialized countries,” says researcher Paul Kleihues, MD, director of IARA, in a news release. “Once considered a ‘Western’ disease, the Report highlights that more than 50 percent of the world’s cancer burden, in terms of both numbers of cases and deaths, already occurs in developing countries.”
The risk of being diagnosed with cancer in developed countries is double that in less-developed ones. However, the risk of dying from cancer is much higher in developing countries, where 80% of cancer patients already have late-stage incurable tumors at the time of diagnosis.
Researchers say cancer rates have traditionally been higher in developed countries due to greater exposure to tobacco, occupational carcinogens, and an unhealthy Western diet and lifestyle. As less-developed countries become industrialized and more prosperous, they tend to adopt the high-fat diet and low physical activity levels typically seen in the West, which increase cancer rates.
1.According to a new report, healthier lifestyles and public health action could help reduce about
A.50% of new cancers.
B.33% of new cancers.
C.12% of new cancers.
D.80% of new cancers.
2.Which of the following statements in NOT correct?
a)There were 10 million cancer patients worldwide in 2000.
b)Cancer accounted for 12% of all deaths in 2000.
c)Cancer is the cause of over 25% of all deaths in many countries.
d)Global cancer rates are expected to rise 50% by 2020.
3.According to the passage, cancer was once considered
a)an incurable disease.
b)a mysterious disease.
c)a “western” disease.
d)a world disease.
4.The risk of dying from cancer in developed countries is
a)double that in developing countries.
b)much higher than that in developing countries.
c)the same as that in developing countries.
d)much lower than that in developing countries.
5.All the following factors may increase cancer rates EXCEPT
b)lack of access to tobacco.
c) unhealthy habits.
New attempts to eradicate AIDS virus;
A high-profile attempt to eradicate the AIDS virus in a few patients continues to show promise.
But researchers won’t know for a year or more whether it will work, scientist David Ho told journalists here Wednesday for the Fourth Conference in Viruses and Infections.
“This is a study that’s in progress,” says Ho, head of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York.
The study involves 20 people who started combinations of anti-HIV drugs very early in the course of the disease, within 90 days of their infections. They’ve been treated for up to 18 months. Four others have dropped out because of side effects or problems complying with the exacting drug system.
The drugs have knocked the AIDS virus down to undetectable levels in the blood of all remaining patients. And, in the latest development, scientists have now tested lymph nodes and semen from a few patients and found no virus reproducing there, Ho says. “Bear in mind that undetectable does not equal absent,” Ho says.
Ho has calculated that the drugs should be able to wipe out remaining viruses – at least from known reservoirs throughout the body – in two to three years. But the only way to prove eradication would be to stop the drugs and see if the virus comes back. On Wednesday, Ho said he wouldn’t ask any patient to consider that step before 2 1/2 years of treatment.
And he emphasized that he is not urging widespread adoption of such early, aggressive treatment outside of trials. No one knows the long-term risks.
But other scientists are looking at similar experiments. A federally funded study will put 300 patients on triple-drug treatments and then see if some responding well after six months can continue to suppress the virus on just one or two drugs, says researcher Douglas Richman of the University of California, San Diego. Some patients in that study also may be offered the chance to stop therapy after 18 months or more, he says.
1.According to the passage, the attempt to eradicate the AIDS virus.
A. continues to be hopeful.
B. will be successful in a year.
C. will be successful in future.
D. will stop being hopeful.
2.Which is NOT true about the study?
A.There are 20 patients involved in the study.
B.The patients have used several anti-HIV drugs.
C.The patients have been treated for up to 18 months.
D.16 patients did not go through the whole study.
3.What do Ho’s words “Bear in mind that undetectable does not equal absent” mean?
A. AIDS virus can exist in the blood without being detected.
B. AIDS virus is undetectable in the blood.
C. No AIDS virus can be detected in the blood.
D. No virus found in the blood means no AIDS.
4.How could we prove that the drugs have wiped out the remaining viruses?
A.By using up all the drugs at once.
B.By waiting for the virus to die slowly.
C.By asking the patients’ feeling about the disease.
D.By stopping the drugs to see if the virus comes back.
5.Other scientists are looking at experiments that are similar in that they are
DNA is the genetic material found within the cell nuclei of all living things. In mammals the stands of DNA are grouped into structures called chromosomes. With the exception of identical siblings(as in identical twins), the complete DNA of each individual is unique.
DNA fingerprinting is sometimes called DNA typing. It is a method of identification that compares bits of DNA. A DNA fingerprint is constructed by first drawing out a DNA sample from body tissue or fluid such as hair, blood, or saliva. The sample is then segmented using enzymes, and the segments are arranged by size. The segments are marked with probes and exposed on X-ray film, where they form a pattern of black bars--- the DNA fingerprint. If the DNA fingerprints produced from two different samples match, the two samples probably came from the same person.
DNA fingerprinting was first developed as an identification technique in 1985. Originally used to detect the presence of genetic diseases, it soon came to be used in criminal investigations and legal affairs. The first criminal conviction base on DNA evidence in the United States occurred in 1998. In criminal investigations, DNA fingerprints derived from evidence collected at the crime scene are compared to the DNA fingerprints of suspects. Generally, courts have accepted the reliability of DNA testing and admitted DNA test results into evidence. However, DNA fingerprinting is controversial in a number of areas: the accuracy of the results, the cost of testing, and the possible misuse of the technique.
The accuracy of DNA fingerprinting has been challenged for several reasons. First, because DNA segments rather than complete DNA strands are “fingerprinted”; a DNA fingerprint may not be unique; large-scale research to confirm the uniqueness of DNA fingerprinting test results has not been conducted. In addition, DNA fingerprinting is often done in private laboratories that may not follow uniform testing standards and quality controls. Also, since human beings must interpret the test, human error could lead to false results.
DNA fingerprinting is expensive . Suspects who are unable to provide their own DNA to experts may not be able to successfully defend themselves against charges based on DNA evidence.
Widespread use of DNA testing for identification purposes may lead to the establishment of a DNA fingerprint database.
1. According to the essay, we can find chromosomes
A. in a fish.
B. in a tree.
C. in a sheep.
D. in a rock.
2. DNA fingerprinting is more often used for
A. obtaining samples of chromosomes.
B. providing evidence in court investigations.
C. proving the horse to be a mammal.
D. printing books about biology.
3. When your brother looks exactly like you, your complete DNA may be
A. exactly like his.
B. totally different from his.
4. Some people believe that using a DNA fingerprint may not be so reliable because
A. the accuracy of DNA fingerprinting has been challenged.
B. no private laboratory follows uniform testing standards or quality controls.
C. mistakes are possible when researchers explain the results of their tests.
D. suspects may not have enough money to provide their own DNA to law-courts.
5. Their essay talks about DNA fingerprinting concerning the following aspects EXPECT
A. legal application of the method
B. the way to obtain a DNA sample.
C. work yet to be done about DNA fingerprinting.
D. possible danger in drawing a DNA sample from the human body.
Why do people shrink?
Did you ever see the movie Honey, I shrunk the kids? It's about a wacky dad (who's also a scientist) who accidentally shrinks his kids with his homemade miniaturizing invention. Oops! ____1____.
For older people, shrinking isn't that dramatic or sudden at all. It takes place over years and may add up to only one inch or so off of their adult height (maybe a little more, maybe less), and this kind of shrinking can't be magically reversed, although there are things that can be done to stop it or slow it down. ___2___.
There are a few reasons. As people get older, they generally lose some muscle and fat from their bodies as part of the natural aging process. Gravity (the force that keeps your feet on the ground) take hold, and the bones in the spine, called vertebrae, may break down or degenerate, and start to collapse into one another. ___3___. But perhaps the most common reason why some older people shrink is because of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis occurs when too much spongy bone tissue (which is found inside of most bones) is broken down and not enough new bone material is made. ___4___. Bones become smaller and weaker and can easily break if someone with osteoporosis is injured. Older people --especially women, who generally have smaller and lighter bones to begin with -- are more likely to develop osteoporosis. As years go by, a person with osteoporosis shrinks a little bit.
Did you know that every day you do a shrinking act? You aren't as tall at the end of the day as you are at the beginning. That's because as the day goes on, water in the disks of the spine gets compressed (squeezed) due to gravity, making you just a tiny bit shorter. Don't worry, though. ___5___.
A. They end up pressing closer together, which makes a person lose a little height and become shorter.
B. Once you get a good night's rest, your body recovers, and the next morning, you're standing tall again.
C. Over time, bone is said to be lost because it's not being replaced.
D. Luckily, there are things that people can do to prevent shrinking.
E. The kids spend the rest of the movie as tiny people who are barely visible while trying to get back to their normal size.
F. But why does shrinking happen at all?
What Is Anthrax?
There’s been a lot of talk about anthrax on the news lately. Some people are worried that anthrax may be connected to terrorist attacks or that terrorists may spread the germ that __1__ the disease. Federal officials and police are investigating this and taking measures to protect us.
In the meantime, it’s important not to panic over anthrax. The chances that you and your family __2__at risk are very tiny. One of the ways you can feel better is to learn about anthrax. When you know what it is and __3__you can get it, it doesn’t seem quite as scary.
So, what__4__is anthrax?
Here are the facts on anthrax:
Anthrax is a bacterial infection caused by a germ. Although it’s most common in farm __5__, like sheep, cows, pigs, horses, and goats, there’s a very small chance that people can get it, too.
Anthrax spores (a version of the germ in a protective shell that can live in the soil for years) cause the disease.
People may get anthrax if they are exposed to anthrax __6__. But here’s the important part: just being exposed to these spores doesn’t mean that a person will get __7__.
For people to get sick, they would have to breathe in thousands of these spores all the way into their __8__. Or they’d have to eat meat contaminated with anthrax or handle __9__ that has anthrax spores. This may sound scary, but even when people come __10__contact with the spores, it’s unlikely that they’ll get sick. __11__the bacteria do not get into the skin, digestive tract, or lung, the disease won’t develop.
Anthrax is not spread from person person to person they way the flu can spread from family member to __12__member or classmate to classmate.
Anthrax is very rare. Until recently, anthrax wasn’t even talked about because it was so rare – and it still __13__! Even with all of the anthrax cases you are hearing about right now(and many of these suspected cases will turn out not to be anthrax), a person’s chances of getting anthrax are about the __14__as they were before you heard about anthrax on the news – very, very low.
If you still feel scared when you hear about anthrax, remember that it’s extremely unlikely that you or your family or anyone you know will ever be __15__ to anthrax spores.