The government is debating the education laws.
2.The Klondike was the scene of one of the biggest gold rushes the world has ever known.
3.She has been the subject of massive media coverage.
4.The conference explored the possibility of closer trade links.
5.The sea was calm and still.
6.In a bullfight, it is the movement, not the color, of objects that arouses the bull.
7.The committee comprises five persons.
8.All the people assembled at Mary's house.
9.He made an immense amount of money in business.
10.The substance can be added to gasoline to accelerate the speed of automobiles.
11.We should never content ourselves with a little book knowledge only.
12.We should contemplated the problem from all sides.
13.His health had deteriorated while he was in prison.
A） became better
B） became worse
C） became stronger
D） became weaker
14.I meant to give you this book today, but I forgot.
A） intended to
C） extended to
D） pretended to
15.As a matter of fact, I love soft music more than popular music.
The United States is a sports-loving nation. Sports in America take a variety of forms: organized competitive struggles, which draw huge crowds to cheer their favorite team to victory; athletic games, played for recreation anywhere sufficient space is found; and hunting and fishing. Most sports are seasonal, so that what is happening in sports depends upon the time of year. Some sports are called spectator sports, as the number of spectators greatly exceeds the number playing in the game.
Baseball is the most popular sport in the US. It is played throughout the spring and summer, and professional baseball teams play well into the fall. Although no other game is exactly like baseball, perhaps the one most nearly like it is the English game of cricket.
Football is the most popular sport in the fall. The game originated as a college sport more than 75 years ago. It is still played by almost every college and university in the country, and the football stadiums of some of the largest universities seat as many as 80,000 people. The game is not the same as European football or soccer. In American football there are 11 players on each team, and they are dressed in padded uniforms and helmets because the game is rough and injuries are likely to occur.
Basketball is the winter sport in American schools and colleges. Like football, basketball originated in the US and is not popular in other countries. Many Americans prefer it to football because it is played indoors throughout the winter and because it is a faster game. It is a very popular game with high schools, and in more than 20 states, state-wide high school matches are held yearly.
Other spectator sports include wrestling, boxing, and horse racing. Although horse-racing fans call themselves sportsmen, the accuracy of the term is questionable, as only the jockeys who ride the horses in the races can be considered athletes. The so-called sportsmen are the spectators, who do “not assemble” primarily to see the horses race, but to bet upon the outcome of each race. Gambling is the attraction of horse racing.
1．Hunting and fishing are mainly favored by men, young and old, in the US.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
2．Professional baseball teams can continue to play for a long period of time in the fall after the regular baseball seasons of spring and summer.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
3．Baseball shares many features with the English game of cricket.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
4．Football can be classified as a spectator sport.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
5．Many Americans like basketball better than football because the latter is so harsh that players have to wear special uniforms.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
6．Basketball in American is so popular with universities that nationwide university matches are held yearly.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
7．Horse-racing fans cannot be considered sportsmen because they are spectators whose primary interest is gambling.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
Soot and Snow：a Hot Combination
l New research from NASA scientists suggests emissions of black soot alter the way sunlight reflects off snow. According to a computer simulation, black soot may be responsible for 25 percent of observed global warming over the past century.
2 Soot in the higher latitudes of the Earth, where ice is more common, absorbs more of the sun's energy and warmth than an icy, white background. Dark-colored black carbon, or soot, absorbs sunlight, while lighter colored ice reflects sunlight.
3 Soot in areas with snow and ice may play all important role in climate change. Also, if snow and ice covered areas begin melting, the warming effect increases, as the soot becomes more concentrated on the snow surface. “This provides a positive feedback, as glaciers and ice sheet smelt, they tend to get even dirtier,” said Dr．James Hansen，a researcher at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, NewYork.
4 Hansen found soot's effect on snow albedo （solar energy reflected back to space）, which may be contributing to trends toward early springs in the Northern Hemisphere, such as thinning Arctic sea ice, melting glaciers and permafrost. Soot also is believed to play a role in changes in the atmosphere above the oceans and land.
5 “Black carbon reduces the amount of energy reflected by snow back into space, thus heating the snow surface more than if there were no black carbon,”Hansen said. Soot's increased absorption of solar energy is especially effective in warming the world's climate. “This forcing is unusually effective, causing twice as much global warming as a carbon-dioxide forcing of the same magnitude,”Hansen noted.
6 Hansen cautioned, although the role of soot in altering global climate is substantial, it does not alter the fact that greenhouse gases are the primary cause of climate warming during the past century. Such gases are expected to be the largest climate forcing for the rest of this century.
7 The researchers found that observed warming in the Northern Hemisphere was 1arge in the winter and spring at middle and high latitudes. These observations were consistent with the researchers' climate model simulations, which showed some of the largest warming effects occurred when there were heavy snow cover and sufficient sunlight.
A Soot's Role in Changes in the Climate and the Atmosphere
B Observations of Warming in the Northern Hemisphere
C Explanation of Increased Warming Effect Caused by Soot
D Effort to Reduce Snow Albedo
E Ways to Reduce Soot Emission
F Greenhouse Gases as the Main Factor of Global Warming
5. In the twentieth century, soot_________ .
6. Hansen cautioned that greenhouse gases_________ .
7. Black soot covered snow and ice_________ .
8. A soot forcing is unusually effective, which_________ .
A produces much more global warming than a carbon-dioxide forcing of the same magnitude
B contributed to 25 percent of observed global warming
C can produce greenhouse gases
D absorb more of sun's energy and warmth than white background
E still surpass soot in warming the world's climate during the last century
F can be seen mostly in the Northern Hemisphere
Common Problems, Common Solutions
The chances are that you made up your mind about smoking a long time ago — and decided it's not for you.
The chances are equally good that you know a lot of smokers — there are, after all about 60 million of them, work with them, and get along with them very well.
And finally it's a pretty safe bet that you're open-minded and interested in all the various issues about smokers and nonsmokers — or you wouldn't be reading this.
And those three things make you incredibly important today.
Because they mean that yours is the voice — not the smoker's and not the anti-smoker's — that will determine how much of society's efforts should go into building walls that separate us and how much into the search for solutions that bring us together.
For one tragic result of the emphasis on building walls is the diversion of millions of dollars from scientific research on the causes and cures of diseases which, when all is said and done, still strike the nonsmoker as well as the smoker. One prominent health organization, to cite but a single instance, now spends 28 cents of every publicly contributed dollar on "education" （much of it in anti-smoking propaganda） and only 2 cents on research.
There will always be some who want to build walls, who want to separate people from people, and up to a point, even these may serve society. The anti-smoking wall-builders have, to give them their due, helped to make us all more keenly aware of choice.
But our guess, and certainly our hope, is that you are among the far greatest number who know that walls are only temporary at best, and that over the long run, we can serve society's interest better by working together in mutual accommodation.
Whatever virtue walls may have, they can never move our society toward fundamental solutions. People who work together on common problems, common solutions, can.
1. What does the word "wall" used in the passage mean?
A） Anti-smoking propaganda.
B） Diseases striking nonsmokers as well as smokers.
C） Rules and regulations that prohibit smoking.
D） Separation of smokers from nonsmokers.
2. In paragraph 4, "you" refers to _____ .
D） smokers who have quitted smoking
3. It is evident that the author is not in favor of _____ .
A） building a wall between smokers and nonsmokers
B） doing scientific research at the expense of one's health
C） bringing smokers and nonsmokers together
D） proving accommodation for smokers
4. As is suggested, the common solution to the common problem is _____ .
A） to separate people from people
B） to work together in mutual accommodation
C） to make us more keenly aware of choice
D） to serve society's interests better
5. According to the passage, the writer looks upon the anti-smoking wall-builders actions _____ .
Early or Later Day Care
The British psychoanalyst John Bowlby maintains that separation from the parents during the sensitive “attachment” period from birth to three may scar a child's personality and predispose to emotional problems in later life. Some people have drawn the conclusion from Bowlby's work that children should not be subjected to day care before the age of three because of the parental separation it entails, and many people do believe this. But there are also arguments against such a strong conclusion.
Firstly, anthropologists point out that the insulated love affair between children and parents found in modern societies does not usually exist in traditional societies. For example, in some tribal societies, such as the Ngoni, the father and mother of a child did not rear their infant alone — far from it. Secondly, common sense tells US that day care would not be so widespread today if parents, care-takers found children had problems with it. Statistical studies of this kind have not yet been carried out, and even if they were, the results would be certain to be complicated and controversial. Thirdly, in the last decade there have been a number of careful American studies of children in day care, and they have uniformly reported that day care had a neural or slightly positive effect on children's development. But tests that have had to be used to measure this development are not widely enough accepted to settle the issue.
But Bowlby's analysis raises the possibility that early day care has delayed effects. The possibility that such care might lead to, say, more mental illness or crime 15 or 20 years later can only be explored by the use of statistics. Whatever the long-term effects, parents sometimes find the immediate effects difficult to deal with. Children under three are likely to protest at leaving their parents and show unhappiness. At the age of three or three and a half almost all children find the transition to nursery easy, and this is undoubtedly why more and more parents make use of child care at this time. The matter, then, is far from clear-cuff, though experience and available evidence indicate that early care is reasonable for infants.
care taker n.照顾者，看管人
1．Which of the following statements would Bowlby support?
A） Statistical studies should be carried out to assess the positive effect of day car for children at the age of three or older.
B） Early day care can delay the occurrence of mental illness in children.
C） The first three years of one's life is extremely important to the later development of personality.
D） Children under three get used to the life at nursery schools more readily than children over three.
2．Which of the following is derivable from Bowlby's work?
A） Mothers should not send their children to day care centers before the age of three.
B） Day care nurseries have positive effects on a child's development.
C） A child sent to a day care center before the age of three may have emotional problems in later life.
D） Baby care would not be so popular if it has noticeable negative effects on a child's s personality.
3．It is suggested that modern societies differ from traditional societies in that ______ .
A） the parents-child relationship is more exclusive in modern societies
B） a child more often grows up with his/her brothers or sisters in traditional societies
C） mother brings up children with the help of her husband in traditional societies
D） children in modern societies are more likely to develop mental illness in later years
4．Which of the following statements is NOT an argument against Bowlby's theory?
A） Many studies show that day care has a positive effect on children's development.
B） The fact that there are so many nursery schools today shows that day care is safe.
C） The separation of young children from their parents is common in some traditional societies.
D） Parents find the immediate effects of early day care difficult to deal with.
5. Which of the following best expresses the writer's attitude towards early day care?
A） Children under three should stay with their parents.
B） Early day care has positive effects on children's development.
C） The issue is controversial and its settlement calls for the use of statistics.
D） The effects of early day care on children are exaggerated and parents should ignore the issue.
Why do people shrink?
Did you ever see the movie Honey, I shrunk the kids? It's about a wacky dad （who's also a scientist） who accidentally shrinks his kids with his homemade miniaturizing invention. Oops! ____1____.
For older people, shrinking isn't that dramatic or sudden at all. It takes place over years and may add up to only one inch or so off of their adult height （maybe a little more, maybe less）, and this kind of shrinking can't be magically reversed, although there are things that can be done to stop it or slow it down. ___2___.
There are a few reasons. As people get older, they generally lose some muscle and fat from their bodies as part of the natural aging process. Gravity （the force that keeps your feet on the ground） take hold, and the bones in the spine, called vertebrae, may break down or degenerate, and start to collapse into one another. ___3___. But perhaps the most common reason why some older people shrink is because of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis occurs when too much spongy bone tissue （which is found inside of most bones） is broken down and not enough new bone material is made. ___4___. Bones become smaller and weaker and can easily break if someone with osteoporosis is injured. Older people — especially women, who generally have smaller and lighter bones to begin with — are more likely to develop osteoporosis. As years go by, a person with osteoporosis shrinks a little bit.
Did you know that every day you do a shrinking act? You aren't as tall at the end of the day as you are at the beginning. That's because as the day goes on, water in the disks of the spine gets compressed （squeezed） due to gravity, making you just a tiny bit shorter. Dont worry, though. ___5___.
A. They end up pressing closer together, which makes a person lose a little height and become shorter.
B. Once you get a good night's rest, your body recovers, and the next morning, youre standing tall again.
C. Over time, bone is said to be lost because it's not being replaced.
D. Luckily, there are things that people can do to prevent shrinking.
E. The kids spend the rest of the movie as tiny people who are barely visible while trying to get back to their normal size.
F. But why does shrinking happen at all?
Something Men Do Not Like to Do
Eric Brown hates shopping.“It's just not enjoyable to me,”said the 28-year-old Chicago man who was carrying several shopping bags along the city's main street, Michigan Avenue. “When I'm out____1___，I basically know what 1 want to get. I rush in. I buy it. I___2___”
Common wisdom says that guys hate to shop. You can ask generations of men. But people who study shopping say that a number of social, cultural and economic factors are now___3___this“men-hate-to-shop”notion．
“___4___social class, ethnicity, age, men say they hate to shop,”says Sharon Zukin, a City University of New York sociology professor. “Yet when you ask them deeper questions, it turns out that they___5___to shop. Men generally like to shop for___6___, music and hardware. But if you ask them about the shopping they do for books or music, they'll say'Well that's not shopping. That's ___7___”
In other words, what men and women call“buying things”and how they approach that task are ___8____
Women will___ 9___ through several 1,000-square-metre stores in search of the perfect party dress. Men will wander through 100 Internet sites in search of the ___l0___digital camcorder.
Women see shopping as a social event. Men see it as a mission or a___11___to be won.
“Men are frequently shopping to win,”says Mary Ann McGrath, a marketing professor at Loyola University of Chicago. “They want to get the best deal. They want to get the best one. The last one and if they do that it __12__ them happy.”
When women shop,“they're doing it in a way where they want __l3__ to be very happy,”says McGrath.“They're kind of shopping for love.”
In fact, it is in clothing where we see a male-female__14__most clearly. Why, grumble some men, are all male clothes navy, grey, black or brown? But would they wear 1ight green and pink?
These days, many guys wear a sort of“uniform”, says Paco Underhill, author of“Why We Buy”,“It's been hard for them to understand what it means to be fashion-conscious in a business way. It becomes much, much easier if you__15__your range of choices.”
1．A）playing B）fishing C）shopping D）traveling
2．A）get out B）stay in C）look round D）move about
3. A）confirming B）challenging C）proving D）supporting
4．A）Regardless of B）Because of C）Owing to D）Thanks to
5．A）want B）like C）hate D）hope
6．A）coats B）pants C）socks D）books
7．A）relaxation B）rest C）exercise D） research
8．A）similar B）inclusive C）contradictory D）different
9．A）wander B）go C）walk D）run
10．A）cheap B）fashionable C）presentable D）perfect
11．A）task B）play C）game D）destination
12．A）brings B）causes C）makes D）keeps
13．A）everybody B）nobody C）anybody D）no one
14．A）competition B）comparison C）division D）confrontation
15．A）broaden B）expand C）extend D）narrow
7.「正确答案」 1-5 CABAB
「答案解析」 1． C 第一段第一个句子是主题句，说的是：Eric Brown讨厌买东西。因此“shopping”是合适的选择。
2． A 语境是这样的：当我出去买东西时，我基本上已经知道我要买什么。我冲了进去，买了后……显然，填入“get out”（出去）是连贯的。“stay in”是“在家里呆着”，“look round”是“环顾”，“move about”是“闲荡”，不难看出，这些都不是合适的选择。
3． B 第二段的第一个句子说的是：一般的认识认为，男人讨厌买东西。第三句的起始词是“But”，它告诉我们意思将发生转折，因而“challenging”是合适的选择。“confirming”是“确认”的意思，“proving”是“证明”，“supporting”是“支持”。
4． A 第三段的第一个句子引自纽约城市大学社会学教授Sharon Zukin的话，大意是：……在社会阶层、种族特点、年龄上是有差异的，男人都说他们讨厌买东西。可以看出，合适的选择是“Regardless of”（不管），“Because of”，“Owing to”，“Thanks to”都表示“原因”，插入后意思上是不连贯的。
5． B 紧接着第三段第一个句子的后一个句子由“Yet”起始， 这个词提示我们由它引导的句子在意思上跟上一个句子构成对比。由于上一个句子说的是“男人们讨厌买东西”，那么这个句子应当说的是男人们实际上是喜欢买东西的。因此，“like”是合适的选择。
6． D 从下文的“music”（音乐），“hardware”（硬件）判断，“coats”（外套），pants（裤子），socks（袜子）都不是合适的选择，因为它们都不能与“music”和“hardware”构成一个比较自然的类别，所以唯有“books”是合适的选择。另外，紧随其后的一句话中也出现了“books”这个词，这是提示。
7． D 该题问的是：男人们不把买书和音乐制品看做是购物，那么他们把它看做是什么呢? 从下面的三段提供的信息来看，“research”（研究）比“relaxation”（放松），“rest”（休息），“exercise”（锻炼）更合适一点。
8． D 该题问的是：男人们和女人们在称之为“买东西”和行事方式上都会怎么样? 所在的句子实际上是对前面文章的总结。所以合适的选择是“different”。 “similar”（相似的）、 “contradictory”（矛盾的）和“inclusive”（兼容的）都不构成答案。
9． A 买东西是需要来回看的， 这是常识。另外，紧随其后的句子中也用了“wander”（漫游）这个词。
10． D 上文中出现了“perfect”（完美的）。注意：文章始终在把男人与女人做比较。因此此处也应用“perfect”。
11． D 注意紧随其后的动词不定式“to be won”（赢得），只能是“game”（游戏）。“won”在语义上搭配的。
12．C 这个句子要表达的是：这会使得他们快乐。“makes”是正确的。如果用“brings”，须改原文：it brings them happiness. 或it brings happiness to them. 如用“causes”，也须改原文：it causes them to be come happy.“it keeps them happy.”是可以说的，但它的意思是：他们原来就快乐。但是，是否如此? 文章没有说。
13．A “nobody”，“no one”和“anybody”用于否定的语境。但该句子提供的不是一种否定的语境，因此，正确的选择是“everybody”。