1.Techniques to employ the energy of the sun are being developed.
2.Since the Great Depression, the United States government has protected farmers from damaging drops in grain prices.
3.Medicine depends on other fields for basic information, particularly some of their specialized branches.
4.An important part of the national government is the Foreign Service, a branch of the Department of the State.
A） a unity
B） a division
C） an embassy
D） an invitation
5.We were astonished to hear that their football team had won the champion.
6.There is an abundant supply of cheap labor in this country.
A） a steady
B） a plentiful
C） an extra
D） a stable
7.All living organisms, regardless of their unique identity, have certain logical, chemical, and physical characteristics in common.
A） as a result of
C） on purpose
8.The most crucial problem any economic system faces is how to use its scarce resources.
9.Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree to which they can be deliberately controlled and modified.
10.The Constitutions vague nature has given it the flexibility to be adapted when circumstances change.
11.The expedition reached the summit at 10:30 that morning.
A） top of the mountain
B） bottom of that morning
C） starting point
12.The latest census is encouraging.
13.Academic records from other institutions often become part of a university's official file and can neither be returned to a student nor duplicated.
14.While serving in the Senate in the early 1970s Barbara Jordan supported legislation to ban discrimination and to deal with environment problems.
15.Gambling is lawful in Nevada.
On a Monday morning in July, the world's first atom bomb exploded in the New Mexico desert. Forty seconds later, the shock waves reached the base camp where the Italian-American physicist Enrico Fermi and his team stood, after a mental calculation, Fermi announced to his team that the bomb's energy had equated 10,000 tons of TNT. The bomb team was impressed, but not surprised. Fermi's genius was known throughout the scientific world. In 1938 he had won a Nobel Prize. Four years later he produced the first nuclear chain reaction（核链式反应）, leading us into the nuclear age. Since Fermi's death in 1954, no physicist has been at once a master experimentalist and a leading theoretician.
Like all virtuosos（艺术品鉴赏家）, Fermi had a distinctive style. He preferred the most direct route to an answer. He was very good at dividing difficult problems into small, manageable bits — talent we all can use in our daily lives.
To develop this talent in his students, Fermi would suggest a type of question now known as a Fermi problem. Upon first hearing one of these, you haven't the remotest notion of the answer, and you feel certain that too little information had been given to solve it. Yet when the problem is broken into sub-problems, each answerable without the help of experts or books, you can come close to the exact solution.
Suppose you want to determine Earth's circumference（圆周长） without looking it up. Everyone knows that New York and Los Angeles are about 3000 miles apart and that the time difference between them is three hours. Three hours if one-eighth of a day, and a day is the time it takes the planet to complete one rotation（公转）, so its circumference must be eight times 3000 or 24000 miles. This answer differs from the true value, 24,902.45 miles, by less than four percent.
Ultimately the value of dealing with everyday problems the way Fermi did lies in the rewards of making independent discoveries and inventions. It doesn't matter whether the discovery is as important as determining the power of an atom or as small as measuring the distance between New York and Los Angeles. Looking up the answer, or letting someone else find it, deprives you of the pleasure and pride that accompany creativity, and deprives you of an experience that builds up self-confidence. Thus, approaching personal dilemmas（困境） as Fermi problems can become a habit that enriches you life.
16. Fermi's team was impressed by Fermi's announcement in the base camp because he could even work out the power of the atom bomb in his mind.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
17. Fermi, an experimentalist as well as a theoretician, won a Nobel Prize for producing the first nuclear chain reaction in the world.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
18. Dividing a big problem into small problems is a talent Fermi had and a talent that has practical value in life.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
19. Fermi problem is to develop the talent of breaking a seemingly unanswerable problem into sub-problems and finding the solution to it, which is a typical Fermi problem.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
20. Then the fourth paragraph tells us how Fermi solved the problem of earth's circumference without looking up.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
21. The last paragraph concludes the whole writing by stressing the value of important inventions and small discoveries.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
22. Fermi was famous for inventing a device to calculate bomb's energy accurately.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
Blasts from the past
1 Volcanoes were more destructive in ancient history. Not because they were bigger, but because the carbon dioxide they released wiped out 1ife with greater ease.
2 Paul Wignall from the University of Leeds was investigating the link between volcanic eruptions and mass extinctions. Not all volcanic eruptions killed off large numbers of animals, but all the mass extinctions over the past 300 million years coincided with huge formations of volcanic rock. To his surprise, the older the massive volcanic eruptions were, the more damage they seemed to do.
3 Wignall calculated the "killing efficiency" for these volcanoes by comparing the proportion of life they killed off with the volume of lava that they produced. He found that size for size, older eruptions were at least 10 times as effective at wiping out life as their more recent rivals.
4 The Permian extinction, for example, which happened 250 million years ago, is marked by floods of volcanic rock in Siberia that cover an area roughly the size of western Europe. Those volcanoes are thought to have pumped out about 10 gigatonnes of carbon as carbon dioxide. The global warming that followed wiped out 80 per cent of all marine genera at the time. And it took 5 million years for the planet to recover.
5 Yet 60 million years ago in the late Palaeocene there was another huge amount of volcanic activity and global warming but no mass extinction. Some animals did disappear but things returned to normal within ten thousands of years, "The most recent ones hardly have an effect at all," Wignall says. He ignored the extinction which wiped out the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous, 65 million years ago, because many scientists believe it was primarily caused by the impact of an asteroid.
6 Wignall thinks that older volcanoes had more killing power because more recent life forms were better adapted to dealing with increased levels of CO2. Ocean chemistry may also have played a role．As the supercontinents broke up and exposed more coastline there may have been more weathering of silica rocks. This would have encouraged the growth of phytoplankton in the oceans, increasing me amount of CO2 absorbed from the atmosphere.
7 Vincent Courtillot, director of the Paris Geophysical Institute in France, says that Wignalls idea is provocative. But he says it is incredibly hard to do these sorts of calculations. He points out that the killing power of volcanic eruptions depends on how long they lasted. And it is impossible to tell whether the huge blasts lasted for thousands or millions of years.
8 Courtillot also adds that it is difficult to estimate how much 1ava prehistoric volcanoes produced, and that 1ava volume may not necessarily correspond to carbon dioxide or sulphur dioxide emissions.
23．Paragraph 2 _____________
24．Paragraph 3 _____________
25．Paragraph 4 _____________
26．Paragraph 5 _____________
A Killing Power of Ancient Volcanic Eruptions
B Association of Mass Extinctions with Volcanic Eruptions
C Calculation of the Killing Power of Older Eruptions
D A Mass Extinction
E Volcanic Eruptions That Caused no Mass Extinction
F Accounting for the Killing Power of Older Eruptions
27．Older eruptions were more devastating _____________.
28．The Permian extinction is used to illustrate __________.
29．The cause of the extinction of dinosaurs ____________.
30．Courtillot rejects _______________________________.
A than more recent ones
B the killing efficiency for older eruptions
C has remained controversial
D Wignalls calculations as acceptable
E has been known to us all
F his ideas
Forty May Be the New 30 as Scientists Redefine Age
Is 40 really the new 30? In many ways people today act younger than their parents did at the same age.
Scientists have defined a new age concept and believe it could explain why populations are aging, but at the same time seem to be getting younger.
Instead of measuring aging by how long people have lived, the scientists have factored in how many more years people can probably still look forward to.
“Using that measure, the average person can get younger in the sense that he or she can have even more years to lives as time goes on,” said Warren Sanderson of the University of New York in Stony Brook.
He and Sergei Scherbov of the Vienna Institute of Demography （人口统计学）at the Austrian Academy of Sciences, have used their method to estimate how the proportion of elderly people in Germany, Japan and the United States will change in the future.
The average German was 39.9 years old in 2000 and could plan to live for another 39.2 years, according to research reported in 2050 would occur at around 52 years instead of 40 years as in 2000.
“As people have more and more years to live they have to save more and plan more and they effectively are behaving as if they were younger,” said Sanderson.
Five years ago, the average American was 35.3 years old and could plan for 43.5 more years of life. By 2050, the researchers estimate it will increase to 41.7 years and 45.8 future years.
“A lot of our skills, our education, our savings and the way we deal with our health care depend a great deal on how many years we have to live,” said Sanderson.
“This dimension of how many years we have to live has been completely ignored in the discussion of aging so far.”
1. People 40 years of age today seem to be as young as ______ .
A. their parents were at the same age
B. their parents were at the age of 30
C. their children were at the same age
D. their children were at the age of 30
2. The new age concept takes into account the factor of ______ .
A. future years.
B. average years.
C. past years.
D. unexpected years.
3. In 2000, middle age for the average German occurred ______ .
A. at 39.9
B. at 40.
C. at 39.2 years.
D. at 52 years.
4. By 2050, the average American will hive to ______ .
A. 41.7 years of age.
B. 45.8 years of age.
C. 78.8 years of age.
D. 87.5years of age
5. The number of years we have to live does not affect ______ .
A. our education
B. our savings.
C. the way we handle health care.
D. the number of years we have lived.
Live with Computer
After too long on the Net, even a phone call can be a shock. My boyfriend's Liverpudlian accent suddenly becomes indecipherable after the clarity of his words on screen; a secretary's tone seems more rejecting than I'd imagined it would be. Time itself becomes fluid ─ hours become minutes, and alternately seconds stretch into days. Weekends, once a highlight of my week, are now just two ordinary days.
For the last three years, since I stopped working as a producer for Charlie Rose, I have done much of my work as a telecommuter. I submit articles and edit them via E-mail and communicate with colleagues on Internet mailing lists. My boyfriend lives in England; so much of our relationship is computer-mediated.
If I desired, I could stay inside for weeks without wanting anything. I can order food, and manage my money, love and work. In fact, at times I have spent as long as three weeks alone at home, going out only to get mail and buy newspapers and groceries. I watched most of the blizzard of '96 on TV.
But after a while, life itself begins to feel unreal. I start to feel as though I've merged with my machines, taking data in, spitting them back out, just another node on the Net. Others on line report the same symptoms. We start to strongly dislike the outside forms of socializing. It's like attending an A.A. meeting in a bar with everyone holding a half-sipped drink. We have become the Net opponent's worst nightmare.
What first seemed like a luxury, crawling from bed to computer, not worrying about hair, and clothes and face, has become avoidance, a lack of discipline. And once you start replacing real human contact with cyber-interaction, coming back out of the cave can be quite difficult.
At times, I turn on the television and just leave it to chatter in the background, something that I'd never done previously. The voices of the programs soothe me, but then I'm jarred by the commercials. I find myself sucked in by soap operas, or compulsively needing to keep up with the latest news and the weather. “Dateline,” “Frontline,” “Nightline,” CNN, New York 1, every possible angle of every story over and over and over, even when they are of no possible use to me. Work moves form foreground to background.
1. Compared to the clear words of her boyfriend on screen, his accent becomes _____ .
2. The passage implies that the author and her boyfriend live in _____ .
A. different cities in England
B. different countries
C. the same city
D. the same country
3. What is the main idea of the last paragraph?
A. She is so absorbed in the TV programs that she often forgets her work.
B. In order to keep up with the latest news and the weather, she watches TV a lot.
C. In order to get some comfort from TV programs she, sometimes, turns on the television.
D. Having worked on the computer for too long, she became a bit odd.
4. What is the author's attitude to the computer?
A. She dislikes it because TV is more attractive.
B. She dislikes it because it cuts off her relation with the outside world.
C. She has become bored with it.
D. She likes it because it is very convenient.
5. The phrase “coming back out of cave” in the fifth paragraph means _____ .
A. coming back home
B. going back home
C. living a luxurious life
D. restoring direct human contact.
Two People，Two Paths
You must be familiar with the situation：Dad's driving，Mum's telling him where to go. He's sure that they need to turn left. But she says its not for another two blocks. Who has the better sense of direction? Men or women.
They both do, a new study says, but in different ways.
Men and women, Canadian researchers have found, have different methods of finding their way. Men look quickly at landmarks（地标）and head off in what they think is the right direction. Women, however, try to picture the whole route in detail and then follow the path in their head. "women tend to be more detailed," said Edward Cornell, who led the study, "while men tend to be a little bit faster and …… a little bit more intuitive（直觉感知的）."
In fact, said Cornell, "sense of direction" isnt one skill but two.
The first is the "survey method". This is when you see all area from above, such as a printed map. You can see，for example，where the hospital is, where the church is and that the supermarket is on its right.
The second skill is the "route method". This is when you use a series of directions. You start from the hospital, then turn left, turn fight, go uphill and then you see the supermarket.
Men are more likely to use the survey method while women are more likely to use one route and follow directions.
Both work, and neither is better.
Some scientists insist that these different skills have a long history. They argue it is because of the difference in traditional roles.
In ancient times, young men often went far away with the older men to fish or hunt. The trip took hours or days and covered unfamiliar places. The only way to know where you were was to use the survey method to remember landmarks-the mountains, the lakes and so on.
The women, on the other hand, took young girls out to find fruits and plants. These activities were much closer to home but required learning well-used paths. So, womens sense of space was based on learning certain routes.
41 When finding his way, Dad tends to rely on _____ .
A his intuitive knowledge
B his book knowledge
C Mums assistance
D the polices assistance
42 Women are more likely to use _____ .
A the survey method
B the traditional method
C the route method
D the right method
43 Which works better, the route method or the survey method?
A The survey method.
B The route method.
44 Which of the following is NOT a landmark?
A A long river.
B A high mountain.
C A magnificent church.
D A path in your head.
45 Women developed a sense of space out of the need _____ .
A to go fishing
B to go hunting
C to learn well-used paths
D to go swimming
Teamwork in Tourism
Growing cooperation among branches of tourism has proved valuable to all concerned. Government bureaus, trade and travel associations, carriers and properties are all working together to bring about optimum conditions for travelers.
Travel operators, specialists in the field of planning, sponsor extensive research programs. They have knowledge of all areas and all carrier services, and they are experts in organizing different types of tours and ____（46）____. They distribute materials to agencies, such as journals, brochures and advertising projects. They offer familiarization and workshop tours ____（47）____.
Tourist counselors give valuable seminars to acquaint agents with new programs and techniques in selling. In this way agents learn ____（48）____ and to suggest different modes and combinations of travel-planes; ships, trains, motorcoaches, car-rentals, and even car purchases.
Properties and agencies work closely together to make the most suitable contracts, considering both the comfort of the clients and their own profitable financial arrangement. Agencies rely upon the good services of hotels, and, conversely, ____（49）____, to fulfill their contracts and to send them clients.
The same confidence exists between agencies and carriers, ____（50）____. Carriers are dependent upon agencies to supply passengers, and agencies are dependent upon carriers to present them with marketable tours. All services must work together for greater efficiency, fair pricing and contented customers.
A including car-rental and sight-seeing services.
B so that in a short time agents can obtain first-hand knowledge of the tours.
C in preparing effective advertising campaigns
D as a result tourism is flouring in all countries
E hotels rely upon agencies
F to explain destinations
The Animals in Desert
Some desert animals can survive the very strong summer heat and dryness because they have very unusual characteristics. The camel, for example, can __51__an increase in the temperature of its body and its blood of 9C. In addition, it can drink an enormous __52__ water at one time, then store sufficient water in its red blood cells and other parts of its body to supply its needs for two weeks or more. The kangaroo rat, on the other hand, __53__ all the water it needs from water that it produces during respiration. However, most animals need to __54__a fairly constant body temperature, and will die if it rises more then 5C. __55__, they need to find some way to avoid the strong sunrays. Nor can many animals either store or produce water in their bodies, as the camel and kangaroo rat __56__. So they must find ways to __57__ water loss from their bodies to the lowest degree.
Because very few desert animals can survive the strong rays, the temperature, and the evaporation rate __58__ a typical summers day, most of them are active during the night. Only __59__ the sun has set does the desert come fully to life. The night is relatively cool, and the darkness provides __60__, not only from the sun, but also from other animals and from the birds. So the coming of darkness is the signal __61__ the large majority of animals and insects to continue their search for water and food. When morning comes, most of them seek __62__again. Many go underground; nearly all find somewhere shady where they can avoid the sunrays.
For many kinds of insects, living in the desert is __63__ than for animals. Like many desert plants, they have a waterproof skin which __ 64__ water loss by evaporation. In addition, some insects spend all or most of their life below ground. Here, for most of the year at least, there is __65__ wetness, and it is generally cooler than on the surface.
51. A）carry B）bear C）effect D）delay
52. A）amount B）number C）level D）sum
53. A）obtains B）consumes C）brings D）replaces
54. A）raise B）reject C） maintain D）regulate
55. A）However B）Again C）Instead D）Therefore
56. A）can B）may C）must D） need
57. A）quicken B）reduce C）lighten D）keep
58. A）in B）to C）of D）through
59. A）after B）since C） until D）before
60. A）prevention B）protection C）possession D）permission
61. A）for B）with C）from D）among
62. A）food B）shelter C）water D）work
63. A）easier B）better C）safer D）harder
64. A）causes B）changes C）prevents D）suffers
65. A）little B）plentiful C）thorough D）some
「答案解析」 依构词法：划线词的前部分是 damage（破坏），即damaging是动词damage的分词，所以推测该词义大概是“破坏的”。而备选答案都是常见词汇，其中只有harmful是“破坏的”，因此可以推断harmful是答案。
「答案解析」 研究画线词：branch是常见的，其语义是“分支，分部”。备选答案中invitation和 division的含义分别可依据构词法推出：invitation ——invite（邀请），division—— divide（分开），所以答案是B.另外unity是“联合”， embassy是“大使馆”。
「答案解析」 astonish 和amaze是近义词，表示“使惊讶”，而amount经常和介词to连用，表示“总计, 等于”， amuse是“使愉快”，approach“接近”，或作名词表示“方法，途径”。
「答案解析」 steady 和stable是近义词，都可表示“稳定的”。
「答案解析」 regardless of（不论）是常见的短语，whatever的含义是“不论什么”。
「答案解析」 crucial“至关紧要的”和 urgent“紧急的”含义最接近。
「答案解析」 deliberately是 intentionally 的同义词，表“故意地”。
「答案解析」 vague是“模糊的”，而备选答案中： imprecise = im + precise（准确的）; unpolished = un + polished （擦亮的）; elementary = element（成分） + ary（加在部分名词后构成形容词的后缀）。
「答案解析」 summit 是"山顶".
「答案解析」 census 是"人口普查"，不常见。Count （计算）的词义与其最相近。
「答案解析」 duplicate 不常见，是"复制"，是常见词copy的近义词。
「答案解析」 lawful = law + ful，所以与law（法律）有关， legal是"法定的".
1.「正确答案」 16——22 A B A A B B C
2.「正确答案」 23 B 24 C 25 D 26 E 27 A 28 B 29 C 30 D
3.「正确答案」 31. B
32. A33. B34. D35. D
4.「正确答案」 36. A
37. B38. C39. C40. D
40. 答案的依据是文章的最后一句：the legislation will be written to allow for low-emission, rather than zero-emission, vehicles.
5.「正确答案」 41. A
42. C43. D44. D45. C
「答案解析」 4l 该题问的是：找路时爸爸依赖的是什么?A说的是：他的直觉知识。B说的是：他的书本知识。c说的是：妈妈的帮助。D说的是：警察的帮助。第四段的最后讲到男人时作者用了这么一个短语：a little bit more intuitive.直觉感知更多一些。可见A是正确答案。类似的描述也见于第三段。
42 该题问的是：女人倾向于用什么?A说的是：测量法。B说的是：传统法。C说的是：路线法。D说的是：正确的办法。第三段的最后一句是这么说的：然而，女人是试图先把整个路线详详细细地记住，然后跟着脑子里的线路走。因此C是 正确的。
6.「正确答案」 46－50 CBFEA
「答案解析」 本部分题难度较大，不宜花太多时间。主要凭借语感—自己对全文的把握做题。不要过于计较细枝末节的问题，如果能够读通，那就是正确答案。另外，如果能结合基本的语法知识，如动词后再加动词需要用to, is/are/am 等后一般需要形容词，主谓一致等原则，本部分应该简单多了。
7.「正确答案」 51－55 BAACD
52．amount是“数量”， number是“数字”，sum是“总数” .原句说“骆驼能一次饮下许多……的水”。所以答案为amount.
56．As 引导的从句是一省略句，该部分省略了谓语动词，但助动词不能省略。从原句上看原句的前面部分有助动词can ，所以As引导的从句中应该有与前一部分相对应的助动词can.原句说“许多动物不能如骆驼和有袋类动物那样在在身体储存水，或在身体里产生水。”